The white genocide, white extinction, or white replacement conspiracy theory is a white supremacist conspiracy theory which states that there is a deliberate plot, often blamed on Jews, to promote miscegenation, interracial marriage, mass non-white immigration, racial integration, low fertility rates, abortion, governmental land-confiscation from whites, organised violence, and eliminationism in white-founded countries in order to cause the extinction of whites through forced assimilation, mass immigration, and violent genocide. Less frequently, black people, Hispanics,[better source needed] and Muslims are blamed for the secret plot, but merely as more fertile immigrants, invaders, or violent aggressors, rather than the masterminds.
White genocide is a political myth based on pseudoscience, pseudohistory, and ethnic hatred, and is driven by a psychological panic often termed "white extinction anxiety". White people are not dying out or facing extermination.[better source needed][better source needed] The purpose of the conspiracy theory is to justify a commitment to a white nationalist agenda in support of calls to violence.
The theory was popularized by white separatist neo-Nazi David Lane around 1995, and has been leveraged as propaganda in Europe, North America, South Africa, and Australia. Similar conspiracy theories were prevalent in Nazi Germany and have been used in the present-day interchangeably with, and as a broader and more extreme version of, Renaud Camus's 2011 The Great Replacement, focusing on the white population of France. Since the 2019 Christchurch and El Paso shootings, of which the shooters' manifestos decried a "white replacement" and have referenced the concept of "Great Replacement", Camus's conspiracy theory (often called "replacement theory" or "population replacement"), along with Bat Ye'or's 2002 Eurabia concept and Gerd Honsik's resurgent 1970s myth of a Kalergi plan, have all been used synonymously with "white genocide" and are increasingly referred to as variations of the conspiracy theory.
In August 2018, United States President Donald Trump was accused of endorsing the conspiracy theory in a foreign policy tweet instructing Secretary of State Mike Pompeo to investigate South African "land and farm seizures and expropriations and the large scale killing of farmers", claiming that the "South African government is now seizing land from white farmers". Unsubstantiated claims that the South African farm attacks on farmers disproportionately target whites are a key element of the conspiracy theory, portrayed in media as a form of gateway or proxy issue to "white genocide" within the wider context of the Western world. The topic of farm seizures in South Africa and Zimbabwe has been a rallying cry of white nationalists and alt-right groups who use it to justify their vision of white supremacy.
The idea of a distinct white human race began with German physician and anthropologist Johann Blumenbach, who in 1775 claimed that there were five such races, Caucasian, Mongolian, Malayan, Ethiopian (or Negroid), and American Indian. Previously, François Bernier had in 1684 published a four-page essay postscript which posited five races, combining Europeans ("except for part of Muscovy") with inhabitants of the northern coastal regions of Africa, as well as Arabia, Persia, Mongolia, India, and parts of China, Myanmar, Thailand, Sumatra, Java, and Borneo, and described skin color as "merely accidental". Prior classifications of ethnicity and culture were narrower and more mutable through antiquity, drawing distinctions closer to those of tribal and familial groups, and were based on environmental factors such as geography and climate as well as appearance, physiology, and learned behaviors such as language and diet. Present-day racial and ethnic distinctions are only loosely correlated with genetic ancestry, with which they are being replaced in medical science.
The idea of a "replacement" of indigenous white people under the guidance of a hostile elite can be further traced back to pre-WWII antisemitic conspiracy theories which posited the existence of a Jewish plot to destroy Europe through miscegenation, especially in Édouard Drumont's antisemitic bestseller La France juive (1886). Commenting on this resemblance, historian Nicolas Lebourg and political scientist Jean-Yves Camus suggest that Renaud Camus's contribution in The Great Replacement (2011) was to replace the antisemitic elements with a clash of civilizations between Muslims and Europeans. Also in the late 19th century, imperialist politicians invoked the Péril jaune (Yellow Peril) in their negative comparisons of France's low birth-rate and the high birth-rates of Asian countries. From that claim arose an artificial, cultural fear that immigrant-worker Asians soon would "flood" France. This danger supposedly could be successfully countered only by increased fecundity of French women. Then, France would possess enough soldiers to thwart the eventual flood of immigrants from Asia. Maurice Barrès's nationalist writings of that period have also been noted in the ideological genealogy of the "Great Replacement", Barrès contending both in 1889 and in 1900 that a replacement of the native population under the combined effect of immigration and a decline in the birth rate was happening in France.
The conspiracy theory had precursors in early 20th-century eugenics theories, which were popular in white-majority countries such as Australia and New Zealand, where it was feared that non-white immigrants would eventually supplant the white population.
Madison Grant in the United States
In 1916, the American eugenicist and lawyer Madison Grant wrote a book entitled The Passing of the Great Race which, while largely ignored when it first appeared, went through four editions, becoming part of popular culture in 1920s America and, in the process, spawned the ideology that the founding-stock of the United States, the so-called Nordic race, were under extinction threats from assimilation with non-whites. Grant wrote of it:
Neither the black, nor the brown, nor the yellow, nor the red will conquer the white in battle. But if the valuable elements in the Nordic race mix with inferior strains or die out through race suicide, then the citadel of civilization will fall for mere lack of defenders.
Adolf Hitler wrote to Grant to thank him for writing The Passing of the Great Race, calling it "my Bible". Incorporating Grant's theory, Nazis employed the conspiracy theory widely as propaganda, as exemplified in a 1934 pamphlet written for the "Research Department for the Jewish question" of Walter Frank's "Reich Institute" with the title "Are the white people dying: the future of the white and the colored peoples in the light of biological statistics". Nazis used the conspiracy theory as a call to arms in a bid to gain power through cultural hegemony and scapegoating Jews by leveraging long-running historical prejudices.
Prior to Nazis coming to power, German eugenicists, including Jewish medical and psychiatric professionals, did consider Jews to be distinct from white Europeans, but not so "degenerate" or unfit as to require anything more than guidance avoiding heritable disease via marriage counseling and, as early as 1918, screening for Jews wishing to emigrate to Palestine.
Neo-Nazis' accusations against Jews
The modern conspiracy theory can be traced back to post-war European neo-Nazi circles, especially René Binet's 1950 book Théorie du Racisme. The latter influenced French 1960s far-right movements such as Europe-Action, which argued that "systematic race mixing [was] nothing more than a slow genocide". In December 1948, Binet's newspaper L'Unité wrote: "We accuse the Zionists and anti-racists of the crime of genocide because they claim to be imposing on us a crossbreeding that would be the death and destruction of our race and civilization".
The term "white genocide" appeared sporadically in the American Nazi Party's White Power newspaper as early as 1972 and was used by the White Aryan Resistance in the 1970s and 1980s, where it primarily referred to contraception and abortion. The conspiracy theory was developed by the neo-Nazi David Lane in his White Genocide Manifesto (c. 1995, origin of the later use of the term), where he made the claim that the government policies of many Western countries had the intent of destroying white European culture and making white people an "extinct species". Lane—a founding member of the organization The Order—criticized miscegenation, abortion, homosexuality, Jewish control of the media, "multi-racial sports", the legal repercussions against those who "resist genocide", and the "Zionist Occupation Government" that he said controls the United States and the other majority-white countries and which encourages "white genocide".
Shortly after Lane's Manifesto, the Aryan Nations published their 1996 Declaration of Independence stating that the Zionist Occupation Government sought "the eradication of the white race and its culture" as "one of its foremost purposes". It accused such Jews of subverting the constitutional rule of law; responsibility for post-Civil War Reconstruction; subverting the monetary system with the Federal Reserve System, confiscating land and property; limiting freedoms of speech, religion, and gun ownership; murdering, kidnapping and imprisoning patriots; abdicating national sovereignty to the United Nations; political repression; wasteful bureaucracy; loosening restrictions on immigration and drug trafficking; raising taxes; polluting the environment; commandeering the military, mercenaries, and police; denying Aryan cultural heritage; and inciting immigrant insurrections. Of these accusations, only passage of the Federal Reserve Act, ratification of the Charter of the United Nations, and imprisonment of members of The Order were cited as specific instances.
Another strand developed in Europe in the 1970s by Austrian neo-Nazi Gerd Honsik, who distorted the early 20th century writings of Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi with his invention of the Kalergi plan conspiracy theory, which was popularized in a 2005 book.
Rhodesian scare tactics
In 1966, Rhodesian Prime Minister Ian Smith was described as having convinced white Rhodesians that their only alternative to his government's Rhodesian Bush War was "dictatorship and white genocide" by communist-backed black nationalist guerrillas.
White supremacists are described as being obsessed with the treatment of the formerly dominant white minorities in Zimbabwe and South Africa by the black majorities where "the diminished stature of whites is presented as an ongoing genocide that must be fought." In particular, the story of Rhodesia, as Zimbabwe was formerly known, ruled by a segregationist government under which most black people were denied the right to vote, holds a particular fascination for white supremacists. Zimbabwe's disastrous economic collapse under the leadership of its second black president, Robert Mugabe, together with the Mugabe government's policies towards the white minority has been cited by white supremacists as evidence of both the inferiority of blacks and a case of genocide against whites. In alt-right and white supremacist groups, there is much nostalgia for Rhodesia, which is seen as a state that fought valiantly for white supremacy in Africa in the 1960–1970s until it was betrayed.
In 2008, the conspiracy theory spread beyond its explicit neo-Nazi and white nationalist origins, to be embraced by the newly founded alt-right movement. Discussion threads on the white nationalist Internet forum Stormfront often center around the theme of white people being subjected to genocidal policies by their governments. The concept has also been popularized by the alt-right and alt-lite movements in the United States. The notion of racial purity, homogeneity or "racial hygiene" is an underlying theme of the white genocide discourse and it has been used by people with neo-Nazi and white supremacist backgrounds.
While individual iterations of the conspiracy theory vary on who is assigned blame, Jewish influence, people who hate whites, and liberal political forces are commonly cited by white supremacists as being the main factors leading to a white genocide. This view is held by prominent figures such as David Duke, who cites Jews and "liberal political ideals" as the main causes. White nationalist Robert Whitaker, who coined the phrase "anti-racist is a code word for anti-white" in a widely circulated 2006 piece seeking to popularize the white genocide concept online, used "anti-White" to describe those he believed are responsible for the genocide of white people, and continued to view it as a Jewish conspiracy while emphasizing that others also supported the "anti-White" cause. However, the view that Jews are responsible for a white genocide is contested by other white supremacist figures, such as Jared Taylor.
The Great Replacement
Starting with French author Renaud Camus and his 2011 book Le Grand Remplacement, the conspiracy theory of the Great Replacement focused on a displacement of French whites by predominantly Muslim population from the Middle East and Africa, then turned into a pan-European concept which spread across most major countries' politics on the continent. Despite a common reference to a "genocide" of indigenous white peoples and a global plan led by a conspiring power, Camus's theory does not include an antisemitic Jewish plot. His removal of antisemitism from the original neo-Nazi theory (which has been replaced in the European context with Islamophobia), along with his use of simple catch-all slogans, have been cited as reasons for its broader appeal.
The Great Replacement has also been compared with the European Islamophobic strain of Bat Ye'or's 2002 Eurabia conspiracy theory, and with ideas expressed by far-right terrorist Anders Behring Breivik, the perpetrator of the 2011 Norway attacks, in his 2083: A European Declaration of Independence manifesto. Since the 2019 Christchurch mosque shootings, where the shooter named his manifesto The Great Replacement, the French-originated phrase has been widely established as synonymous with "white genocide", used by mainstream Western media interchangeably, and deemed largely responsible for the emerging term of "white replacement".
By 2017, at the Unite the Right rally in Charlottesville, Virginia, white nationalists were referencing the conspiracy theory as tiki torch-wielding protestors, who yelled "You will not replace us!" and "Jews will not replace us!". In response, Camus stated that he did not support Nazis or violence, but that he could understand why white Americans felt angry about being replaced, and that he approved of the sentiment.
White extinction anxiety
"White genocide anxiety", "white displacement anxiety", and the most commonly referred to, "white extinction anxiety" or panic, are said to be a key driving force behind the conspiracy theory and its supporters' adherence to it. The thesis, often cited as an explanation for some sections of white society's resistance to racial diversity, is reported as virtually inseparable from the conspiracy theory itself.[better source needed][better source needed]
Former diplomat and scholar Alfredo Toro Hardy, who credits journalist Charles M. Blow with the term "white extinction anxiety", has outlined how "the anxieties related to the changing racial landscape of the United States" were at the heart of the concept, and propelled policies such as the Trump administration's "extreme measures against Southern immigrants". In this regard, Trump has been accused of capitalizing on "white genocide anxiety" with claims that immigration had "changed the fabric of Europe", and empowering his supporters in media, such as Laura Ingraham, to stoke fears of "massive demographic changes" within the US. Science journalist Ronald Bailey proposes that Trump is merely "the latest demagogue to rise to power by stoking white folks' ethnic fears", and that "white extinction panics" have historically occurred in the US each time the foreign-born population reached above 13 percent.
Blow has defined "white extinction anxiety" as the fear that white people will become a minority, stripped of their race-based privilege. Analyzing the concept, he examined Pat Buchanan's rhetoric (described by Bailey as a form of blood and soil mantra); of whether the nations of Europe and North America had the "will and capacity to halt the invasion of the countries" before immigration altered the "political, social, racial, ethnic – character of the country entirely." Addressing Buchanan's arguably ethnic nationalist conclusions that "You cannot stop these sentiments of people who want to live together with their own and they want their borders protected", Blow said, "Make no mistake here, Buchanan is talking about protecting white dominance, white culture, white majorities and white power".[better source needed]
Anti-racism activist Jane Elliott has suggested that this anxiety, or "Fear of White Genetic Annihilation", is so great that political leaders will resort to any measures in order to prevent the white extinction event that they believe is unfolding, including measures such as the Alabama abortion ban. Anders Behring Breivik's core ideology, and motivations behind his white supremacist attacks, has been described as white extinction anxiety. He had written: "This crisis of mass immigration and sub-replacement fertility is an assault on the European people that, if not combated, will ultimately result in the complete racial and cultural replacement of the European people".
According to professor Alexandra Minna Stern, who has detailed the connection between the conspiracy theory and the anxiety-framed concept, factions of the alt-right are distorting fertility statistics into a "conspiratorial campaign of white extinction" which is being fueled by a looming "white extinction anxiety". This phenomenon is driving alt-right strategies such as encouraging couples of Western and Northern European ethnicity to have up to eight children.
Advocacy and spread
The white genocide conspiracy theory has continuously recurred among the far-right in a variety of forms, all centered around a core theme of white populations being replaced, removed, or simply killed.
Far-right and alt-right figures, such as singer Steve Hofmeyr, have claimed that a "white genocide" is taking place in South Africa. The South African singer, songwriter, political activist, actor, and TV presenter supports and promotes the conspiracy theory. The Conversation has credited Hofmeyr with popularizing the concept. In January 2017, media reported that Hofmeyr was set to meet US President-elect Donald Trump to discuss "white genocide" in South Africa. Hofmeyr later thanked Trump when the latter shared a tweet asking "Secretary of State Mike Pompeo to closely study the South Africa land and farm seizures and expropriations and the large scale killing of farmers."
The manifesto of far-right terrorist Anders Behring Breivik, entitled 2083: A European Declaration of Independence, devotes an entire section to an alleged "genocide" against Afrikaners. It also contains several other references to alleged persecution of whites in South Africa and the attacks on white farmers. Mike Cernovich, an American alt-right commentator, has previously stated that "white genocide in South Africa is real". The survivalist group the Suidlanders has claimed credit for internationally publicizing the risks of a race war and ethnic cleansing against whites.
Africa Check, a fact-checking organisation, rejected these claims as false in 2013: "In fact, whites are less likely to be murdered than any other race group." Africa Check reported that while whites account for nearly 9% of the South African population they represent just 1.8% of murder victims. Lizette Lancaster from the Institute for Security Studies has said that "Whites are far less likely to be murdered than their black or coloured counterparts." British journalist Joe Walsh reported that the murder rates in the mainly white suburbs of Johannesburg were far lower than in the black townships of Johannesburg, leading him to conclude: "If there was any kind of genocide being carried out against white people in the country then the safest areas of the continent's most dangerous city would not be predominately white."
South African journalist Lynsey Chutel reported in 2018: "After a peak in 2001/2002, the number of farm attacks—rape, robbery and other forms of violent crime short of murder—has decreased to about half. Similarly, the number of murders on farms peaked in 1997/1998 at 153, but today that number is below 50." Chutel stated that although some of the murders of white farmers may indeed be racially motivated, South Africa is a country with a high violent crime rate and white farmers are "isolated and believed to be wealthy". In the period July 2017 to July 2018, 47 farmers of all races were killed in South Africa, down from 66 murdered between July 2016 and July 2017. The worst year for farm murders in South Africa was 1998, when 153 farmers were killed. Between April 2016 and March 2017, there were a total of 19,016 murders in South Africa, suggesting that farmers are not especially likely to be killed in South Africa. Gregory Stanton of Genocide Watch has condemned the misuse of his groups' reports of the threat of polarization in South Africa to further the idea of "white genocide".
Much of the white genocide claims in South Africa rest on a misrepresentation of the Afrikaner people as conforming to the popular Boer stereotype as hard-working, devoutly Calvinist, gun-loving farmers. In 1989, the British journalist Patrick Brogan noted that the Afrikaners once called themselves Boers (lit. 'farmers') because that was what they were, but the term Boer fell out of use in the 20th century as most of the Afrikaners moved to urban areas, making the term Boer highly anachronistic. Brogan concluded the popular Boer stereotype does not accurately describe the majority of the Afrikaners, whose way of life is very similar to that of middle-class people in other Western nations.
Even mainstream American conservatives who often championed the causes of Rhodesia and apartheid South Africa, seeing both regimes as having supposedly more enlightened policies towards black people than the policy of integration in the United States, embraced the variants of the white genocide theory as part of the defense of Rhodesia and South Africa. In 2015, the Canadian journalist Jeet Heer wrote: "The idea that whites in America have a natural affinity with white colonialists in Africa did not spring from the neo-Nazi far-right, but rather the conservative movement that coalesced around National Review in the 1950s." In the July 1988 edition of Commentary, David Roberts, Jr compared Nelson Mandela to Pol Pot and the African National Congress (ANC), the now ruling party in South Africa, to the Khmer Rouge, implying that the ANC would exterminate South African whites if it came to power. Shortly before his death in 2005 Samuel T. Francis, the former editor of the conservative Washington Times, warned about the possibility of a "white genocide" in South Africa.
Simon Roche, an Afrikaner nationalist from South Africa and a spokesman for the survivalist group, the Suidlanders, that exists in his words "to prepare a Protestant Christian South African Minority for a coming violent revolution," visited the US in 2017 to promote the thesis that the white minority in South Africa is faced with the threat of ethnic cleansing. Roche stated he went to the US to "raise awareness of and support for the Caucasian Christian conservative volk [people] of South Africa ... There's a natural affinity with conservative white Americans."
The Afrikaner group AfriForum's deputy director Ernst Roets has been erroneously linked by Radio 702, which it later apologised for, to false claims of white genocide, and South African government authorization of uncompensated seizures of land from white farmers. Roets' 2018 book Kill the Boer argues that the government is also complicit in attacks on white farmers, and characterizes the events as ethnic cleansing. Another South African, Willem Petzer, appeared as a guest on Gavin McInnes's podcast, accusing the ANC government of planning genocide.
Figures on the right of French politics, such as Renaud Camus, have claimed that a "white genocide" or "Great Replacement" is occurring in France. Camus's definition, which focuses largely on the white Christian population in France, has been used in media interchangeably with white genocide, and described as a narrower, less extreme and more nationally focused version of the broader conspiracy theory. Despite his focus on the specific demographics of France, Camus also believes all Western countries are facing a form of "ethnic and civilizational substitution".
In June 2017, Senator Stéphane Ravier's aide, running as one of the National Front's candidates, endorsed the conspiracy theory. Publishing a blonde girl's photograph with the words "Say no to white genocide"; days before the 2017 French legislative election, Ravier's assistant gave a political ultimatum "the National Front or the invasion".
The 2015 New Year's Eve attacks in Cologne resulted in accusations that the federal government and media were deliberately avoiding public interest reporting on 1,200 sexual assaults by thousands of young male Muslim immigrants. Apologies for hesitancy by public television channel ZDF strengthened claims of a Lügenpresse (lying press) by populist and far-right parties as evidence for widespread conspiracy by German institutions. The unprecedented scale of border crossings during 2015 and 2016 compelled Chancellor Angela Merkel to impose "temporary restrictions" on transit across the border with Austria. The alt-right conspiracy website Zero Hedge listed statistics on migrant crime in Germany alongside statements from politicians and news articles, presented as "contradictions confirming a deep-state level of conspiracy ... to push through a pro-immigration policy in Germany". During the 2017 German election campaign, the far-right Alternative for Germany party ran advertisements featuring a pregnant woman's abdomen with the slogan, "New Germans? We'll make them ourselves." Events like the 2015 New Year's Eve sexual assaults, and the great replacement conspiracy theory also further radicalized right-wing extremist Stephan Ernst, who in response assassinated the local politician Walter Lübcke in 2019. Based on protocols of his first confession, Ernst made Lübcke responsible for letting non-white refugees into the country.
A state-sponsored campaign led by Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orbán has employed a wide range of historical anti-Semitic tropes to accuse philanthropist George Soros of engaging in conspiracies to support and deceive the public about nonwhite immigrants. Orbán has accused Soros, a Jew whose family survived hostile conditions during Hungary's Nazi occupation, of being a Nazi himself, and has introduced legislation known as the "Stop Soros law" to criminalize organized support of immigrants. These fabrications have become popular with the alt-right in Europe and the US. Orbán's 2018 campaign slogan was, "Christianity is Europe's last hope", saying, "our worst nightmares can come true. The West falls as it fails to see Europe being overrun."
Hundreds of Polish Facebook groups such as "Stop White Genocide" have produced and disseminated images depicting African and Middle eastern people as belonging to separate "primitive" species, lacking the human intelligence of white Europeans. Websites such as "Conspiracy Files" have fabricated allegations of political compacts to bolster nonwhite immigration against popular will, such as agreements signed by EU leaders and African nations to increase Europe's African population to 300 million by 2068, making native whites, "minorities within their own homeland".
Much of the theory that South African whites are faced with the threat of "genocide" originates with internet rumors started by the Government of Russia. Russia-24, a television channel owned by the Russian government, aired a segment in the summer of 2018 about Afrikaner farmers wanting to immigrate to Russia as "brothers in faith". The present government in Russia led by Vladimir Putin often attacks the ideology of liberalism for putting the individual before the collective, and promotes "white genocide" stories both as a way of showing the failure of liberalism and to promote the thesis that group identities matter far more than individual identities. The ideology of the Russian state is that the interests of the collective take precedence over the individual, and evidence of alleged failures of liberalism abroad are extensively covered by the Russian media. The Australian historian Mark Edele stated: "There is definitely an attempt [by Russia] to support alt-right views and extreme right organisations outside of Russia ... Russia supports groups that will undermine liberal views. That's the logic of sponsorship of alt-right groups by Russia ... There is a longstanding anxiety among Russia's nationalists that Russians are dying out because of falling birth rates compared to non-Slavic peoples. It reverberates with white genocide fears."
The Canadian alt-right personality Lauren Southern had a sympathetic interview with the Russian fascist thinker Aleksandr Dugin, who told her "liberalism denies the existence of any collective identities" and that "liberalism is based on the absence of any form of collective identity". Dugin used the case of white South African farmers allegedly threatened with genocide as proof of the failure of liberalism, for putting the individual ahead of the collective. After the end of apartheid in 1994, South Africa was presented as the "rainbow nation" where henceforward people, regardless of their skin color, would be judged only as individuals. From the viewpoint of the Russian state, presenting liberalism in South Africa as a blood‑soaked disaster is a way of discrediting liberalism in general.
In a 2015 Breitbart News article, the anti-Islamic For Britain party founder and leader Anne Marie Waters described white genocide as "part of a broad-ranging, virulent, and vicious hatred of white Western people" and claimed that European leaders aimed to "extinguish Western culture".
In December 2015, former EDL leader Tommy Robinson endorsed the white genocide myth. In his 2015 book Enemy of the State, Robinson claimed how previously white British majority areas of his hometown, Luton, had suffered "ethnic cleansing" and claimed that the United Kingdom was "sleepwalking" its "way towards a Muslim takeover".
A few weeks before the 2016 Brexit referendum, an unemployed gardener with links to far-right organisations murdered Member of Parliament Jo Cox because of her support of the European Union and work in support of immigrants, saying she was part of a left-wing conspiracy perpetuated by the mainstream media and a traitor to the white race. A March 2016 survey ahead of the referendum found 41% of Britons thought their government was concealing the true number of immigrants.
Katie Hopkins, an English media personality, made a documentary supporting the conspiracy theory of an ongoing white genocide against farmers in South Africa. In March 2018, British journalist Rod Liddle was identified as promoting the conspiracy theory in an article in The Spectator, according to Vice website. He suggested Lauren Southern, who had made her own documentary about South Africa, would have been greeted positively had it been about "any other brand of genocide".
Katie Hopkins has also promoted the idea that both immigration and multiculturalism are intended to cause white genocide. Yahoo! News reported that while traveling for the documentary, "her intention was to 'expose' the white genocide" happening to farmers in South Africa.
In September 2018, with the arrest of some Neo-Nazi members of National Action, the counter-terrorist Prevent programme identified the white supremacist group as subscribing to the white extinction conspiracy theory. A governmental co-ordinator stated that the organization "sees the extinction of white people as a very real and likely possibility".
In March 2019, Catherine Blaiklock resigned as leader of The Brexit Party after she shared a photo on social media of a multi-racial primary school in England with the caption "This is a British school. This is white genocide". Another shared post of Blaiklock's claimed that multiculturalism amounted to "the replacement of the indigenous European people". In April 2019, a Conservative Party candidate for local elections was revealed to have promoted the conspiracy theory after endorsing online material which claimed that the "destruction of the white race" was being brought about by non-white immigrants who were "flooding" Europe "disguised as so-called 'refugees'" in an alleged plot to "enforce miscegenation" on white Europeans. He was subsequently suspended from his party but remained on the ballot for the election.
United States and Canada
According to Erika Lee, in 1894 the old stock Yankee upper-class founders of the Immigration Restriction League were, “convinced that Anglo-Saxon traditions, peoples, and culture were being drowned in a flood of racially inferior foreigners from Southern and Eastern Europe.”
In 2007, conservative Ann Coulter described non-white immigration to the United States as "white genocide" in her article titled "Bush's America: Roach Motel". Vox has reported on Coulter as one of many providing a platform for "the 'white genocide' myth". She has been described as a "champion" of the ideas behind the conspiracy theory following a book she wrote on the subject. She has also claimed that "a genocide" is occurring against white South African farmers.
In October 2014, white nationalist Greg Johnson promoted the white extinction conspiracy theory, suggesting that "the organized Jewish community is the principal enemy—not the sole enemy, but the principal enemy—of every attempt to halt and reverse white extinction. One cannot defeat an enemy one will not name. Therefore, White Nationalism is inescapably anti-Semitic."
In December 2014, Ku Klux Klan leader Thomas Robb proposed that white genocide was occurring due to the immigration and high birth-rates of non-whites. He claimed that demographic change was affecting the economic, racial and social landscape of Harrison, Arkansas, and the US at large, and that this amounted to "white genocide being committed against our people". Around that time, the concept appeared on billboards in the United States near Birmingham, Alabama, and Harrison, Arkansas.
2016 US presidential election campaigns
In October 2015, Mike Cernovich, a social media personality, published the white nationalist catchphrase "diversity is code for white genocide", claiming that his discovery of the concept had caused him to cease being a libertarian and instead become an alt-right activist. Days later, he invoked the conspiracy theory again, warning that "white genocide will sweep up the SJWs"; a prediction that Muslims would murder what he labelled social justice warriors in the United States. In November 2015, Cernovich insisted that "white genocide is real" in relation to South Africa. After a public backlash, he deleted several tweets referring to the conspiracy theory.
During the 2016 US presidential election, there were allegations that aspects of the conspiracy theory had been adopted as dog-whistling by some mainstream conservative political figures. In January 2016, Donald Trump garnered controversy after retweeting Twitter user @WhiteGenocideTM, and @EustaceFash, whose Twitter header image at the time also included the term "white genocide". A 2016 analysis of his Twitter feed during the Republican presidential primaries showed that 62% of those that he chose to retweet in an average week followed multiple accounts which discussed the conspiracy theory, and 21% followed prominent white nationalists online.
By March 2016, Trump's eldest son, Donald Trump Jr., had been accused by mainstream media of being an advocate of the conspiracy theory, or pretending to be an advocate for political gain, after his interview with white supremacist James Edwards during the 2016 Trump presidential campaign. The following month, Jack Posobiec, a leading alt-right Trump activist and, at the time, US naval intelligence officer with military security clearance, began frequently tweeting about white genocide.
While Donald Trump supporters on the Reddit discussion forum /r/The Donald generally agreed that white genocide is occurring, they disagreed about the responsible parties. The Southern Poverty Law Center said "Tea Party conservatives characterize it as a scheme by Democrats to gain voters. For the white nationalists, the main villain is 'international Jewry.' InfoWars fans blame 'globalists'—a label that is often interchangeable with 'Jews'—seeking to dumb down Western populations with 'low-IQ migrants' who are more easily controlled." In August 2017, at least 330 /r/The_Donald posts referred to the "Kalergi plan", a purported conspiracy to replace the European population with African migrants.
The month before the US presidential election, white supremacist Richard B. Spencer declared that whatever the upcoming result, that he would be "profoundly grateful to Donald Trump for the rest of my life". Invoking "white genocide" in the same interview, he labelled anti-discrimination laws "the enemy of all tradition, not just the Anglo-Saxon American society it has helped destroy", and Martin Luther King Jr. as "the god of white dispossession". The same month, William Daniel Johnson, leader of the American Freedom Party, was pushing the theory in support of Trump for president; denouncing "the death of the white race, caused by the concepts of diversity and multiculturalism", he said that America needed a "strong leader" like Trump, likening the Republican candidate favorably with Philippine president Rodrigo Duterte.
By early November, one week before the election, KKK leader Thomas Robb was invoking the conspiracy theory in support of Trump's Make America Great Again message, claiming that the concept was inextricably linked with the restoration of white power in the US In February 2017, it was reported that neo-Confederate activist Michael Hill was using Rhodesia to reference and warn against an apparent "racial genocide" of whites in the United States. Hill, a co-founder of the League of the South, equates multiculturalism within the country as part of an ongoing white genocide.
By March 2017, Republican congressman Steve King was using rhetoric that Mother Jones and Paste writers described as invoking the conspiracy theory, saying that "We can't restore our civilization with somebody else's babies" and using the phrase "cultural suicide". Vox and The New Republic have described him as an adherent of the theory that immigration and other forms of population shift represent a slow genocide against white populations. In the same month, white supremacist David Duke, a former Republican Louisiana State Representative, posted YouTube videos stating that Jews are "organizing white genocide". The former Grand Wizard of the KKK also accused Anthony Bourdain of wanting a genocide of white people.
Unite the Right rally in Charlottesville
In August 2017, a white supremacist protest named the Unite the Right rally was held in Charlottesville, Virginia, largely driven by the ideology of the "white genocide" narrative. The protest was ostensibly centered around the impending removal of a statue of Robert E. Lee, who was the commander of the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. The night before the rally, leaflets were distributed en masse in the city, bearing the recurrent slogan "Diversity is a code word for white genocide".
Speaking at the event in Charlottesville, Jason Kessler, the primary organizer behind the rally and a white nationalist blogger, claimed that "the first and foremost reason that we're having this rally, is for that park and for that statue. It's about white genocide. It's about the replacement of our people, culturally and ethnically". Kessler has repeatedly promoted the conspiracy theory, using his website to criticize what he called "white genocide" and an "attack on white history".
Other prominent white nationalists also tied the conspiracy theory to the motivations behind Unite the Right. Giving a speech at the rally, Neo-nazi Mike Enoch said "We're here to talk about white genocide, the deliberate and intentional displacement of the white race".
Trump administration foreign policy on South Africa
In the fall of 2017, it was reported broadcaster Alex Jones and his fake news organization InfoWars were promoting the white genocide myth. The Suidlanders (a völkisch group involved in spreading the conspiracy theory in South Africa) accepted invitations to contribute to the platform on multiple occasions. Around the same time, Jones claimed white genocide was a serious threat in the US; on a cultural front, with what he asserted were black NFL players advocating for "white genocide" by refusing to stand for the national anthem, and the apparent physical threat of Democrats and communists plotting genocidal attacks specifically against white Americans.
Jones has been described as particularly instrumental in the American spread of conspiracy theories about white genocide in Africa, while his long-time political ally, radio host Michael Savage, has devoted an episode of his show to conspiracy theories about white genocide in the region.
In August 2018, US President Donald Trump brought the concept of "white genocide" in relation to South Africa significantly further into mainstream media discourse, after he publicly instructed Secretary of State Mike Pompeo to investigate South African farm attacks, an instruction which was broadly portrayed in media as Trump and his administration advocating for an unfounded conspiracy theory.
Trump had apparently gained his information from Tucker Carlson, a conservative political commentator for Fox News, who has been described as bringing the conspiracy theory of an ongoing "white genocide" in South Africa into the mainstream after a piece about the topic on his show caught the attention of president.[better source needed] Vox described him as having "taken up the cause" of the "virulent, racist conspiracy theory" of white genocide. Amanda Marcotte, writing in Salon, has said that Carlson avoids using the specific phrase "white genocide", but that "its basic premise is embedded throughout his show." The SPLC has accused his website, The Daily Caller, of promoting the theory in relation to South African farm attacks. Carlson asserted he was shocked his statements could be considered an appeal to white nationalists, dismissing questions about his show's high support among them as "stupid" and saying he knew nothing about them.
New York magazine had claimed Trump was attempting to "change the conversation – to one about 'white genocide' in South Africa"; Esquire reported that the "President of the United States is now openly promoting an international racist conspiracy theory as the official foreign policy of the United States." According to the SPLC, Trump had "tweeted out his intention to put the full force of the US State Department behind a white nationalist conspiracy theory."
Reaction to US-South Africa policy
In August 2018, many politicians and public figures responded critically to US President Donald Trump's foreign policy initiative to investigate the seizure of land from white farmers and apparent evoking of the conspiracy theory. These included multiple members of the South African Parliament and RSA Deputy President David Mabuza, who rejected the conspiracy theory, calling it "far from the truth". He stated that "we would like to discourage those who are using this sensitive and emotive issue of land to divide us as South Africans by distorting our land reform measures to the international community and spreading falsehoods that our 'white farmers' are facing the onslaught from their own government."
Julius Malema MP reacted, saying "there is no white genocide in South Africa", that Trump's intervention into their ongoing land reform issues "only made them more determined ... to expropriate our land without compensation", and that there is a black genocide in the US. Jeremy Cronin MP stated that the South African government needed to "send a signal to the courts‚ to Trump‚ to Fox News Agency" over the issue. The deputy Minister of Public Works spoke against the conspiracy theory; in a committee meeting in the South African parliament, he indicated that land expropriation without compensation should not be viewed as a white genocide. Whereas Minister of International Relations and Cooperation, Lindiwe Sisulu, claimed that his foreign policy tweet was "regrettable" and "based on false information", and that the conspiracy theory in general was "a right-wing ideology, and it is very unfortunate."
In the US, former US Ambassador to South Africa Patrick Gaspard, and American media personalities Chris Cuomo, Mika Brzezinski and Al Sharpton spoke out against the US President on the issue. Labelling Trump's actions as "dangerous and poisoned", Gaspard opposed the concept, claiming the conspiracy theory was "trafficking in a white supremacist story line", and that the concept is a "white-supremacist meme from the darkest place."
Cuomo, a television journalist, while stating that "like all conspiracy tripe, there's a kernel of truth" to the theory (in relation to land reform in South Africa) but concluded that the concept was a "bogus cause that white nationalists are selling." He rejected what he said was Donald Trump, and his administration, claiming "white farmers" were "being hunted down and killed and having their land stolen".
With a substantive response, American anti-racism activist, Tim Wise, critically analyzed the conspiracy theory further; stating that it was a form of negrophobia, being directed politically to "scare white Americans" about non-whites within the US. Wise has proposed that the paranoia around the conspiracy theory dates back to the Haitian Revolution and North American slave rebellions, but that changing demographics of the United States have heightened existing anxiety, stating that "the reason it is amplified today is that in the recent past the cultural norm of the country was still dominantly white."[better source needed]
While Mika Brzezinski, co-host of Morning Joe, spoke out against the concept, labelling it as "a racist conspiracy theory", American civil rights activist, Al Sharpton joined Brzezinski in her opposition, labelling it as "neo-Nazi propaganda". Discussing the issue on an MSNBC segment with Katy Tur and foreign correspondent Greg Myre, Sharpton stated that it's "not true" that "white farmers are being killed in South Africa" for racial reasons. A year later, Trump administration speechwriter Stephen Miller claimed US citizens were facing the same threat, saying that nonwhite congresswomen want to, "destroy America with open borders," even if "American citizens lose their jobs, lose their homes, lose their livelihoods, lose their health coverage, and lose their very lives."
In November 2018, Matthew Heimbach, former leader of the neo-Nazi Traditionalist Worker Party, led a protest in Little Rock, Arkansas over an alleged white genocide occurring in South Africa. He called on the US government to sanction South Africa for the "violation of international law" in its treatment of white South Africans. In January 2019, the KKK distributed business cards in Philadelphia with various racist slogans such as "White People are a World Wide minority and there are programs of Genocide against white children", in what appeared to be deliberately targeting African-American neighborhoods with material which promoted the conspiracy theory.
Three independent analyses of Trump re-election campaign advertisements shown in 2019 found 2,200 ads warning of an "invasion" by immigrants. In asking for help to fund a wall along the US-Mexico border, the ads included all-caps warnings of a "state of emergency", saying, "America's safety is at risk", and that it is "critical that we stop the invasion." Other ads said Trump has, "taken multiple trips to the border to show the true invasion happening but the Democrats and the Fake News Media just won't listen." In remarks in the Oval Office in March 2019, Trump said immigrants were trying to, "rush our borders.... People hate the word 'invasion,' but that's what it is. It's an invasion of drugs and criminals and people." In a 6 June interview, Trump told Fox News, "I told Mexico, if you don't stop this onslaught, this invasion—people get angry when I use the word 'invasion'—people like Nancy Pelosi that honestly they don't know what the hell they're talking about."
Fox News era
The American news channel Fox News is described by multiple mainstream media sources as aligned with the concept and narrative of the white genocide conspiracy theory and using its prominence to bring rhetoric of demographic threats to white Americans further into the center of US discourse. Amanda Marcotte, writing in Salon, has stated that Fox's default ideology is "strikingly similar" to "fascistic replacement theory" and "white genocide". Marcotte wrote that this ideology is especially the case for the network's prime-time commentators, such as Tucker Carlson and Laura Ingraham. Paste magazine has argued that "far-right" Great Replacement rhetoric is not only a nightly fixture of Tucker Carlson Tonight, but a "foundational" principle of Rupert Murdoch's media empire.
GQ has reported that Fox News' "popular primetime" shows are an important pipeline to President Donald Trump's political positions, such as the investigation into land reform in South Africa, and that Carlson's show in particular dedicates segments to "'great replacement' propaganda". The warnings delivered by "conservative pundits on Fox News" are driving fears of an "existential threat" of a white genocide, according to The Atlantic, who particularly analyzed Laura Ingraham's nativist remarks, such as "massive demographic changes" apparently being inflicted upon white Americans against their will. While The New York Times identified Carlson as engaging in replacement theory fear-mongering, in relation to family birthrates in the US, ThinkProgress accused him of using the popularity of Fox News, as a platform, to push fears of demographic change through immigration and feminism, causing a so-called "genocide" of American white men.
In June 2017, far-right political commentator Faith Goldy endorsed the conspiracy theory. Publishing a video for The Rebel Media called "White Genocide in Canada?", Goldy compared the shifting demographics of Canada and its immigration policies to "white genocide". Goldy has been described by GQ magazine as "one of Canada's most prominent propagandists" for the theory. Later that month, Vice Media co-founder Gavin McInnes promoted the conspiracy theory after stating that white women having abortions and immigration is "leading to white genocide in the West". He also claimed "white genocide" was "much more intense" in South Africa. McInnes is one of the main leaders of the far-right factions that believe in the conspiracy theory.
In December 2017, YouTuber Stefan Molyneux pushed the conspiracy theory, claiming there was a "demographic decline among the whites that is happening in Europe and in North America", that supposedly predicted a "quasi-extinction" of white people. Molyneux, an advocate of the theory, in February 2018 published a video regarding the concept, titled "White Farmers Slaughtered in South Africa", which interviewed fellow white genocide conspiracy theorist Lauren Southern. Southern, a far-right activist, has frequently pushed white genocide rhetoric, using it as an argument against immigration. She has advocated for European countries to refuse refugees from Africa and Asia, saying that immigration would lead to white genocide, and has been labelled in media as a "booster" for the conspiracy at large. In 2018, Southern produced a documentary called Farmlands about post-Apartheid farm violence in South Africa.
In March 2019, white supremacist Paul Fromm was reported to have endorsed the "white genocide" themed (The Great Replacement) manifesto of the Christchurch mosque shooting perpetrator. Referring to it as "cogent" and a "historical document", Fromm republished the manifesto on his website, stating that he agreed with its analysis.
Australia and New Zealand
American Neo-Nazi literature such as The Turner Diaries and Lane's White Genocide Manifesto have spread online to right wing groups in Australia. A collection of writings called Siege by James Mason was cited as an inspiration by some of the twenty-two neo-Nazis who infiltrated the New South Wales Young Nationals party from which they were banned for life for trying to advance the creation of an ethno-state. Themes of the "defense of Western civilization" and the achievements of ethnic Whites have become racist dog whistles for groups advancing theories of an impending white genocide.
In March 2018, several Australian tabloids owned by the News Corporation ran articles alleging that South African whites were faced with genocide and which led the Australian home affairs minister Peter Dutton to promise fast-track visas for any South African white wishing to emigrate to Australia. Dutton is known for his anti-immigrant and anti-refugee stance, which led to questions about his willingness to accept South African whites into Australia as refugees, since he normally opposes Australia accepting refugees. One News Corp columnist, Miranda Devine, wrote about the ties as she saw them between the Australian people and "our oppressed white, Christian, industrious, rugby and cricket-playing Commonwealth cousins" threatened by South African blacks whom she promised would integrate "seamlessly" into Australia as opposed to immigration from Third World countries.
Another Australian News Corporation columnist Caroline Marcus connected the alleged plight of South African whites to what she saw as a broader attack on whites across the world, writing "the truth is, there are versions of this anti-white, vengeance theme swirling in movements around the western world, from Black Lives Matter in the US to Invasion Day protests back home." The British journalist Jason Wilson noted that the News Corporation run by the Australian media magnate Rupert Murdoch also owns Fox News, which has aired stories portraying South African whites as a persecuted minority, leading him to accuse the News Corporation of promoting this narrative around the world.
In 2018, a resolution declaring "It's OK to be white", and decrying "the deplorable rise of anti-white racism and attacks on the Western civilization," was introduced in the Australian Senate by Pauline Hanson, an anti-immigrant Senator who leads the One Nation Party. The motion was narrowly defeated. The same slogan, which is associated with white supremacist rhetoric, was also depicted on a shirt worn by the far-right Canadian YouTuber Lauren Southern during a visit to Australia.
After Australian white-genocide conspiracy theorist Brenton Tarrant carried out the March 2019 Christchurch mosque shootings, Queensland Senator Fraser Anning released a statement saying the cause of the attacks was "the immigration program which allowed Muslim fanatics to migrate to New Zealand in the first place". Anning has called for a "final solution" to nonwhite immigration to Australia, and frequently issues calls to stop white genocide on social media.[self-published source?] Other politicians such as Home Affairs Minister Peter Dutton have helped propel the idea of white genocide into the mainstream.
South African expatriates in New Zealand have been spreading white genocide myths on Facebook and by demonstrating in marches.
Influence on far-right terrorism
Timothy McVeigh, the main perpetrator of the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing that killed 168 and injured more than 680, carried pages from The Turner Diaries, a fictional account of white supremacists who ignite a revolution by blowing up the FBI headquarters with a truck bomb. The book was greatly influential in shaping white nationalism and in the later development of white genocide conspiracy theory. Although the bomber did not attribute his motives to the white nationalist movement, he frequently cited The Turner Diaries and had been reprimanded in the Army for wearing a "white power" T-shirt purchased at a Ku Klux Klan rally.
Eric Harris, one of the two perpetrators of the 1999 Columbine High School massacre in Littleton, Colorado, that killed thirteen people and injured 24, wrote frequently in his journal entries his dedication to Adolf Hitler and white supremacist and Nazi ideology. He had also taken inspiration from Timothy McVeigh, citing him as his inspiration for the attack and planning on committing a bombing that would outdo McVeigh's in fatalities. 
Richard Baumhammers, the perpetrator of a 2000 shooting spree in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, that killed five people and injured a sixth, complained that European Americans are being outnumbered by minorities and immigrants, calling on a website for "an end to non-white immigration" because "almost all" present day immigration "is non-European."
Frazier Glenn Miller Jr., the perpetrator of a shooting spree that killed three people at a Jewish community center and retirement home in Overland Park, Kansas, had supported the slogan: "Diversity is code for white genocide." He stated that the "systematic genocide of white people by Jews" was his motive, and that he, "had a patriotic intent to stop genocide against my people". On Easter Sunday, the day after the shooting, white supremacists delivered "white genocide" themed Easter eggs to several houses in Henrico County, Virginia, repeating the "Diversity = white genocide" mantra.
Dylann Roof, the perpetrator of the Charleston church shooting that killed nine people and injured a tenth, included a photo on his Facebook page of his wearing a jacket decorated with two emblems that are popular among American white supremacists: the flag of the former Rhodesia (now known as Zimbabwe) and the flag of apartheid-era South Africa. He had been blogging on a website called "The Last Rhodesian" (www.lastrhodesian.com) registered on 9 February 2015, which included an unsigned manifesto containing his opinions of "Blacks", "Jews", "Hispanics" and "East Asians". Saying he became "racially aware" as a result of the 2012 killing of Trayvon Martin, he wrote that because he kept hearing people talk about the incident, he "decided to look him up" and read the Wikipedia article about it. He concluded that George Zimmerman had been in the right, and was unable to comprehend why the case had gained national attention. He said he then searched for black on white crime on Google and found the website of the Council of Conservative Citizens, where he read "pages upon pages" of cases involving black people murdering white people, stating that he had "never been the same since that day." For these reasons, Federal prosecutors said he was "self-radicalized" online, instead of adopting his white supremacist ideology through personal associations or experiences with white supremacists.
The driver responsible for the Charlottesville car attack against protesters at the Unite the Right rally had previously espoused neo-Nazi and white supremacist beliefs. He had driven from Ohio to join the rally in which participants chanted, "Jews will not replace us." He killed one person and injured 28.
The perpetrator of the Pittsburgh synagogue shooting that killed eleven and injured another seven wrote "Jews are the children of Satan" in his social media profile, using neo-Nazi and white supremacist symbolism associated with David Lane, along with the Nazi slogan, "Heil Hitler." He supported white genocide conspiracy theories, writing in one instance, "Daily Reminder: Diversity means chasing down the last white person." He also wrote diatribes against white women who have relationships with black men. In the weeks before the shooting, Bowers made anti-Semitic posts directed at the Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society who sponsor the National Refugee Shabbat. Shortly before the attack, in an apparent reference to immigrants to the United States, he posted on Gab that "HIAS likes to bring invaders in that kill our people. I can't sit by and watch my people get slaughtered. Screw your optics, I'm going in."
The perpetrator of the Poway synagogue shooting that killed one and injured three others blamed Jews for white genocide, which he described as the "meticulously planned genocide of the European race" in his manifesto.
The perpetrator of the 2019 El Paso shooting that killed 23 and injured another 23 had published a manifesto expressing support for the Christchurch shooter and his manifesto, saying the El Paso attack was in response to a "Hispanic invasion of Texas ... defending my country from cultural and ethnic replacement.... the Hispanic community was not my target before I read The Great Replacement." Several commentators noted that the manifesto echoed themes in Donald Trump's campaign speeches, including repeated claims of a Hispanic invasion along with general extremism and hateful language, whose proponents have been emboldened and mobilized by Trump's rhetoric and increasingly frequent talking points in right-wing media outlets. Trump, in turn, called for "strong background checks, perhaps marrying this legislation with desperately needed immigration reform", which some commentators said blamed immigration for the massacre.
The suspect in the 2022 Buffalo shooting that killed ten people and injured three others blamed Jews and African-Americans for white genocide in a manifesto, according to law enforcement officials. He had taken inspiration from other far-right mass shooters, whom he regarded as "heroes".
Anders Behring Breivik, the perpetrator of the 2011 Norway attacks, had participated for years in debates on Internet forums and spoken against Islam and immigration. He wrote a 1,518-page compendium including frequent mentions of alleged ongoing genocide against white Europeans. Analysts described him as having Islamophobic views and a hatred of Islam, and as someone who considered himself as a knight dedicated to stemming the tide of Muslim immigration into Europe. The text copies sections of the Unabomber manifesto, without giving credit, while substituting the words "cultural Marxists" for "leftists" and "Muslims" for "black people". The New York Times described American influences in the writings, noting that the compendium mentions the anti-Islamist American Robert Spencer 64 times and cites Spencer's works at great length. The work of Bat Ye'or is cited dozens of times. It regards Islam and "cultural Marxism" as the enemy and argues for the annihilation of "Eurabia" and multiculturalism, to preserve a Christian Europe.
The perpetrator of the Christchurch mosque shootings that killed 51 and injured 40 explained in a manifesto that he carried out the attack to fight ongoing "white genocide" by foreign "invaders". He had forwarded stories about white women's low fertility rates on his social media accounts. Photographs from his initial court appearance showed him making the "OK" symbol appropriated by white supremacists with his fingers.
Criticism and resistance
White genocide is a myth based on false science, false history, and hatred. White people are not dying out, will not die out, and are not facing extermination.[better source needed][better source needed] White supremacists claim that diversity is equivalent to white genocide. Scholars describe white supremacists as fabricating paranoid claims that their survival as a race is threatened, for example by, "individualism, celibacy, feminism and other forms of sex-role confusion, misplaced environmentalism, and white demonization and guilt," all of which are claimed to promote reproductive failure.
White genocide conspiracy theory frames evidence of declining birth rates in support of extremist views and calls to violence. White supremacists are successfully constructing false narratives of genocide to incite violence at an increasing rate. Literature propounding the white genocide conspiracy theory has incited violence; The Turner Diaries, for instance, is responsible for inciting many violent crimes, including those of Timothy McVeigh and Eric Harris.[better source needed] The US Republican Party as led by Donald Trump has repeatedly and openly courted white supremacists and endorsed the falsehoods they promote, including those of white genocide.
In October 2016, Sanjiv Bhattacharya analyzed the belief in the conspiracy theory amongst the alt-right. While considering the prospect that non-Hispanic whites will be less than 50% of the US population by 2044; Bhattacharya, a British journalist, pointed out the racist hypocrisy in the statement "Diversity equals white genocide", discussing how the "alt right loves to evoke genocide while harbouring Holocaust deniers".
Around the Christmas period of 2016, George Ciccariello-Maher, an American political scientist, satirically tweeted "All I Want for Christmas is White Genocide". As a result of the ensuing controversy, Ciccariello-Maher resigned from his job as an associate professor of politics and global studies at Drexel University. Ciccariello-Maher continued to strongly oppose the conspiracy theory, claiming that it was "invented by white supremacists and used to denounce everything from inter-racial relationships to multicultural policies." He has labelled the concept as a "figment of the racist imagination" and claimed that "it should be mocked."
Derek Black, an American former white supremacist and godson of David Duke, after initially supporting and helping to popularize the concept, has renounced and opposed the white genocide conspiracy theory. Black has claimed that the concept was about pushing white nationalists into a false and overt paranoia about demographics of the United States.[better source needed] Eli Saslow, an American journalist who worked with Black on his 2018 book Rising out of Hatred, has spoken against the conspiracy theory, labelling it as a "really effective" form of propaganda or indoctrination. He stated that "unfortunately, in part because it's built upon a very real and dark truth in American history—which is that white supremacy has always been a big part of what this country is—white nationalists were able to start capitalizing on that." Saslow has claimed the conspiracy theory is a way to "sanitize" white America's history of racism and violence, by focusing on the "ways that white people are under attack in this country," including "white genocide" and "building a wall".
In January 2019, Democratic Philadelphia City Council member Kenyatta Johnson labelled the Ku Klux Klan's distribution of "white genocide" promotional material in black neighborhoods of Philadelphia as an "upsetting and disgusting" act. In June 2019, Canadian author Naomi Klein addressed the narrative of "white genocide", criticizing the concept as an attack on women's reproductive freedom, in that it wished to deny abortion rights to white women having white children, while seeking to suppress non-white immigrant birthrates. The following month, critical theorist Bernard Harcourt detailed how the American New Right was seeking to orient its political message around the fear of a white genocide occurring. He proposed that "neo-fascist, white supremacist, revolutionary language" was becoming mainstream and was in effect "starting to change the way people are willing to express themselves", including President Trump.[better source needed]
In March 2019, journalist Adam Serwer suggested that the conspiracy theory did not sincerely refer to "mass murder, ethnic cleansing, or even violence," but rather to a perceived "loss of political and cultural hegemony in countries that white supremacists think should belong to white people by law." Serwer proposed that the conspiracy was "a kind of projection, a paranoia that the past genocide, colonialism, and ethnic cleansing forced on the West's former subjects will be visited upon it." The same month, Farhad Manjoo detailed how "white-extinction theory" was nonsense. Proposing that the "white genocide" label had "failed to take off", proving ineffective for conspiracy theorists attempting to push the narrative. Manjoo, an American journalist, suggested that the "Great Replacement" (which the Christchurch mosque shooter used for a manifesto title) was a softer reinvention, being to the white genocide conspiracy theory what the term Identitarian is to "white supremacist".
In April 2019, British academic Elif Shafak detailed how Renaud Camus' theory of the Great Replacement has created an ideological worldview for the far-right to amplify into a "white genocide" narrative in the West. Shafak argues that the conspiracy theory is also embedded in the works of Thilo Sarrazin, such as Germany Abolishes Itself and 2018's Hostile Takeover. Later that month, Jonathan Freedland and Mehdi Hasan released a joint analysis of far-right extremism and the ideology behind "white genocide". Discussing Pittsburgh synagogue shooter, Robert Gregory Bowers, and his rhetoric, Freeland and Hasan, both political journalists, labelled the conspiracy theory as racist and unhinged and argued that it had both the Muslim and Jewish "communities in its murderous sights". They concluded that both groups should "stand and fight it together".
In May 2019, political commentator Nick Cohen analyzed how "white genocide" narratives created anti-immigrant and societal sexual tension. He argued that the conspiracy theory was an effective form of racism and propaganda, which had penetrated Viktor Orbán's Hungarian government, but revealed a far-right paranoia that European men were not virile enough. In June 2019, professor of economics Jonathan Portes, while describing the concept as a "lunatic" conspiracy theory, detailed how more respectable versions of "white genocide" were being promoted by academic and media figures, and therefore pushing the idea further into mainstream discourse.
- Huetlin, Josephine (19 June 2019). "How Deeply Has Germany's Murderous Far Right Penetrated the Security Forces?". The Daily Beast.
Andre S. (Hannibal) has views that echo the white extinction conspiracy that the Christchurch shooter propagated: when officials went to his barracks in 2017 to question him, he told them that "Islam will be the No. 1 state religion in the Netherlands in 10 years time."
- Campbell, Andy (15 May 2019). "Alabama's Abortion Bill Is Great News For White Supremacists". HuffPost.
Many white supremacists subscribe to the bogus conspiracy theory that white people are going extinct due to immigration and falling birthrates among white women.
- "Hateful graffiti turns up in Winnipeg, alarming residents, Jewish group". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 16 August 2017.
The words under 'Soros' in the graffiti are 'white extinction,' and this refers to a conspiracy theory that is common on the far right. One might even say on the alt-right, and among white supremacists and neo-Nazis, that George Soros is the frontman for some sort of Jewish plot to exterminate the white race.
- "US higher ed: A system of meritocracy that never was". Mail & Guardian. 27 March 2019.
The Trump administration – supported by many adherents to the white supremacist conspiracy theory that whites are threatened with extinction due to an assault by inferior people of colour through immigration, affirmative action and demographic changes
- "Far right groups have Winnipeg supporters and must be opposed, says activist, former professor". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 17 August 2017.
One of the graffiti here mentions Soros and then spoke about white extinction, and that's a very interesting trope which is being used by a number of far-right groups these days, to claim that there is a so-called white genocide that is being orchestrated by the government through immigration policies, by anti-racists, human rights activists and so on.
- Huetlin, Josephine (19 June 2019). "How Deeply Has Germany's Murderous Far Right Penetrated the Security Forces?". The Daily Beast.
- Herndon, Astead W. (20 June 2019). "'These People Aren't Coming From Norway': Refugees in a Minnesota City Face a Backlash". New York Times.
But for others, the changes have fueled talk about 'white replacement,' a racist conspiracy theory tied to the declining birthrates of white Americans that has spread in far-right circles and online chat rooms and is now surfacing in some communities.
- "A splintered movement: How the far-right found a foothold on campus". The Ubyssey. 20 April 2019.
'White replacement' does not just refer to a demographic change. It is a conspiracy theory spread by white supremacists who believe international governments are intentionally 'replacing' white people with non-white immigrants through liberal immigration policies.
- "How the "White Replacement" Conspiracy Theory Spread Around the Globe". GQ. 21 June 2019.
The "great replacement," also known as "white genocide," is summed up by its name: a secretive cabal of elites, often Jewish, is trying to deliberately destroy the white race through demographic change in importing immigrants and refugees.
- Wilson, Andrew Fergus (16 February 2018). "#whitegenocide, the alt-right and conspiracy theory: How secrecy and suspicion contributed to the mainstreaming of hate". Secrecy and Society. 1 (2). doi:10.31979/2377-6188.2018.010201. hdl:10545/622321.
- Kelly, Annie (15 August 2017). "The alt-right: reactionary rehabilitation for white masculinity". Soundings. 66 (66): 68–78. doi:10.3898/136266217821733688. S2CID 149076795.
- Thompson, Kevin C. (April 2001). "WATCHING THE STORMFRONT: White Nationalists and the Building of Community in Cyberspace". Social Analysis: The International Journal of Social and Cultural Practice. 45 (1): 32–52. JSTOR 23169989.
- Nathan, Julie (29 October 2018). "'White Genocide' and the Pittsburgh synagogue massacre". ABC Religion & Ethics. Retrieved 8 May 2019.
- Futrelle, David (1 April 2019). "The 'alt-right' is fueled by toxic masculinity — and vice versa". NBC News.
- "The high price of 'white genocide' politics for Australia". The Sydney Morning Herald. 12 August 2018.
- Kaplan, Jeffrey (2000). Encyclopedia of White Power: A Sourcebook on the Radical Racist Right. AltaMira Press. p. 539. ISBN 9780742503403. Retrieved 1 May 2015.
- "'White Genocide' Billboard Removed". NBC News. Retrieved 1 May 2015.
- Eager, Paige Whaley (2013). From Freedom Fighters to Terrorists: Women and Political Violence. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 90. ISBN 9781409498575.
- Kivisto, Peter; Rundblad, Georganne (2000). Multiculturalism in the United States: Current Issues, Contemporary Voices. SAGE Knowledge. pp. 57–60. ISBN 978-0-7619-8648-5. Retrieved 1 May 2015.
- Pogue, James (28 March 2019). "The Myth of White Genocide: An unfinished civil war inspires a global delusion". Harper's Magazine. Retrieved 3 November 2019.
- Stern, Alexandra Minna (14 July 2019). "Alt-right women and the 'white baby challenge'". Salon. Retrieved 3 November 2019.
- "The far right, the 'White Replacement' myth and the 'Race War' brewing". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 12 February 2019.
What is new is the concept of 'White Replacement' (sometimes called 'White Genocide') which claims that there is a global Jewish plot to 'import' non-Europeans ― especially Africans, Asians and Arabs ― into Europe, North America and Australasia for the express purpose of 'destroying' European culture, subjugating and ultimately decimating people who are of European ethnicity.
- Saletan, William (7 August 2019). "White Nationalists Are Debunking White Supremacy". Slate Magazine. Retrieved 15 August 2019.
Crusius claimed to be fighting a 'Hispanic invasion of Texas. They are the instigators, not me,' he wrote. 'I am simply defending my country from cultural and ethnic replacement brought on by an invasion.'
- "NY Times reporter: The white nationalist "great replacement" theory is "startlingly common" in right-wing media". Media Matters for America. 12 August 2019. Retrieved 17 August 2019.
- Peters, Jeremy W.; Grynbaum, Michael M.; Collins, Keith; Harris, Rich; Taylor, Rumsey (12 August 2019). "How the El Paso Killer Echoed the Incendiary Words of Conservative Media Stars". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
- Moses, A. Dirk (29 March 2019). "'White Genocide' and the Ethics of Public Analysis". Journal of Genocide Research. 21 (2): 201–213. doi:10.1080/14623528.2019.1599493. S2CID 132394485.
- Perry, Barbara (November 2003). "'White Genocide': White Supremacists and the Politics of Reproduction". In Ferber, Abby L. (ed.). Home-grown hate: gender and organized racism. Routledge. pp. 75–95. doi:10.4324/9780203644058. ISBN 978-0-203-64405-8.
- "The dangerous myth of 'white genocide' in South Africa". Southern Poverty Law Center. 23 August 2018.
- Saslow, Eli (September 2018). Rising out of hatred: the awakening of a former white nationalist. Penguin Random House. ISBN 978-0385542876. Archived from the original on 6 November 2018.
- "We Are in the Midst of the Third Bogus 'White Extinction' Panic in Just as Many Centuries". Reason. 26 June 2018.
- Marcotte, Amanda (27 August 2018). "Donald Trump's "white genocide" rhetoric: A dangerous escalation of racism". Salon.
- Walsh, Joe (22 May 2018). "No, Katie Hopkins, there is no white genocide in South Africa". New Statesman. Retrieved 30 September 2021.
- DeVega, Chauncey (5 September 2018). "Author and activist Tim Wise: 'The Republican Party is a white identity cult'". Salon.
- Taylor, Keeanga-Yamahtta (16 February 2018). "The White Power Presidency: Race and Class in the Trump Era". New Political Science. 40 (1): 103–112. doi:10.1080/07393148.2018.1420555. S2CID 149300385.
- Burgdörfer, Friedrich (1934). Sterben die weissen Völker: die Zukunft der weissen und farbigen Völker im Lichte der biologischen Statistik [The white peoples die: the future of the white and colored peoples in the light of biological statistics] (in German). G.D.W. Callwey. OCLC 938037846.[page needed]
- "Day of the trope: White nationalist memes thrive on Reddit's r/The_Donald". Southern Poverty Law Center. 19 April 2018.
- "Why the alt-right want to call Australia home". Overland. 18 July 2018.
- Poulter, James (12 March 2018). "Meet the Snowflakes Who Are the New Face of Race Hate". Vice.
- "How the swarm of white extremism spreads itself online". The Spinoff. 28 March 2019.
In French, introduced by Renaud Camus, it is called Le Grand Remplacement (The Great Replacement). It comes in different guises, such as the Eurabia thesis that argues that Muslims are "invading" Europe and are a fifth column waiting to take control of the continent. In English, the most famous iteration is "white genocide"
- "A white nationalist conspiracy theory was at the heart of the New Zealand shooting. This isn't the first time it's been associated with terror attacks". Business Insider. 15 March 2019. Archived from the original on 10 January 2020. Retrieved 21 June 2019.
Breivik wrote in his 1,518-page manifesto that Islamic immigrants and the European Union were on a mission to create "Eurabia." The idea was a variation on the white genocide conspiracy theory, which purported that anti-Israel powers were attempting to "Arabise" Europe.
- Trump, Donald [@realDonaldTrump] (22 August 2018). "I have asked Secretary of State @SecPompeo to closely study the South Africa land and farm seizures and expropriations and the large scale killing of farmers. South African Government is now seizing land from white farmers @TuckerCarlson @FoxNews" (Tweet). Archived from the original on 23 August 2018 – via Twitter.
- "South Africa blasts Trump over racially divisive tweet". Los Angeles Times. Associated Press. 23 August 2018.
- Nakamura, David; Hudson, John; Stanley-Becker, Isaac (23 August 2018). "'Dangerous and poisoned': Critics blast Trump for endorsing white nationalist conspiracy theory on South Africa". The Washington Post.
- "Trump Echoes Neo-Nazi Propaganda About South Africa (That He Heard on Fox News)". New York. 23 August 2018.
White nationalists in the West love the idea that their 'people' are facing imminent threat of oppression and/or genocide. This fantasy serves to justify white supremacy, by positing white dominance as the only alternative to white subjugation.
- Chung, Frank (25 March 2017). "'Bury them alive!': White South Africans fear for their future as horrific farm attacks escalate". News Corp Australia. Retrieved 5 February 2018.
- "Trump Cites False Claims of Widespread Attacks on White Farmers in South Africa". The New York Times. 23 August 2018. Retrieved 27 August 2018.
- "South Africa hits back at Trump over land seizure tweet". CBS News. Retrieved 27 August 2018.
- "Fox's Carlson stunned by reaction to stories on South Africa". AP News. Retrieved 27 August 2018.
- Burke, Jason; Smith, David (23 August 2018). "Donald Trump's land seizures tweet sparks anger in South Africa". the Guardian. Retrieved 27 August 2018.
- "Tucker Carlson, those South African white rights activists aren't telling you the whole truth". The Washington Post. 2019.
- "'Castrate their corpses', professor says of GOP senators. White 'genocide!' Tucker Carlson cries". The Washington Post. 2 October 2018.
Carlson had been flogging the issue of land seizures in South Africa – a known proxy issue for those who believe in 'white genocide'.
- "Trump under fire for claim of 'large scale killing' of white farmers in South Africa". NBC News. 23 August 2018.
- "Trump's tweet echoing white nationalist propaganda about South African farmers, explained". Vox. Retrieved 4 September 2018.
- Wilson, Jason (24 August 2018). "White farmers: how a far-right idea was planted in Donald Trump's mind". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 September 2018.
...South Africa and Zimbabwe in particular have exerted a fascination on the racist far right because in the mind of white nationalists, they show what happens to a white minority after they lose control of countries they once ruled.
- Walrath, Dana (10 August 2019). "White genocide: A dangerous myth employed by racists". The Irish Times. Retrieved 26 August 2019.
- Bernier, François (2001). "A New Division of the Earth". History Workshop Journal. 51 (1): 247–250. doi:10.1093/hwj/2001.51.247. JSTOR 4289731.
- Graves, Joseph L. (2001). The Emperor's New Clothes: Biological Theories of Race at the Millennium. Rutgers University Press. pp. 13–22. ISBN 9780813533025. Retrieved 27 August 2019.
- Hunt, Linda M.; Megyesi, Mary S. (January 2008). "The ambiguous meanings of the racial/ethnic categories routinely used in human genetics research". Social Science & Medicine. 66 (2): 349–361. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2007.08.034. PMC 2213883. PMID 17959289.
- Gannon, Megan (5 February 2016). "Race Is a Social Construct, Scientists Argue". Scientific American. Retrieved 27 August 2019.
- Patrick Weil and Nicolas Truong, Le sens de la République (Grasset, 2015). ISBN 978-2246858232.
- Jean-Yves Camus and Nicolas Lebourg, Far-Right Politics in Europe (Harvard University Press, 2017). pp 206–207.
- Margaret Cook Anderson, Regeneration Through Empire: French Pronatalists and Colonial Settlement in the Third Republic (University of Nebraska Press, 2014) p. 25.
- Kauffmann, Grégoire (2016). Le Nouveau FN. Les vieux habits du populisme: Les vieux habits du populisme (in French). Le Seuil. PT78. ISBN 978-2021300307.
- Weil & Truong (2015). sfnp error: no target: CITEREFWeilTruong2015 (help)
- "When the President Inspires Violence". Washington Monthly. 15 March 2019.
- Paul, Diane; Stenhouse, John; Spencer, Hamish (2018). Eugenics at the Edges of Empire: New Zealand, Australia, Canada and South Africa. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-3-319-64685-5.
- "The scary ideology behind Trump's immigration instincts". Vox Media. 18 June 2018.
- "Harvard fellow examines rise — and roots — of white supremacy". Harvard Gazette. 18 March 2019. Retrieved 27 August 2019.
- Winston, Andrew S. (April 2021). "'Jews will not replace us!': Antisemitism, Interbreeding and Immigration in Historical Context". American Jewish History. 105 (1): 1–24. doi:10.1353/ajh.2021.0001. S2CID 239725899. Gale A676309948 Project MUSE 804146.
- Serwer, Adam (April 2019). "White Nationalism's Deep American Roots". The Atlantic. Retrieved 24 March 2019.
- Kühl, Stefan (2002). Nazi Connection: Eugenics, American Racism, and German National Socialism. Oxford University Press. p. 85.
- Serwer, Adam (21 March 2016). "Nazis Have Always Been Trolls". The Atlantic.
- Feldman, Yotam (14 May 2009). "Eugenics in Israel: Did Jews Try to Improve the Human Race Too?". Haaretz.
- Lebourg, Nicolas (2 November 2020). "René Binet, the French Father of White Nationalism". Illiberalism.org.
- Jean-Yves Camus; Nicolas Lebourg (2017). Far-Right Politics in Europe. Harvard University Press. pp. 206–207. ISBN 978-0-674-97153-0.
- François, Stéphane (6 September 2018). "En Europe, une partie de l'extrême droite revient à l'action violente". Le Monde (in French). Retrieved 2 September 2019.
- Gilles Fournier, "La guerre de demain est déjà déclenchée", Europe-Action, nº 16, April 1964, p. 21
- François, Stéphane (23 May 2013). "Dominique Venner et le renouvellement du racisme". Fragments sur les Temps Présents (in French). Retrieved 12 August 2019.
- Feshami, Kevan A. (6 September 2017). "Fear of White Genocide". Lapham's Quarterly. Retrieved 20 January 2018.
- Novick, Michael (1995). White Lies, White Power: The Fight Against White Supremacy and Reactionary Violence. Common Courage Press. p. 155. ISBN 9781567510508.
- Berger, J. M. "How 'The Turner Diaries' Changed White Nationalism". The Atlantic. Retrieved 24 November 2017.
The manifesto itself was soon reduced to the simple phrase 'white genocide', which proliferated at the start of the 21st century and has become the overwhelmingly dominant meme of modern white nationalism.
- Dessem, Matthew (27 December 2016). "Drexel University, Unfamiliar With Racist Lingo, Censures Prof For "White Genocide" Tweet". Slate Magazine.
- Stack, Liam (15 August 2017). "Alt-Right, Alt-Left, Antifa: A Glossary of Extremist Language". The New York Times.
- Jackson, Paul (1 May 2015). "'White genocide': Postwar fascism and the ideological value of evoking existential conflicts". In Cathie Carmichael; Richard C. Maguire (eds.). The Routledge History of Genocide. Routledge. pp. 207–226. ISBN 978-1-317-51484-8.
Duke's current website hosts a variety of essays that develop the idea that white people are being subjected to a genocide. Again we see a key linkage here between raising the idea of a white genocide and decrying liberal political ideals. In one such essay, 'The Genocide of the White Race is Promoted by Liberals', the point is set out as follows: ... The actions being taken by liberal governments to force non-White into every White nation will eventually eliminate the White race itself.
- "The Collection of the Works of David Lane". Internet Archive. pp. 188–191. Retrieved 26 August 2019.
- Aryan Nations (12 March 1996). "The Declaration of Independence". Internet Archive. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
- "Aryan Nations/Church of Jesus Christ Christian". Anti-Defamation League. Retrieved 20 August 2019.
- Verhovek, Sam Howe (8 September 2000). "Leaders of Aryan Nations Found Negligent in Attack". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 August 2019.
- Steiger, Brad; Steiger, Sherry (2012). Conspiracies and Secret Societies: The Complete Dossier. Visible Ink Press. pp. 34–35. ISBN 9781578593859. Retrieved 20 August 2019.
- Gaston, Sophia (November 2018). "Out of the Shadows: Conspiracy Thinking on Immigration" (PDF). The Henry Jackson Society.
- "Che cos'è – o sarebbe – il "Piano Kalergi"" [What is – or would be – the "Kalergi Plan"] (in Italian). Il Post. 16 January 2018.
- Cefkin, J. Leo (10 February 1966). "How Long Can Rhodesia Last?". The Reporter. p. 44.
Smith faces the trials ahead with some considerable assets. Perhaps his most potent support lies in the siege mentality of the white Rhodesians. For the present, Smith has succeeded in convincing them that the only choice is the Rhodesian Front and UDI or black African dictatorship and white genocide.
- Murphy, Dan (15 June 2015). "Why would an American white supremacist be fond of Rhodesia?". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
- Davis, Julie Hirschfeld; Onishi, Norimitsu (23 August 2018). "Trump Tweet Echoes Agenda of Supremacy". WRAL.com. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
- "Alt Right: A Primer about the New White Supremacy". Anti-Defamation League. Retrieved 26 April 2017.
- Roy, Jessica (16 November 2016). "'Cuck,' 'snowflake,' 'masculinist': A guide to the language of the 'alt-right'". Los Angeles Times.
- Carmichael, Cathie; Maguire, Richard (1 May 2015). The Routledge History of Genocide. Routledge. p. 215. ISBN 978-1-317-51484-8.
- Waltman, Michael; Haas, John (2011). The Communication of Hate. Peter Lang Publishing. p. 27. ISBN 978-1-4331-0447-3. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
Race categories are organized hierarchically to reflect differences that are inherent in the essence of these categories. These differences justify and underlie the hostility that is expressed toward inferior groups. This hostility further fuels the drive for racial purity. 'Race-mixing' is treated as genocide and is understood to be the goal of all non-whites.
- King, Richard; Leonard, David. Beyond Hate: White Power and Popular Culture. Ashgate Publishing. p. 100.
Jesse Daniels argues that white nationalists discursively link Jews and their purported promotion of race mixing through their control of the media with their goal to commit 'the genocide of the white race'
- Ferber, Abby (1999). White Man Falling: Race, Gender, and White Supremacy. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 124.
According to White Power article entitled 'Jews Planning White Genocide', 'world Jewry's chilling Final Solution [is] the physical and spiritual genocide of the White race they despise'
- Bridges, Tyler (1994). The Rise of David Duke. Univ. Press of Mississippi. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-585-16466-3.
Duke believed Jews were engaged in a conspiracy to weaken the white race by using the media to promote integration and race mixing ... race mixing, Duke believed, meant white genocide
- Lenz, Ryan (21 August 2013). "Following the White Rabbit". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved 5 September 2018.
- Gilsinan, Kathy (24 June 2015). "Dylann Roof and the 'Globalization of White Nationalism'". The Atlantic. Retrieved 5 September 2018.
- Silverstein, Jason (11 January 2015). "Billboard from 'white genocide' group goes up in Ala". New York Daily News. Retrieved 8 July 2016.
- "Jared Taylor". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved 14 August 2019.
- "American Renaissance". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved 14 August 2019.
- Arnold, Kathleen (2011). Anti-Immigration in the United States: A Historical Encyclopedia: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 508. ISBN 978-0-313-37521-7.
Unlike many other white supremacists, Taylor is not anti-Semitic, and in fact encourages Jews to join his fight ... however many within the white supremacist/anti-immigration movement disagree with Taylor, most notably David Duke, and he has been under tremendous pressure to break ties with the Jewish community. Taylor, at least for now, has refused to submit to this pressure and continues to work with Jews to further his platform.
- Lyster, Rosa (9 May 2018). "The creeping spectre of "white genocide"". The Outline. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
- Gedye, Lloyd (23 March 2018). "White genocide: How the big lie spread to the US and beyond". The Mail & Guardian.
- Taguieff, Pierre-André (2015). La revanche du nationalisme: Néopopulistes et xénophobes à l'assaut de l'Europe (in French). Presses Universitaires de France. ISBN 978-2-13-072950-1.
- Camus, Jean-Yves; Lebourg, Nicolas (2017). Far-Right Politics in Europe. Harvard University Press. pp. 206–207. ISBN 978-0-674-97843-0.
- Cosentino, Gabriele (2020). "From Pizzagate to the Great Replacement: The Globalization of Conspiracy Theories". Social Media and the Post-Truth World Order: The Global Dynamics of Disinformation. Springer. p. 75. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-43005-4_3. ISBN 978-3-030-43005-4. S2CID 216239634.
While the Great Replacement is at its core an Islamophobic belief, Lane's ideology is anti-Semitic.
- Coaston, Jane (26 April 2019). "Trump's new defense of his Charlottesville comments is incredibly false". Vox. Retrieved 25 August 2019.
- Strickland, Patrick (11 August 2017). "Alt-right rally: Charlottesville braces for violence". Al Jazeera.
- "'Increasingly Nazified' white nationalist rally descends on Virginia amid expected protests". The Guardian. 12 August 2017.
- Wildman, Sarah (15 August 2017). "'You will not replace us': a French philosopher explains the Charlottesville chant". Vox.
- "The Audio Doesn't Lie: Tucker Carlson Is Who We Thought He Was". The New York Review of Books. 16 August 2018.
President Trump is adept at addressing the "white genocide" anxiety. On his recent trip to England, he said that immigration had "changed the fabric of Europe. And unless you act very quickly, it's never going to be what it was."
- "White extinction anxiety: Why this curious race-related term trended on Twitter". India Today. 25 June 2018.
- "How Increasingly Diverse Neighborhoods Affect White Anxiety". Pacific Standard. 17 October 2018.
- Stern, Alexandra Minna (2019). Proud Boys and the White Ethnostate: How the Alt-Right Is Warping the American Imagination. Beacon Press. p. 99. ISBN 978-0807063361.
- "What fuels "white anxiety"? The baffling hypocrisies behind white paranoia politics". Salon. 26 June 2018.
- Hardy, Alfredo Toro (2019). The Crossroads of Globalization: A Latin American View. World Scientific. p. 105. ISBN 978-9813277304.
- "'White Extinction Anxiety' Trends On Twitter: Do White People Really Fear Dying Off? 'NYT' Columnist Explains". Inquisitr. 25 June 2018.
In Blow's analysis, the heavy white support for Trump is due to "white extinction anxiety," the fear expressed by Buchanan that non-white people will soon become the majority in the United States, causing whites to lose their privileged status based on their skin color.
- "Race Against Time: How White Fear of Genetic Annihilation Fuels Abortion Bans". Yes! (U.S. magazine). 3 July 2019.
- Krajicek, David J. (2019). Mass Killers: Inside the Minds of Men Who Murder. Arcturus Publishing. ISBN 978-1788883443.
- Villet, Charles (23 February 2017). "Donald Trump, white victimhood and the South African far-right". The Conversation. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
- "Getting the facts straight: A fact-checking website in Africa hopes to stem the flow of misinformation". The Economist. 3 July 2013.
- "Funds raised for Hofmeyr to meet with Trump over 'white genocide'". The Citizen (South Africa). 17 January 2017.
- "Hofmeyr could meet Trump to discuss 'white genocide in SA'". Independent Online (South Africa). 18 January 2017.
- Selisho, Kaunda (14 August 2018). "WATCH: Steve Hofmeyr endorses Donald Trump's message". citizen.co.za. Retrieved 20 August 2018.
- "Trump's Alt-Right coming to SA". www.iol.co.za.
- "SA conservative group takes credit for increased 'white genocide' awareness". News24. Archived from the original on 24 March 2018. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
- "Are SA whites really being killed 'like flies'? Why Steve Hofmeyr is wrong".
- "No genocide risk in SA | Daily News". Retrieved 5 September 2018.
- "Genocide Watch thin on transparency and methodology – Africa Check". Africa Check. 15 September 2016. Retrieved 5 September 2018.
- Chutel, Lynsey (5 June 2018). "International outrage about a "genocide" against white farmers in South Africa ignores the data". Quartz Africa. Retrieved 20 August 2019.
- de Greef, Palko; Karaza, Kimon (23 August 2018). "Trump Cites False Claims of Widespread Attacks on White Farmers in South Africa". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 September 2018.
- "'White Genocide' is Not Underway in South Africa". genocidewatch.net. Retrieved 5 September 2018.
- Brogan, Patrick The Fighting Never Stopped, New York: Vintage Books, 1989 p. 87
- Heer, Jeet (24 June 2015). "Dylann Roof's Defense of White Rule in Africa Has Roots in American Conservatism". The New Republic. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
- Heilbrunn, Jacob (January–February 1998). "Apologists Without Remorse". The American Prospect. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
- "UPDATED TO INCLUDE APOLOGY 'We have never ever said there is a white genocide happening in SA'". Radio 702. 27 August 2018. Retrieved 27 December 2019.
- Chothia, Farouk (1 September 2018). "The groups playing on the fears of a 'white genocide'". BBC News. Retrieved 29 August 2019. See also tweets signed "@ErnstRoets".
- Carlson, Tucker (16 May 2018). "Minority of farmers struggle for survival in South Africa". Fox News. Retrieved 29 August 2019.
- Hlatshaneni, Simnikiwe (27 June 2018). "Outrage surrounds book claiming top ANC officials 'killed the boer'". The Citizen. Retrieved 24 November 2018.
- Ernst Roets (15 June 2018). "Kill the Boer". Kill the Boer Book. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
- Bergmann, Eirikur (2018). "The Eurabia Doctrine". Conspiracy & Populism: The Politics of Misinformation. p. 127. ISBN 9783319903590.
- "The French Origins of "You Will Not Replace Us"". The New Yorker. 4 December 2017.
- "Cette enquête qui met le FN face à ses contradictions" [This investigation that puts the FN faces its contradictions] (in French). Europe 1. 6 June 2017.
- "Racisme, homophobie: ce que l'on trouve sur les comptes des candidats FN" [Racism, homophobia: what we find on the accounts of FN candidates] (in French). France-Soir. 6 June 2017. Archived from the original on 8 July 2019. Retrieved 10 July 2019.
- "Le FN en PACA : des propos à caractère raciste et islamophobe des candidats aux législatives" [The FN in PACA: Racist and Islamophobic remarks from candidates for the legislative elections] (in French). France Info. 7 June 2017.
- Story im Ersten: Tödlicher Hass – Der Mordfall Walter Lübcke
- Die Ermordung Walter Lübckes: Schuss in der Nacht
- Bromley, Richard (2018). "The politics of displacement: the Far Right narrative of Europe and its 'others'" (PDF). From the European South. 3: 13–26.
- Pasha-Robinson, Lucy (21 February 2018). "Hungary's Prime Minister warns 'Europe is being overrun' in the run up to national election". The Independent. Retrieved 23 March 2019.
- "At an Arkansas white nationalist rally, Trump's support for racist conspiracies provides inspiration". ThinkProgress. 13 November 2019.
- "Tommy Robinson and the far right's new playbook". The Guardian. 25 October 2018.
- Haynes, Gavin (10 May 2018). "The Race War Preppers Behind South Africa's 'White Genocide' Meme". Vice. Retrieved 15 December 2021.
- Walsh, Joe (22 May 2018). "No, Katie Hopkins, there is no white genocide in South Africa". New Statesman. Retrieved 15 December 2021.
- Liddle, Rod (17 March 2018). "Genocide in South Africa: now that's a black-and-white issue". The Spectator. Archived from the original on 17 March 2018.
Shockingly, almost I might say unbelievably, a Canadian libertarian blogger has been refused entry to the UK because she subscribes to the narrative which I outlined above. Lauren Southern believes that genocide is being enacted against the whites in South Africa. Any other brand of genocide and she'd have been courted and asked to give evidence to a select committee, and probably be guest-editing Newsnight and presenting Woman's Hour right now.
- "The Rebel Media-branded retirement savings fund is not happening". Maclean's. 24 July 2018.
- "Katie Hopkins allegedly detained at Johannesburg airport for 'spreading racial hatred'". Yahoo News. 6 February 2018.
- "Katie Hopkins has been allowed to leave South Africa after being 'detained'". Yahoo News. 7 February 2018.
- "Neo-Nazi arrests: National Action suspects are in the Army". BBC. 7 September 2017.
- "Leader of Nigel Farage's party resigns over anti-Islam messages". The Guardian. 20 March 2019.
- "Tory candidates suspended over racist and inflammatory posts". The Guardian. 25 April 2019.
- Townsend, Mark (24 August 2019). "Infiltrator exposes Generation Identity UK's march towards extreme far right". The Observer. Retrieved 26 August 2019.
- Wells, Alexandra (14 August 2019). "YouTube Paid Neo-Nazi Thousands Of Dollars For Hate Videos". The Forward. Retrieved 26 August 2019.
- Erika Lee, America for Americans a history of xenophobia in the United States (2019) p. 113.
- "The far right's "Free Speech Week" at UC Berkeley, explained". Vox Media. 21 September 2017.
- "Why Ann Coulter's Remarks Have Led to Accusations of Racism". ThoughtCo. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
- "Bush's America: Roach Motel". anncoulter.com. 6 June 2007.
- "Why Ann Coulter is dead wrong about immigration in America". The Daily Dot. 28 May 2015.
- "Greg Johnson – Greg Johnson is the editor-in-chief of the white nationalist publishing house Counter-Currents, an epicenter of "academic" white nationalism". Southern Poverty Law Center.
- "In Arkansas, white town is a black mark". Al Jazeera. 10 December 2014.
- Underwood, Madison (30 June 2014). "Where does that billboard phrase, 'Anti-racist is a code word for anti-white,' come from? It's not new". AL.com. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
- Byng, Rhonesha (7 November 2013). "Arkansas Town Responds To Controversial 'Anti-Racist Is A Code Word For Anti-White' Sign". Huffington Post. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
- "Trump Jr. Wants 'Alt-right' Personality Mike Cernovich to Win Pulitzer". Haaretz. 5 April 2017.
- "Ohio treasurer and Senate candidate takes on Anti-Defamation League over far-right 'witch hunt'". Yahoo! News. 21 July 2017.
- "How Twitter's Alt-Right Purge Fell Short". Rolling Stone. 19 December 2017.
- "Media Matter: People – Mike Cernovich (Page 6)". Media Matters. 18 November 2016.[permanent dead link]
- "South African group under fire for lobbying US for white rights". Aljazeera.com. 15 May 2018.
- "James Gunn Was Fired For Old Tweets Because Disney Listened To The 'Pizzagate' Guy". Houston Press. 23 July 2018.
- "Virginia gubernatorial candidate laughed about GOP 'cucks' on controversial conspiracy theorist's show". CNN. 6 December 2017.
- Tal Kopan (22 January 2016). "Donald Trump retweets 'White Genocide' Twitter user". CNN. Retrieved 15 March 2017.
- Kharakh, Ben; Primack, Dan (22 March 2016). "Donald Trump's Social Media Ties to White Supremacists". Fortune. Retrieved 15 March 2017.
- Staufenberg, Jess (28 January 2016). "Turns out Donald Trump 'mostly' retweets white supremacist sympathizers". The Independent. Retrieved 15 March 2017.
- "Donald Trump Jr. Is His Father's Id". The Atlantic. 20 September 2016.
- "Donald Trump Jr. Emerges as 'Alt-Right' Hero Even as Dad Tones Down Rhetoric". The Forward. 20 September 2016.
- "Donald Trump Jr. sat down for interview with supremacist who once said 'interracial sex is white genocide'". National Post. 4 March 2016.
- "Trump Retweets Alt-Right Leader Who Has Praised White Supremacist Richard Spencer". Newsweek. 15 August 2017.
- "Meet the Alt-Right 'Spokesman' Who's Thrilled With Trump's Rise". Rolling Stone. 18 October 2016.
- "Donald Trump réveille le géant assoupi de l'Amérique blanche" [Donald Trump wakes up the sleeping giant of white America]. Le Figaro (in French). 17 October 2016.
- "Election américaine : Donald Trump embarrassé par le soutien du journal du Ku Klux Klan" [US election: Donald Trump embarrassed by the support of the Ku Klux Klan newspaper]. Le Monde (in French). 2 November 2019.
- "League of the South Announces Formation of 'Southern Defense Force'". Southern Poverty Law Center. 6 February 2017.
- "Neo-Nazis, white nationalists, and internet trolls: who's who in the far right". The Guardian. 17 August 2017.
- "Steve King's district was built by "somebody else's babies"". Mother Jones. Retrieved 3 October 2018."Steve King's White Nationalism is Echoed in the White House". pastemagazine.com. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
- Jones, Sarah (14 March 2017). "Steve King says racist things because he knows the GOP won't call him out on it". The New Republic. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
- "Google condemned by MPs after refusing to ban anti-Semitic YouTube video by ex-KKK leader". The Independent. 14 March 2017.
- "Google said a video about Jewish people 'organizing white genocide' didn't infringe its guidelines". Business Insider. 15 March 2017.
- "Why I, editor of the Jewish Chronicle, think anti-Semites should be allowed on YouTube". The Telegraph. 15 March 2017. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022.
- "Face-off between MPs and social media giants over online hate speech". The Guardian. 14 March 2017.
- Mostrous, Alexi (17 March 2017). "Taxpayers are funding extremism". The Times.
- "Anthony Bourdain Offers To 'Rearrange' Ex-KKK Leader David Duke's Extremities". HuffPost. 7 March 2017.
- "Anthony Bourdain offers to 'rearrange' David Duke's kneecaps". Fox News. 3 March 2017.
- Hawkins, Derek (4 October 2017). "Jason Kessler, Charlottesville protest organizer, indicted on a charge of perjury". The Washington Post. Retrieved 1 August 2018.
- "White nationalist sues Charlottesville to hold Unite the Right anniversary rally". USA Today. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
- "In Remarks For Charlottesville Anniversary, Trump Still Plays To Both Sides". Refinery29. 11 August 2018.
- "Birth of a White Supremacist". New York Times. 9 October 2017.
- "Laura Ingraham loses sponsor over defense of white supremacist". ThinkProgress. 1 June 2019.
- "Here's Twitter's position on Alex Jones (and hate-peddling anti-truthers) – hint: It's a fudge". TechCrunch. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
- "ADL blasts Trump for tweeting a white nationalist talking point". The Times of Israel. 23 August 2018.
- "White Nationalists Praise Donald Trump for Spreading White South African Farmers Conspiracy Theory". Newsweek. 23 August 2018.
- "Trump Is Using a White Nationalist Conspiracy Theory to Inform Policy". Rolling Stone. 23 August 2018.
- Marcotte, Amanda (15 August 2018). "Tucker Carlson claims there's no white nationalism. His show's obsessive racism suggests otherwise". Salon.
- Bauder, David (24 August 2018). "Fox's Tucker Carlson stunned by reaction to stories on South Africa". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 12 October 2018.
- "Perspective: President Trump is pushing white nationalist ideas into the mainstream". The Washington Post. Retrieved 4 September 2018.
- Schulberg, Jessica (23 August 2018). "Trump Boosted A White Nationalist Conspiracy Theory He Saw On Fox News". Huffington Post. Retrieved 24 August 2018.
- "The Daily Caller Has A White Nationalist Problem". Southern Poverty Law Center. 16 August 2017.
- "No One Should Need a Tape of Him Using a Racial Slur". 23 August 2018.
- "President Trump is stoking white nationalism, exploiting racist fear". Southern Poverty Law Center. 23 August 2018.
- "Donald Trump's land seizures tweet draws angry reaction in South Africa". The Guardian. 23 August 2018.
- "South Africa rejects Donald Trump's tweet on farmer killings". BBC. 23 August 2018.
- "Expropriation Bill to be redrafted to accommodate expropriation without compensation". The Times (South Africa). 28 August 2018.
- "South Africa's top diplomat slams Trump tweet as 'right-wing ideology'". CNN. 27 August 2018.
- "Trump's South Africa Tweet Seems to Embrace Racist Narrative on Land Dispute". The New York Times. 23 August 2018.
- "Cuomo offers Trump tips to avoid scrutiny". CNN. 24 August 2018.
- "Kellyanne Conway and Chris Cuomo squeezed a week's worth of news into one wild 30-minute debate on CNN". Business Insider. 24 August 2018.
- "Tim Wise: Trump tweet about South Africa directed at white Americans". MSN. 25 August 2018.
- "President Donald Trump Tweets About South Africa; South Africa Responds". MSNBC. 23 August 2018.
- "South Africa tweets show 'morally debased' Trump 'will do anything' to change the subject from Cohen: MSNBC panelist". Raw Story. 15 October 2016.
- "Behind the President's South Africa tweet that has gained praise from white supremacists". MSNBC. 23 August 2018.
- "Tucker Carlson Defends South Africa Land Seizure Segment After 'Orwellian' Backlash". TheWrap. 23 August 2018.
- Danner, Chas (22 July 2019). "Trump Again Shows He Can't Even Pretend to Reject Racism". Intelligencer. Retrieved 23 August 2019.
- "KKK Material Left on Black Man's Car in Philadelphia". Ebony. 15 January 2019.
- Russo, Amy (6 August 2019). "Trump Ran Facebook Ads Decrying An Immigrant 'Invasion'". HuffPost. Retrieved 4 September 2019.
- Wong, Julia Carrie (5 August 2019). "Trump referred to immigrant 'invasion' in 2,000 Facebook ads, analysis reveals". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 September 2019.
- Fung, Brian. "Trump has run over 2,000 Facebook ads warning of 'invasion'". CNN. CNN Politics. Retrieved 4 September 2019.
- Marcotte, Amanda (29 April 2019). "Fox News and the synagogue shooter: Right-wing network airs similar views every day". Salon.
fascistic "replacement" theory, which holds that white people are entitled to cultural dominance and that racial diversity and immigration are equivalent to a "white genocide" ... Replacement theory is an idea that's been coursing through the burgeoning neo-Nazi and white nationalist movement for some time ... Sadly, this toxic notion is not limited to the dregs of the internet, where it appears Earnest was radicalized. These days, anyone who flips on Fox News, especially if they watch prime-time commentators like Tucker Carlson or Laura Ingraham, will hear strikingly similar ideas.
- "The Audio Doesn't Lie: Tucker Carlson Is Who We Thought He Was". Paste. 15 March 2019.
Fantasizing about this far-right "Great Replacement" conspiracy theory has been practically a nightly fixture of Carlson's program since its inception, it's a foundational part of right wing media from the Rupert Murdoch empire
- "'Replacement Theory,' a Racist, Sexist Doctrine, Spreads in Far-Right Circles". New York Times. 30 April 2019.
Though these fears fester in online message boards, it is spreading to more mainstream right-wing conversations. The Fox News host Tucker Carlson, for one, has engaged in some of these conversations. In January, he opened his show with a segment he said was one "the biggest issue facing this country going forward," bigger than wars and G.D.P.: the collapse of families.
- "The dark history of the New Zealand killer's 'great replacement'". ThinkProgress. 15 March 2019.
And Fox News host Tucker Carlson, who inherited the prime time Fox News slot vacated by Bill O'Reilly, has used his new prominence to warn viewers about a feminist "genocide" of white men, and to depict immigration as a stalking horse for "demographic change" intended to replace the America you know with a different, worse, "dirtier" one.
- "Canada 'Breitbart North' Co-Founder Quits Over Charlottesville". The Forward. 15 August 2017.
- "Toronto scraps 'free speech' event". BBC News. 16 August 2017. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
- Robertson, Susan Krashinsky (June 2017). "Advertisers bow to pressure to pull ads from The Rebel". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
- "How Free Speech Warriors Mainstreamed White Supremacists". GQ. 8 May 2018.
- "Do You Want Bigots, Gavin? Because This Is How You Get Bigots". Hatewatch. Southern Poverty Law Center.
- "Proud Boy lawyer demands alt-weeklies not call "western chauvinist fraternity" alt-right". Baltimore City Paper. 25 October 2017.
- "How Hate Goes 'Mainstream': Gavin McInnes and the Proud Boys – Rewire.News". Rewire.News. Retrieved 29 August 2018.
- "Stefan Molyneux Thinks New Star Wars Film Is About The Decline Of White People". Right Wing Watch. 19 December 2017.
- "Alt-right speakers Stefan Molyneux and Lauren Southern anger NZ Muslims". Radio New Zealand. 20 July 2018.
- "Anti-immigration activist denied entry to Australia because she filled out wrong visa form". The Raw Story. 9 July 2018.
- "Canadian far-right activist Lauren Southern denied Australian visa". International Business Times. 10 July 2018.
- Chutel, Lynsey (5 June 2018). "International outrage about a "genocide" against white farmers in South Africa ignores the data". Quartz. Retrieved 30 July 2018.
- Urban, Rebecca (20 July 2018). "Lauren Southern: protesters out to disrupt right wing commentator's event". The Australian.
- "Hamilton police investigating after white nationalist posts suspected mosque shooter manifesto". CBC.ca. 18 March 2019.
- "Police investigating after Canadian far-right website reposts New Zealand terrorist's manifesto". Global News. 19 March 2019.
- Ross, Kaz (16 March 2019). "How believers in 'white genocide' spread their hate campaign in Australia". Business Standard. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
- Webb, Ross (24 March 2019). "NZ's South African community needs to stop peddling the myth of white genocide". The Spinoff. Retrieved 24 March 2019.
- Wilson, Jason (16 March 2018). "Peter Dutton's offer to white South African farmers started on the far right". The Guardian. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
- Westcott, Ben (15 October 2018). "Australian government votes for motion saying 'it's okay to be white'". CNN. Retrieved 11 April 2019.
- Gstalter, Morgan (15 March 2019). "Australian lawmaker blames Muslims after white supremacist kills 49 at two New Zealand mosques". The Hill. Retrieved 23 March 2019.
- e.g., Facebook video and Tweet.
- Darby, Luke (5 August 2019). "How the 'Great Replacement' conspiracy theory has inspired white supremacist killers". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022.
- Collins, James; Patrick E. Cole; Elaine Shannon (28 April 1997). "Oklahoma City: The Weight of Evidence". Time. pp. 1–8. Archived from the original on 11 February 2012.
- Berger, J.M. (2016). "The Turner Legacy: The Storied Origins and Enduring Impact of White Nationalism's Deadly Bible". Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism Studies. 7 (8). doi:10.19165/2016.1.11.
- Mull, Jeremy. "Timothy James McVeigh #717". www.clarkprosecutor.org. Office of the Clark County Prosecuting Attorney. Retrieved 16 November 2019.
- Evans, Robert (4 August 2019). "The El Paso Shooting and the Gamification of Terror". Bellingcat. Retrieved 24 July 2022.
- "Inspiring Extremist Crimes". Anti-Defamation League. 25 September 2012. Archived from the original on 25 September 2012. Retrieved 1 September 2019.
- Randall, Kate (2 May 2000). "Five killed in racist shooting rampage in Pittsburgh – World Socialist Web Site". International Committee of the Fourth International. Archived from the original on 13 April 2019. Retrieved 1 September 2019.
- "Three Kansas men convicted over mass 'slaughter' plot targeting Muslims". The Guardian. 18 April 2018.
- "White Supremacist Convicted of Killing 3 at Kansas Jewish Centers". New York Times. 31 August 2015.
- "Kansas City JCC shooter claims he was trying 'to stop genocide'". Times of Israel. 29 August 2015.
- "White Supremacists Plant Racist Easter Eggs". Daily Beast. 17 April 2014.
- "Racist Easter Eggs Left On Lawn Outrage Parents". HuffPost. 21 April 2014.
- "Charleston Church Shooting Suspect, Dylann Storm Roof, Is Captured". The New York Times. 18 June 2015. Retrieved 18 June 2015.
- "On Facebook, Dylann Roof, Charleston Suspect, Wears Symbols of White Supremacy". The New York Times. 18 June 2015. Retrieved 18 June 2015.
- "Everything Known About Charleston Church Shooting Suspect Dylann Roof". The Daily Beast. 18 June 2015. Retrieved 18 June 2015.
- "Home — My website". 20 June 2015. Archived from the original on 20 June 2015. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
- Robles, Francis (20 June 2015). "Dylann Storm Roof Photos Found on Website". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
- O'Connor, Brendan (20 June 2015). "Here Is What Appears to Be Dylann Roof's Racist Manifesto". Gawker. Archived from the original on 20 June 2015. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
- Goldberg, Michelle (22 June 2015). "The 2 Degrees of Separation Between Dylann Roof and the Republican Party". The Nation. Retrieved 23 June 2015.
- Lewis, Paul; Holpuch, Amanda; Glenza, Jessica (21 June 2015). "Dylann Roof: FBI probes manifesto and website linked to Charleston suspect". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 June 2015.
- Berman, Mark (23 August 2016). "Prosecutors say Dylann Roof 'self-radicalized' online, wrote another manifesto in jail". The Washington Post. Retrieved 23 August 2016.
- Pilcher, James (14 August 2017). "Charlottesville suspect's beliefs were 'along the party lines of the neo-Nazi movement,' ex-teacher says". The Cincinnati Enquirer. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
- Pilcher, James (14 August 2017). "Charlottesville suspect's beliefs were 'along the party lines of the neo-Nazi movement,' ex-teacher says". USA Today. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
- Pearce, Matt (11 August 2017). "Chanting 'blood and soil!' white nationalists with torches march on University of Virginia". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 12 August 2017. Retrieved 30 September 2021.
- Beckett, Lois (27 October 2018). "Pittsburgh shooting: suspect railed against Jews and Muslims on site used by 'alt-right'". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 28 October 2018. Retrieved 27 October 2018.
- Renshaw, Jarriett (27 October 2018). "Who is Robert Bowers, the Pittsburgh synagogue shooting suspect?". Reuters. Retrieved 21 January 2018.
- Raymond, Adam K. "What We Know About Robert Bowers, Alleged Pittsburgh Synagogue Shooter". Intelligencer. Archived from the original on 29 October 2018. Retrieved 29 October 2018.
- Shannon, Sant (27 October 2018). "What's Known About Robert Bowers, The Suspect In The Pittsburgh Synagogue Shooting". NPR. Archived from the original on 27 October 2018. Retrieved 27 October 2018.
- Vesoulis, Abby (27 October 2018). "How Gab Became the Social Media Site Where the Pittsburgh Suspect's Anti-Semitism Thrived" [Why Gab Allowed Pittsburgh Suspect's Anti-Semitism to Thrive]. Time. Archived from the original on 28 October 2018. Retrieved 27 October 2018.
- "National Refugee Shabbat". Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society. Archived from the original on 28 October 2018. Retrieved 28 October 2018.
- Levenson, Eric; Sanchez, Ray (27 October 2018). "Mass shooting at Pittsburgh synagogue". CNN. Archived from the original on 27 October 2018. Retrieved 27 October 2018.
- Kragie, Andrew (27 October 2018). "The Synagogue Killings Mark a Surge of Anti-Semitism". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on 27 October 2018. Retrieved 27 October 2018.
- "Shooting at Poway Synagogue Underscores Link Between Internet Radicalization and Violence". Southern Poverty Law Center. 28 April 2019.
- "Synagogue shooter accused Jews of plotting 'European genocide'". Arutz Sheva. 29 April 2019.
- "El Paso Shooting Victim Dies Months Later, Death Toll Now 23". The New York Times. 26 April 2020. Retrieved 26 April 2020.
- Barrouquere, Brett (3 August 2019). "El Paso Shooting Suspect May Have Authored Manifesto Containing White Nationalist Talking Points". Hatewatch. Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved 3 August 2019.
- Politi, Daniel (3 August 2019). "El Paso Suspect Reportedly a Trump Supporter Who Wrote Racist, Anti-Immigrant Manifesto". Slate. Retrieved 4 August 2019.
- Evans, Robert (4 August 2019). "The El Paso Shooting and the Gamification of Terror". Bellingcat. Retrieved 4 August 2019.
- O'Neil, Luke (5 August 2019). "Trump just blamed the El Paso shooting victims for their own deaths". The Washington Post. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
- "Live Updates: Gunman Kills 10 at Buffalo Supermarket in Racist Attack". The New York Times. 14 May 2022. Retrieved 14 May 2022.
- Clive Williams (26 July 2011). "Deadly, cruel lesson from Norway". The Australian. Archived from the original on 26 July 2011. Retrieved 27 July 2011.
- Rayner, Gordon (24 July 2011). "Norway killer Anders Behring Breivik called Gordon Brown and Prince Charles 'traitors'". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 21 April 2012. Retrieved 11 April 2012.
- Sindre Bangstad (28 August 2012). "After Anders Breivik's conviction, Norway must confront Islamophobia". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 July 2016.
- "AFP: Norway remembers 77 victims a month after massacre". 21 August 2011. Archived from the original on 7 January 2012. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
- Starla Muhammad (19 August 2011). "Tragedy in Norway Borne Out of Seeds of Racism and Intolerance in UK, EU". New America Media. Archived from the original on 5 January 2012. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
- Godfrey, Hannah (19 August 2011). "Utøya island shooting victims return to scene of Breivik's killing spree". The Guardian. London.
- "Massedrapsmannen kopierte "Unabomberen" ord for ord". Nrk.no. 24 July 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2011.
- Shane, Scott (24 July 2011). "Killings in Norway Spotlight Anti-Muslim Thought in U.S." The New York Times. Retrieved 10 April 2017.
- Smith, Craig S. (20 February 2005). "Europe's Jews Seek Solace on the Right". The New York Times.
- Archer, Toby (25 July 2011). "Breivik's Swamp". Foreign Policy. Archived from the original on 10 September 2011.
- Mala, Elisa; Goodman, J David (22 July 2011). "At Least 80 Are Dead in Norway Shooting". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- Beaumont, Peter (23 July 2011). "Anders Behring Breivik: profile of a mass murderer". The Guardian. UK. Archived from the original on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 25 July 2011.
- Saunders, Debra J (26 July 2011). "Norwegian Crime and Punishment". San Francisco Chronicle.
the anti-multiculturalism, anti-Muslim and anti-Marxist message of his 1,500-page manifesto
- Weill, Kelly; Sommer, Will (15 March 2019). "Mosque Attack Video Linked to 'White Genocide' Rant". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
- Howe, Suzette; Melendez, Pilar; Latza Nadeau, Barbie (15 March 2019). "New Zealand Mosque Shooting Suspect Brenton Tarrant Flashes White Power Sign in Court". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
- "Diversity = White Genocide | ADL". www.adl.org. Retrieved 29 September 2022.
- Pannell, Justin; Brod, Adam; Horton, Reina Hirose (2018). "The Conception of Race in White Supremacist Discourse: A Critical Corpus Analysis with Teaching Implications" (PDF). TESOL Working Paper Series. 16: 40–61.
- Betuel, Emma (13 January 2019). "CDC Data on Declining US Fertility Rate Is Being Used by White Nationalists". Inverse.
- Bhattacharya, Sanjiv (9 October 2016). "'Call me a racist, but don't say I'm a Buddhist': meet America's alt right". The Guardian.
- Gray, Melissa (29 December 2017). "Drexel professor resigns amid threats over controversial tweets". CNN. Retrieved 9 August 2020.
- "'All I want for Christmas is white genocide': Professor receives death threats after mocking supremacists". The Independent. 27 December 2016.
- "A Drexel Professor Tweeted That He Wants 'White Genocide' for Christmas". TIME. 26 December 2016.
- "The white flight of Derek Black". The Washington Post. 15 October 2016.
- "How Higher Education Helped Derek Black Renounce White Supremacy". NEA Today. 19 September 2018.
- "Derek Black was the scion of racism — then renounced it; 'Rising Out of Hatred' tells his story". The Dallas Morning News. 17 September 2018. Archived from the original on 20 August 2019. Retrieved 21 September 2018.
- "The White Nationalist Heir Who Rejected His Dad's Vile Bigotry". Vice Media. 18 September 2018.
- "Naomi Klein: "Economia e ambiente, serve un'unica rivoluzione globale"" [Naomi Klein: "Economy and environment, we need a single global revolution"] (in Italian). la Repubblica. 2 June 2019.
- "Trump the storyteller: His gift for narrative is why he may win again". Salon. 13 July 2019.
- Manjoo, Farhad (20 March 2019). "The White-Extinction Conspiracy Theory Is Bonkers". New York Times.
- Shafak, Elif (1 April 2019). "To understand the far right, look to their bookshelves". The Guardian.
- Freedlan, Jonathan; Hasan, Mehdi (3 April 2019). "Muslims and Jews face a common threat from white supremacists. We must fight it together". The Guardian.
- Cohen, Nick (18 May 2019). "When the far right crack rape jokes, it's part of a systemic bid to demean". The Guardian.
- Portes, Jonathan (30 June 2019). "Tragedy is inevitable if we fear migration rather than celebrate its benefits". The Guardian.
- Alba, Richard. The Great Demographic Illusion: Majority, Minority, and the Expanding American Mainstream (Princeton UP, 2020) coaccess
- Alexander, Charles C. "Prophet of American Racism: Madison Grant and the Nordic Myth" Phylon 23#1 pp 73–90 online.
- Daniel, Reginald. "Sociology of Multiracial Identity in the Late 1980s and Early 1990s: The Failure of a Perspective." Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Studies 8.2 (2021): 106–125. online
- Leslie, Gregory John, and David O. Sears. "The Heaviest Drop of Blood: Black Exceptionalism Among Multiracials." Political Psychology (2022). online
- Rodríguez-Muñiz, Michael. Figures of the future: Latino civil rights and the politics of demographic change (Princeton University Press, 2021).
- Song, Miri. "Who counts as multiracial?." Ethnic and Racial Studies 44.8 (2021): 1296–1323.
- Stefaniak, Anna, and Michael JA Wohl. "In time, we will simply disappear: Racial demographic shift undermines privileged group members’ support for marginalized social groups via collective angst." Group Processes & Intergroup Relations 25.3 (2022): NP1-NP23. online