Open main menu

Remigration, or re-immigration,[1] is a political concept of the forced return of non-white (or not ethnically European) immigrants, often including their descendants,[2] back to their supposed place of racial origin regardless of citizenship status,[3] in what amounts to a type of ethnic cleansing.[4] Some proponents of remigration suggest leaving some residents with non-European background aside from the forced return, based on a vaguely defined degree of assimilation or integration into European culture.[5][6][7]

Advocates of remigration promote the concept in pursuit of "ethno-cultural" homogeneity, and ethnopluralism, in order to diguise the extreme nature of their calls for the forced deportation of non-whites.[7] According to Deutsche Welle, ethnopluralism, the Nouvelle Droite concept that different ethnicites require their own segregated living spaces, creates a manufactured need for remigration of people with "foreign roots".[8]

Presented by far-right extremists as a remedy to mass immigration and so-called Islamisation, remigration is increasingly an integral policy position of the Identitarian movement.[9] Research from the Institute for Strategic Dialogue, conducted in April 2019, showed a distinct rise in conversations about remigration on Twitter between 2012 and 2019.[4]

Contents

Origins and developmentEdit

The term was first used in English in the writings of Andrew Willet, an early 17th century Church of England theologian.[10]

Early evocations of the modern concept of remigration can be found in French 1960s far-right movements such as Europe-Action,[11] considered the "embryonic form" of Nouvelle Droite's ideas.[12][13]

Jean-Pierre Stirbois, then General Secretary of the National Front (FN), coined the first one the expression "we will make them leave" ("on les renverra") in an interview.[14] He was the architect on the first electoral breakthrough of the FN in 1983, earning 17% of the votes in the city of Dreux, promising to "invert the migratory flows".[15] Since the 2010s, the Identitarian movement have engaged in forms of agitprop, or a "cultural struggle" ("combat culturel"), to attempt to push remigration towards the center of political discourse.[2]

Proponents of remigration often use the historical examples of the post-WW2 expulsion of Germans from Central and Eastern Europe, as well as the expulsion of Pieds-Noirs from Algeria in 1962,[16] as successful past instances of organized forced remigration,[17][18] though both events resulted in episodes of violence, and even hundreds of thousands of deaths during the late 1940s German exodus.[19][20]

In German, the word involves the return of the individual to his ethnic community, without a necessary connection to a country of origin.[21]

Modern useEdit

Since the 2010s, the idea of remigration has been used by thinkers and political leaders of the Identitarian Movement, such as Guillaume Faye,[22] Renaud Camus,[3][23] Henry de Lesquen[5] or Martin Sellner,[24] as an euphemism for the mass deportation of non-European immigrants and native residents with a migrant background (the criteria of exclusion being a vaguely defined degree of assimilation to European culture), back to their country of origin.[25] The term is connected to the concept of the Great Remplacement, which states that the white Christian European population is being progressively replaced with non-European populations, specifically from North Africa and the Middle East, through mass migration and demographic growth.[26][27]

In August 2017, protestors flew banners throughout Quebec City, calling for the remigration of non-whites from the Quebec capital.[3] That same month, it was reported how Identity Evropa, who later rebranded themselves as the American Identity Movement, supported the remigration of immigrants from the United States.[28]

In August 2018, Australian far-right extremist Blair Cottrell openly advocated for remigration,[29] calling for the deportation of "enemies of my country" and the execution of immigrants who refused to leave.[30][31]

AustriaEdit

In March 2019, just a week after the Christchurch mosque shootings and release of the shooter's manifesto (called The Great Replacement), Identitäre Bewegung Österreich, the Austria branch of Generation Identity (GI), held a rally in Vienna, protesting the supposed Great Replacement of Austrians and openly calling for remigration of non-whites from the country.[25] By April 2019, a branch of the FPÖ party, who at the time were in coalition government as a junior partner with the ÖVP, announced a "national call for remigration".[9]

FranceEdit

In October 2017, Generation Identity announced policy plans to its members, for France to force former colonies to take back migrants by using it's status as a nuclear power and making devoplment subsidies and aid conditional on the repatriation of immigrants.[32]

In March 2018, an Al Jazeera investigative team released footage and audio revealing Marine Le Pen's close confidant and former accountant, Nicolas Crochet, saying that the National Rally party would introduce a remigration programme to force immigrants back to their country of origin, in the event that they came to power in France.[33]

In February 2019, speaking with L'Opinion, Debout la France candidate Emmanuelle Gave (daughter of French entrepeneur Charles Gave), advocated for remigration as a policy for voters in the European Parliament elections in May.[34] In what Libération described as a "dangerous penetration of the ideas of the ultra-radical extreme right in the French political space", Gave announced that the she was in favor of the party putting remigration "on the table".[9]

GermanyEdit

In March 2018, Identitarian protesters were arrested for tresspassing on the roof of Frankfurt central station, and hanging a banner that read "Endstation Multikulti. Pull emergency brake. Remigration", while chanting phrases like "home, freedom, tradition" from a megaphone.[35]

In March 2019, the German Identitarian movement began a "remigration campaign" which included governmental petitions, a "flashmob" outside a mosque and a demonstration in front of the Federal Ministry of the Interior, Building and Community in Berlin, where the protesters demanded the repatriation of Islamic refugees back to the Middle East.[9] It was reported that the group were distributing posters aimed at Syrian refugees that read "The war is over. Syria needs you" and referenced a "remigration policy".[36]

In May 2019, Katrin Ebner-Steiner, leader of AfD Bavaria, indicated that the deportation of non-whites from Germany was a preferable policy to racial integration, after she called for "Remigration instead of integration" at a conference for the Southern wing of the party.[7][37]

Ahead of the 2019 European Parliament election, Germany's opposition party, the far-right Alternative for Germany, made remigration part of their policy platform, openly calling for "remigration, instead of mass immigration",[9] and stating that "Germany and Europe must put in place remigration programs on the largest possible scale".[4] AfD MP Markus Frohnmaier has repeatedly worn a slogan reading "Remigration Ministry" into the Bundestag.[38]

United KingdomEdit

Generation Identity UK and Ireland activists have engaged in the promotion of remigration. In April 2018, Hope Not Hate detailed how, while the group was releveantely unknown by the mainstream media; it's "core beliefs" of ethnopluralism, and remigration of non-whites from Europe, was more extreme than any policies of the English Defence League.[39] In May 2018, The Times was reporting how the extremist organization was promoting the singling out of black British people for priority remigration from the UK.[40][41]

CriticismEdit

Michael Weiss and Julia Ebner, of the Institute for Strategic Dialogue, have identified the "identitarian concept of 'remigration'" as having accelerated since 2014, and associated it with increasing calls from the far-right for mass deportation of non-white Europeans, in what they described as "ethnic cleansing".[42]

Francis Combes has described remigration as a form of demagoguery that would lead to ethnic cleansing. Arguing that France has had a mixed genetical heritage since Gallic times, he has questioned the practicality of expelling French people of immigrant origin and the number of generations that would require investigation in pursuit of "purity".[43]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Death toll in mosque attacks rises to 50". National Post. March 15, 2019. Camus held firm to his notion that immigrants are replacing natives in France and elsewhere. He says it is a “changing of the people” that should be combated with what he calls “re-immigration” and not with violence.
  2. ^ a b "La "remigration", nouvelle frontière de l'extrême droite ?" [The "remigration", new frontier of the far right?] (in French). Libération. February 28, 2017. Reduce or stop immigration? Inadequate, judges a part of the extreme right, which also pleads for the return to the country of most immigrants, even their descendants.
  3. ^ a b c "D'où vient l'expression "remigration"?" [Where does the term "remigration" come from?]. Le Soleil (in French). 2017-08-19. Retrieved 2019-06-22. The word " remigration " means the return, forced or otherwise, of non-European foreigners, or even non-European citizens of origin, to the country where they have their roots.
  4. ^ a b c "Taboos fall away as far-right EU candidates breach red line". Associated Press. May 16, 2019. “remigration,” the chilling notion of returning immigrants to their native lands in what amounts to a soft-style ethnic cleansing.
  5. ^ a b ""Réémigration", négationnisme, "race congoïde"... Les mauvaises ondes d'Henry de Lesquen, le patron de Radio Courtoisie". Franceinfo (in French). 2016-12-07. Retrieved 2019-06-22.
  6. ^ "Renaud Camus, "théoricien" du Grand remplacement, retire sa liste aux Européennes". FranceSoir (in French). 2019-05-22. Retrieved 2019-07-22.
  7. ^ a b c "Debatte Begriffe der neuen Rechten - Neue Wörter, alter Hass" [Debate terms of the new right - New words, old hate] (in German). Die Tageszeitung. July 1, 2019. [...] jedoch auch offizielle AfD-Accounts, welche fordern, dass syrische Flüchtlinge abgeschoben werden sollen, oder befinden, dass für „Türken“, die sich „nicht integrieren wollen“, eine Remigration das beste wäre. [...] liegt eine der größten Gefahren für offene und demokratische Gesellschaften in der Naivität gegenüber den politischen Bemühungen, extremistische Rhetorik zu normalisieren
  8. ^ "How dangerous is the Identitarian Movement?". Deutsche Welle. 13 July 2019.
  9. ^ a b c d e "La "remigration", un concept qui essaime au-delà des identitaires" [Remigration, a concept that goes beyond identity] (in French). Libération. April 12, 2019. A key concept of French identity thought, remigration is a new euphemism for an old phenomenon, namely the forced displacement of entire populations. This notion is an integral part of the ideological project of the identity movement and figures prominently in its literature
  10. ^ "remigration | Definition of remigration in English by Lexico Dictionaries". Lexico Dictionaries | English. Retrieved 2019-06-22.
  11. ^ François, Stéphane (2013-05-23). "Dominique Venner et le renouvellement du racisme". Fragments sur les Temps Présents (in French). Retrieved 2019-08-16. De ce fait, la revue Europe Action était l’une des premières à critiquer l’immigration (l’« invasion ») algérienne [...] et à inciter au rapatriement massif des étrangers, par hantise du métissage.
  12. ^ McCulloch, Tom (2006-08-01). "The Nouvelle Droite in the 1980s and 1990s: Ideology and Entryism, the Relationship with the Front National". French Politics. 4 (2): 160. doi:10.1057/palgrave.fp.8200099. ISSN 1476-3427.
  13. ^ Taguieff, Pierre-André (1993). "Origines et métamorphoses de la Nouvelle Droite". Vingtième Siècle. Revue d'histoire (40): 4–6. doi:10.2307/3770354. ISSN 0294-1759. JSTOR 3770354.
  14. ^ "Musée de l'immigration : «L'extrême-droite a franchi un palier»". FIGARO. 2015-03-17. Retrieved 2019-08-16.
  15. ^ Lebourg, Joseph Beauregard et Nicolas (2011-07-15). "Les numéros deux du FN (2/4) : Jean-Pierre Stirbois, l'apparatchik" (in French). ISSN 1950-6244. Retrieved 2019-08-17.
  16. ^ "D'où vient l'expression «remigration»?". Le Soleil. 2017-08-19. Retrieved 2019-08-17. [...] nombre de militants de la remigration avec qui j'ai parlé évoquent comme justification le fait que la remigration forcée a déjà existé, lorsqu'un million de «pieds-noirs» d'Algérie ont été obligés de fuir en métropole en 1962.
  17. ^ "Towards Ethnic Cleansing?". www.counter-currents.com. Retrieved 2019-07-03.
  18. ^ Reconquête (2014-11-17), Remigration Guillaume Faye, retrieved 2019-07-04
  19. ^ The German Historical Museum puts the figure at 600,000, maintaining that the figure of 2 million deaths in the previous government studies cannot be supported.Die Flucht der deutschen Bevölkerung 1944/45, dhm.de; accessed 6 December 2014.(in German)
  20. ^ Christoph Bergner, Secretary of State in Germany's Bureau for Inner Affairs, outlines the stance of the respective governmental institutions in Deutschlandfunk on 29 November 2006, [1]
  21. ^ "Remigration". ome-lexikon.uni-oldenburg.de. Retrieved 2019-06-22. Diese Form wird häufig auch als „ko-ethnische Migration“ bezeichnet, um zu verdeutlichen, dass die Rückkehr in den gleichen ethnischen Kontext erfolgt (nicht jedoch zwangsläufig in denselben räumlichen Herkunftskontext).
  22. ^ "Au Bloc Identitaire, l'apologie de la «remigration»". FIGARO. 2014-11-16. Retrieved 2019-08-06.
  23. ^ McAuley, James (2019-06-17). "How Gay Icon Renaud Camus Became the Ideologue of White Supremacy". ISSN 0027-8378. Retrieved 2019-06-22.
  24. ^ "DÖW - Erkennen - Rechtsextremismus - Rechtsextreme Organisationen - Identitäre Bewegung Österreich (IBÖ)". www.doew.at. Retrieved 2019-06-22.
  25. ^ a b Ebner, Julia (2019-04-04). "Who are Europe's far-right identitarians?". Politico. Retrieved 2019-06-22.
  26. ^ "How Europe's 'Identitarians' are mainstreaming racism". The Washington Post.
  27. ^ Bowles, Nellie (2019-03-18). "'Replacement Theory,' a Racist, Sexist Doctrine, Spreads in Far-Right Circles". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-06-22.
  28. ^ "A guide to the far-right groups that protested in Charlottesville". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. 14 August 2017.
  29. ^ "Attentat de Christchurch: l'enquête élargie à Brittany Pettibone, égérie identitaire" [Attack in Christchurch: the investigation extended to Brittany Pettibone, identity spokesperson] (in French). France-Soir. June 28, 2019.
  30. ^ "'He drove a wedge through our community': Bendigo MPs slam Blair Cottrell as Jacinta Allan turns off Sky on Metro Trains". Daily Liberal. 9 December 2018.
  31. ^ "Sky News just put the Adam Giles Show in 'recess' over Blair Cottrell interview". Business Insider. 6 August 2018.
  32. ^ "Generation Hate: French far right's violence and racism exposed". Al Jazeera. 9 December 2018.
  33. ^ "France's National Rally links to violent far-right group revealed". Al Jazeera. 16 December 2018.
  34. ^ "Européennes Une candidate Debout la France prône la "remigration"" [European Candidate Debout la France advocates "remigration"] (in French). Libération. February 12, 2019.
  35. ^ "Identitäre Bewegung : Propaganda auf dem Bahnhofsdach" [Identitarian movement: propaganda on the station roof] (in German). Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. June 26, 2019.
  36. ^ "Illegale Plakate: Identitäre fordern Syrer zur Heimkehr auf" [Illegal posters: Identitarians urge Syrians to return home] (in German). Berliner Morgenpost. April 26, 2019.
  37. ^ ""Flügel"-Treffen: AfD kämpft mit sich selbst" ["Wings" meeting: AfD fights with itself] (in German). Bayerischer Rundfunk. May 7, 2019.
  38. ^ "Rechtsextreme versuchen gerade verzweifelt, das Christchurch-Massaker umzudeuten" [Right-wing extremists are trying desperately to reinterpret the Christchurch massacre] (in German). Vice. March 19, 2019.
  39. ^ "In the last 10 months, a new far-right threat has emerged in the UK and Ireland". Hope Not Hate. 13 April 2018.
  40. ^ "The 'hipster fascists' who anti-racism campaigners say are breathing new life into the far right". The Times. 19 May 2018.
  41. ^ "Fashion doesn't normalise fascism – but newspaper coverage does". New Statesman. 23 May 2018.
  42. ^ "The strange tale of an unlikely racist slogan that went viral -- to lethal effect". The Washington Post. 14 May 2019.
  43. ^ "Remigration : à jeter" [Remigration: for disposal] (in French). L'Humanité. June 6, 2019.

See alsoEdit

Further readingEdit