Mohammad bin Salman(Redirected from Mohammed bin Salman)
Mohammed bin Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud (Arabic: محمد بن سلمان بن عبدالعزيز آل سعود Muhammad bin Salmān bin ‘Abd al-‘Azīz Āl Sa‘ūd; born 31 August 1985), colloquially known as MbS, is the crown prince of Saudi Arabia. He is currently serving as the country's deputy prime minister (the title of prime minister being held by the king) and is also chairman of the Council for Economic and Development Affairs, chairman of the Council of Political and Security Affairs, and minister of defense – the world's youngest at the time of his appointment. He has been described as the power behind the throne of his father, King Salman. He was appointed crown prince in June 2017 following King Salman’s decision to remove Muhammad bin Nayef from all positions, making Mohammed bin Salman heir presumptive to the throne.
Mohammed bin Salman
|Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia|
First Deputy Prime Minister
|Assumed office |
21 June 2017
|Preceded by||Muhammad bin Nayef|
|Defense Minister of Saudi Arabia|
|Assumed office |
23 January 2015
|Preceded by||Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud|
|Deputy Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia|
Second Deputy Prime Minister
29 April 2015 – 21 June 2017
|Preceded by||Muhammad bin Nayef|
Mohammed bin Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud
31 August 1985
Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
|Spouse(s)||Sarah bint Mashhoor bin Abdulaziz Al Saud|
|Full name||Mohammed bin Salman bin Abdulaziz bin Abdul Rahman bin Faisal bin Turki bin Abdullah bin Mohammed bin Saud|
|House||House of Saud|
He has led a handful of successful reforms, which include regulations restricting the powers of the religious police, and the removal of the ban on female drivers. Other cultural developments under his reign include the first Saudi public concerts by a female singer, the first Saudi sports stadium to admit women, and an increased presence of women in the workforce. His Vision 2030 program aims to diversify the Saudi economy through investment in non-oil sectors including technology and tourism. In 2016 he announced plans to list the shares of the state oil company Saudi Aramco.
Despite international praise for his strides towards the social and economic liberalisation of Saudi Arabia, commentators and human rights groups have been vocally critical of Mohammed bin Salman's leadership and the shortfalls of his reform program, citing a rising number of detentions and alleged torture of human rights activists, his bombing of Yemen in which war-induced famine could in 2018/2019 cause 13 million civilians to starve, the escalation of the Qatar diplomatic crisis, the start of the Lebanon–Saudi Arabia dispute, the arrest of members of the Saudi royal family in November 2017 and the assassination of Jamal Khashoggi. Non-governmental organizations such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch continue to criticize the Saudi government for its violations of human rights.
Early life and education
Mohammed bin Salman Al Saud was born on 31 August 1985. He is the son of King Salman from his third spouse, Fahda bint Falah bin Sultan bin Hathleen. She is a granddaughter of Rakan bin Hithalayn, who was the head of the Al Ajman tribe.
Prince Mohammed bin Salman is the eldest among his mother's children; his full siblings include Turki bin Salman, former chairman of the Saudi Research and Marketing Group, and Khalid bin Salman. Prince Mohammed holds a bachelor's degree in law from King Saud University.
After graduating from college, Mohammed bin Salman spent several years in the private sector before becoming personal aide to his father. He worked as a consultant for the Experts Commission, working for the Saudi Cabinet.
On 15 December 2009, at the age of 24, Mohammed bin Salman entered politics as a special advisor to his father when the latter was the governor of Riyadh Province. At this time Mohammed bin Salman began to rise from one position to another, such as secretary-general of the Riyadh Competitive Council, special advisor to the chairman of the board for the King Abdulaziz Foundation for Research and Archives, and a member of the board of trustees for Albir Society in the Riyadh region.
In October 2011, Crown Prince Sultan bin Abdulaziz died, and the current King Salman began his ascent to power by becoming second deputy prime minister and defense minister in November 2011. He made Mohammed bin Salman his private advisor.
Chief of the Court
In June 2012, Crown Prince Nayef bin Abdulaziz Al Saud died and Prince Muhammad bin Salman moved up into the number two position in the hierarchy, as his father became the new crown prince and first deputy prime minister. He soon began remaking the court in his own image. On 2 March 2013, the chief of the Crown Prince court Prince Saud bin Nayef was appointed governor of the Eastern Province and Prince Mohammed bin Salman succeeded him in the post. He was also given the rank of minister. On 25 April 2014 Prince Mohammed was appointed state minister.
Defense Minister and Deputy Crown Prince
On 23 January 2015, King Abdullah died, Salman took the throne and Prince Mohammed bin Salman was appointed Minister of Defense. He was also named as the Secretary General of the Royal Court on the same date. In addition he retained his post as the Minister of the State.
In Yemen, the political unrest (which began escalating in 2011) rapidly became a major issue for the newly appointed Minister of Defense, with rebel Houthis taking control of northern Yemen in late 2014, followed by President Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi and his cabinet’s resignation. Mohammed bin Salman’s first move as minister was to mobilize a pan-GCC coalition to intervene following a series of suicide bombings in Sanaa via air strikes against Houthis, and impose a naval blockade. In March 2015, Saudi Arabia began leading a coalition of countries allied against the Houthi rebels. While there was agreement among those Saudi princes heading security services regarding the necessity of a response to the Houthis' seizure of Sana'a, which had forced the Yemeni government into exile, Prince Mohammed launched the intervention without full coordination across security services. Saudi National Guard Minister Prince Mutaib bin Abdullah, who was out of the country, was left out of the loop of operations. While Prince Mohammed bin Salman sold the war as a quick win on Houthi rebels in Yemen and a way to put President Hadi back in power, however, it became a long war of attrition.
In April 2015, Muhammad bin Nayef, who is King Salman's nephew, and Prince Mohammed bin Salman became Crown Prince and Deputy Crown Prince, respectively, under King Salman’s royal decrees.
In late 2015, Prince Mohammed attended a meeting between King Salman and U.S. President Barack Obama, where the prince broke protocol to deliver a monologue criticizing U.S. foreign policy. When Prince bin Salman announced an anti-terrorist military alliance of Islamic countries in December 2015, some of the countries involved said they had not been consulted.
Regarding his role in the military intervention, Prince Mohammed bin Salman gave his first on-the-record interview on 4 January 2016 to The Economist, which had called him the "architect of the war in Yemen". Denying the title, he explained the mechanism of the decision-making institutions actually holding stakes in the intervention, including the council of security and political affairs, Ministry of Foreign Affairs from the Saudi side. He added that the Houthis usurped power in the Yemeni capital Sana’a before he served as Minister of Defense.
In response to the threat from ISIL, In December 2015 Prince Mohammed established the Islamic Military Counter Terrorism Coalition (IMCTC), a Saudi-led Islamic alliance against terrorism. The IMCTC's first meeting took place in Riyadh in November 2017 and involved defense ministers and officials from 41 countries.
Mohammed bin Salman was appointed Crown Prince on 21 June 2017, following his father's decision to depose Muhammad bin Nayef, making him heir presumptive to the throne. The change of succession had been predicted in December 2015 by an unusually blunt and public memo published by the German Federal Intelligence Service, which was subsequently rebuked by the German government.
On the day he became Crown Prince, U.S. President Donald Trump called Mohammed bin Salman to "congratulate him on his recent elevation". Trump and the new crown prince pledged "close cooperation" on security and economic issues, according to the White House, and the two leaders also discussed the need to cut off support for terrorism, the recent diplomatic dispute with Qatar, and the push to secure peace between Israel and the Palestinians. Mohammed bin Salman told the Washington Post in April 2017 that without America's cultural influence on Saudi Arabia, "we would have ended up like North Korea."
Prince Mohammed's ideology has been described as nationalist and populist, with a conservative attitude towards politics, and a liberal stance on economic and social issues. It has been heavily influenced by the views of Abu Dhabi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Zayed. His style of ruling has been described as extremely brutal by journalist Rula Jebreal and authoritarian by Jamal Khashoggi and Theodor Winkler.
On 29 January 2015, Prince Mohammed was named the chair of the newly established Council for Economic and Development Affairs, replacing the disbanded Supreme Economic Commission. In April 2015, Prince Mohammed bin Salman was given control over Saudi Aramco by royal decree following his appointment as deputy crown prince.
Mohammed bin Salman took the leadership in the restructuring of Saudi Arabia's economy, which he officially announced in April 2016 when he introduced Vision 2030, the country's strategic orientation for the next 15 years. Vision 2030 plans to reform Saudi's economy towards a more diversified and privatized structure. It details goals and measures in various fields, from developing non-oil revenues and privatization of the economy to e-government and sustainable development.
At the inaugural Future Investment Initiative conference in Riyadh in October 2017, bin Salman announced plans for the creation of Neom, a $500 billion economic zone to cover an area of 26,000 square kilometres on Saudi Arabia’s Red Sea coast, extending into Jordan and Egypt. Neom aims to attract investment in sectors including renewable energy, biotechnology, robotics and advanced manufacturing. The announcement followed plans to develop a 34,000 square kilometre area across a lagoon of 50 islands on Saudi Arabia’s Red Sea coastline into a luxury tourism destination with laws on a par with international standards. In a further effort to boost the tourism industry, in November 2017 it was announced that Saudi Arabia would start issuing tourist visas for foreigners, beginning in 2018.
Prince Mohammed bin Salman's biggest bet was his plan to restore the Saudi kingdom's dominance in global oil markets by driving the new competition into bankruptcy, by keeping the oil price low enough for a long enough period. Saudi Arabia persuaded OPEC to do the same. A few small players went bankrupt, but American frackers only shut down their less-profitable operations temporarily, and waited for oil prices to go up again. Saudi Arabia, which had been spending $100 billion a year to keep services and subsidies going, had to admit defeat in November 2016. It then cut production significantly and asked its OPEC partners to do the same.
In the last week of September 2018, Mohammed bin Salman inaugurated the much-awaited $6.7bn high-speed railway line connecting Mecca and Medina, two holiest cities of Islam. The Haramain Express is 450 km line travelling up to 300 km/h that can transport around 60 million passengers annually. The commercial operations of the railway began on 11 October 2018.
Mohammed bin Salman significantly restricted the powers of the religious police. He established an entertainment authority that started hosting comedy shows, professional wrestling events, and monster truck rallies. In an interview with al Arabiya he shared his idea for "Green cards" for non-Saudi foreigners.
In April 2017, bin Salman announced a project to build one of the world's largest cultural, sports and entertainment cities in Al Qidiya, southwest of Riyadh. The plans for a 334-square kilometre city include a safari and a Six Flags theme park.
According to the Saudi Information Ministry, as of March 2018[update], mothers in Saudi Arabia became authorised to retain immediate custody of their children after divorce without having to file any lawsuits.
Further cultural developments followed in December 2017 with Saudi Arabia’s first public concert by a female singer, and in January 2018 a sports stadium in Jeddah became the first in the Kingdom to admit women. In April 2018 the first public cinema opened in Saudi Arabia after a ban of 35 years, with plans to have more than 2,000 screens running by 2030.
The first measures undertaken in April 2016 included new taxes and cuts in subsidies, a diversification plan, the creation of a $2 trillion Saudi sovereign wealth fund, and a series of strategic economic reforms called the National Transformation Programme. Bin Salman's plans to raise capital for the sovereign wealth fund included selling off shares of Saudi Aramco, the state-owned petroleum and natural gas company, with the capital to be re-invested in other sectors such as to implement the diversification plans. In October 2017, the plan for Aramco's IPO listing was criticised by The Economist, which called it "a mess".
In September 2017, bin Salman implemented the women to drive movement's multi-decade demand to lift the ban on female drivers. He legislated against some elements of Saudi Arabia's Wali system, also a topic of a many decade long campaign by women's rights activists.
In October 2017, he said that the ultra-conservative Saudi state had been "not normal" for the past 30 years, blaming rigid doctrines that had governed society in a reaction to the Iranian Revolution, which successive leaders "didn't know how to deal with". According to him, he aimed to have Saudi Arabia start "returning to what we were before—a country of moderate Islam that is open to all religions and to the world". He was telling the country's clerics that the deal the royal family struck with them after the 1979 siege of the Grand Mosque in Mecca was to be renegotiated. Building an industrial culture was not compatible with Wahhabism. The Wahhabis were committed to fixed social and gender relationships. These were consistent with an economy built on oil sales, but industrialization requires a dynamic culture with social relations constantly shifting.
According to Politico, as of 2017[update], Mohammed bin Salman wished to pre-empt a repetition of the downfall of the earlier Saudi states due to familial infighting, internal malaise, external frailty and failure to modernize. Mindful of this history, instead of waiting for today's Saudi state to weaken and fall, MBS's aim was to try to save the country before it collapsed.
Ayaan Hirsi Ali claimed that if bin Salman "succeeds in his modernization efforts, Saudis will benefit from new opportunities and freedoms, and the world will benefit from curtailing the Wahhabi radicalization agenda. A decade from now, the kingdom could look more like the United Arab Emirates, its prosperous and relatively forward-looking neighbor."
In May 2017, Mohammed bin Salman publicly warned "I confirm to you, no one will survive in a corruption case—whoever he is, even if he's a prince or a minister". On 4 November 2017, the Saudi press announced the arrest of the Saudi prince and billionaire Al-Waleed bin Talal, a frequent English-language news commentator and a major shareholder in Citi, News Corp and Twitter, as well as over 40 princes and government ministers at the behest of the Crown Prince on corruption and money laundering charges.
Others arrested or fired in the purge included Mutaib bin Abdullah, head of the Saudi Arabian National Guard, Adel Fakeih, the Minister of Economy and Planning, and the Commander of the Saudi Naval Forces, Admiral Abdullah bin Sultan bin Mohammed Al-Sultan.
One hypothesis for the arrests was that they were part of a power grab on the part of Salman. The New York Times wrote:
|“||The sweeping campaign of arrests appears to be the latest move to consolidate the power of Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman, the favorite son and top adviser of King Salman. The king had decreed the creation of a powerful new anticorruption committee, headed by the crown prince, only hours before the committee ordered the arrests.||”|
Writing for the Huffington Post, University of Delaware professor of Islam and Global Affairs, Muqtedar Khan, speculated as to whether the removal of Talal, a critic of Donald Trump, amounted to a coup. BBC correspondent Frank Gardner was quoted as saying that "Prince Mohammed is moving to consolidate his growing power while spearheading a reform programme". Yet "[i]t is not clear what those detained are suspected of."
Another hypothesis was that the purge was part of a move towards reform. Steven Mufson of the Washington Post argues that Crown Prince Mohammed "knows that only if he can place the royal family under the law, and not above as it was in the past, can he ask the whole country to change their attitudes relative to taxes [and] subsidies." An analysis from the CBC claimed that "the clampdown against corruption resonates with ordinary Saudis who feel that the state has been asking them to accept belt tightening while, at the same time, they see corruption and the power elite accumulating more wealth". Bin Salman's ambitious reform agenda is widely popular with Saudi Arabia's burgeoning youth population but faces resistance from some of the old guard more comfortable with the kingdom's traditions of incremental change and rule by consensus. According to a former British ambassador to Riyadh, Bin Salman "is the first prince in modern Saudi history whose constituency has not been within the royal family, it's outside it. It's been young Saudis, particularly younger Saudi men in the street". The 2018 Arab Youth Survey found that nine out of ten 18–24 year-olds in the MENA region support Bin Salman's campaign against corruption.
Robert Jordan, former US ambassador to Saudi Arabia, said that "certainly Saudi Arabia has had a corruption problem for many years. I think the population, especially, has been very unhappy with princes coming in and grabbing business deals, with public funds going to flood control projects that never seem to get built... I would also say it's a classical power grab move sometimes to arrest your rivals, your potential rivals under the pretext of corruption".
US President Trump expressed support for the move, tweeting "I have great confidence in King Salman and the Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia, they know exactly what they are doing....Some of those they are harshly treating have been 'milking' their country for years!" French President Macron, who visited Riyadh days after the purge, when asked about the purge stated "this is not the role of a president, and similarly I would not expect a leader of a foreign country to come and infringe on domestic matters,"
Mohammed bin Salman established himself as the chairman of the Prince Mohammed bin Salman Foundation, otherwise known as MiSK, which puts in place activities empowering and enabling the younger generation, in line with 'Vision 2030' goals of a more developed nation. The foundation was a partner of the 9th UNESCO Youth Forum for Change in 2015.
The foundation focuses on the country's youth and provides different means of fostering talent, creative potential, and innovation in a healthy environment that offers opportunities in arts and sciences. The foundation pursues these goals by establishing programs and partnering with local and global organizations. It intends to develop intellectual capability in youth, as well as unlock the potential of all Saudi people. Saudi journalists traveling with Prince Mohammed on foreign delegations have been paid up to $100,000 in cash.
Jailing of 200 businessmen and princes
In 2017, Mohammed bin Salman ordered some 200 wealthy businessmen and princes to be house-arrested in Riyadh's Ritz Carlton hotel; they were only released after they gave up billions of dollars to a new anti-graft body set up by the Crown Prince.
Military interventions in Syria and Yemen
On 10 January 2016, The Independent reported that "the BND, the German intelligence agency, portrayed...Saudi defence minister and Deputy Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman...as a political gambler who is destabilising the Arab world through proxy wars in Yemen and Syria." German officials reacted to the BND’s memo, saying the published statement "is not the position of the federal government".
Mohammed bin Salman leads the Saudi-led intervention in Yemen against the Iranian-backed Houthi rebels, who in 2015 seized Sana’a and ousted the Saudi-backed Hadi government, ending multilateral efforts towards a political settlement following the 2011 Yemeni uprising. Coalition airstrikes during the intervention have resulted in thousands of civilians killed or injured, prompting accusations of war crimes in the intervention.
Following a Houthi missile attack against Riyadh in December 2017, which was intercepted by Saudi air defense, airstrikes killed 136 Yemeni civilians and injured 87 others in eleven days. In August 2018, the United Nations reported that all parties in the conflict were responsible for human rights violations and for actions which could be considered war crimes.
Prince Mohammed is considered the architect of the war in Yemen. The war and blockade of Yemen has cost the kingdom tens of billions of dollars, further aggravated the humanitarian crisis in the country and destroyed much of Yemen's infrastructure, but failed to dislodge the Shiite Houthi rebels and their allies from the Yemeni capital. More than 50,000 children in Yemen died from starvation in 2017. The famine in Yemen is the direct result of the Saudi-led intervention and blockade of the rebel-held area. In October 2018, Lise Grande, the United Nations Humanitarian Coordinator for Yemen, warned that 12 to 13 million Yemenis were at risk of starvation if the war continued for another three months. On 28 March 2018, Saudi Arabia, along with its coalition partner the UAE, donated $930 million USD to the United Nations which, according to UN Secretary-General António Guterres, "...(will) help to alleviate the suffering of millions of vulnerable people across Yemen". The funds cover almost one-third of the $2.96 billion required to implement the UN's 2018 Yemen Humanitarian Response Plan. Following the Houthi missile attack against Riyadh in December 2017, which was intercepted by Saudi air defense, Mohammed Bin Salman retaliated with a ten day barrage of indiscriminate airstrikes against civilian areas in Yemen held by Houthi forces, killing dozens of children.
In August 2018, a report by The Intercept cited unnamed sources claiming that former US Secretary of State Rex Tillerson had in June 2017 intervened to stop a Saudi-Emirati plan to invade Qatar, resulting in increased pressure from Saudi Arabia and the UAE for his removal from office.
According to human rights groups, arrests of human rights activists have risen under Mohammed bin Salman.
Among those detained in a wave of arrests in September 2017 were Abdulaziz al-Shubaily, a founding member of the Saudi Civil and Political Rights Association (ACPRA); Mustafa al-Hassan, an academic and novelist; and Essam al-Zamel, an entrepreneur.
Ahead of the lifting of the ban on women driving in June 2018, 17 women's rights activists were arrested, including the women to drive and anti-male guardianship campaigner Loujain al-Hathloul. Eight of the 17 were subsequently released. Hatoon al-Fassi, an associate professor of women's history at King Saud University, was arrested shortly afterwards.
In August that year, the human rights activist Israa al-Ghomgham and her husband – both arrested in 2015 – were put under legal threat of beheading. Human Rights Watch warned that the al-Ghomgham case set a "dangerous precedent" for other women activists currently detained. HRW's Middle East director Sarah Leah Whitson said, "Any execution is appalling, but seeking the death penalty for activists like Israa al-Ghomgham, who are not even accused of violent behaviour, is monstrous. Every day, the Saudi monarchy's unrestrained despotism makes it harder for its public relations teams to spin the fairy tale of 'reform' to allies and international business."
2016 U.S. presidential election
In August 2016, Donald Trump Jr. had a meeting with an envoy representing Mohammed bin Salman and Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan of Abu Dhabi. The envoy offered help to the Trump presidential campaign. The meeting included Joel Zamel, an Israeli specialist in social media manipulation, Lebanese-American businessman George Nader, and Blackwater founder Erik Prince.
Blockade of Qatar
Forced resignation of Lebanese Prime Minister
In November 2017, Mohammed bin Salman forced the Lebanese Prime Minister Saad Hariri to resign when he visited Saudi Arabia. Mohammed bin Salman believed that Hariri was in the pocket of Iran-backed Hezbollah, which is a major political force in Lebanon. Hariri eventually was released, went back to Lebanon and annulled his resignation.
Chrystia Freeland, Canada's Minister of Foreign Affairs, issued a statement via Twitter on 2 August 2018 expressing Canada's concern over the recent arrest of Samar Badawi, a human rights activist and sister of imprisoned Saudi blogger Raif Badawi, and called for the release of human rights activists. In response to Canada's criticism, Saudi Arabia expelled Canada's ambassador, and froze trade with Canada. The Toronto Star reported that the consensus among analysts indicated that the actions taken by Mohammed bin Salman were a "warning to the world — and to Saudi human rights activists — that his Saudi Arabia is not to be trifled with".
Assassination of Jamal Khashoggi
In October 2018, Jamal Khashoggi, a Saudi journalist and a critic of the crown prince went missing after entering the Saudi consulate in Istanbul. Turkish officials reportedly believe that Khashoggi was murdered at the consulate, claiming to have specific video and audio recordings proving that Khashoggi was first tortured and then murdered, and that a medical forensics expert was part of the 15-man Saudi team seen entering and leaving the consulate at the time of the journalist's disappearance. Saudi Arabia denied the accusations and Salman invited Turkish authorities to search the building as they "have nothing to hide". Saudi officials said they are "working to search for him". The Washington Post reported that the Crown Prince had earlier sought to lure Khashoggi back to Saudi Arabia and detain him.
According to Middle East Eye, seven of the fifteen men suspected of killing Khashoggi are members of Mohammed bin Salman's personal bodyguard. John Sawers, a former head of the British MI6, stated that in his judgment of the evidence it is "very likely" that Mohammed bin Salman ordered the killing of Khashoggi.
In the aftermath of Kashoggi's death, multiple commentators referred to bin Salman as "Mister Bone Saw," a play on the initials MBS. The name refers to the alleged use of a bone saw to dispose of Kashoggi's remains.
Prince Mohammed has denied any involvement in the murder and blamed the assassination on rogue operators. However, the Western countries are not convinced and believe this couldn't have happened without the knowledge or approval of the prince. Donald Trump described the Saudi response to the killing as "one of the worst in the history of cover-ups." Trump also believes that the crown prince at least knew about the plan, he said "Well, the prince is running things over there more so at this stage. He's running things and so if anybody were going to be, it would be him."
The recording of Khashoggi's killing collected by Turkish intelligence reportedly reveals that one of the members of the kill team instructed someone over the phone to "tell your boss, the deed was done." American intelligence officials believe that "boss" was a reference to the crown prince. The person who made the call was identified as Maher Abdulaziz Mutreb, a security officer who is frequently seen travelling with the prince.
Seven weeks after Khashoggi's death, Saudi Arabia, in order to "distance ... Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman, from the grisly murder" stated it would pursue the death penalty for five suspects charged with "ordering and executing the crime."
On 16 November 2018, it was reported that the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) had concluded with "high confidence" that Bin Salman ordered Khashoggi's murder. The CIA based its conclusion on several pieces of evidence, including an intercepted conversation in which Prince Mohammed's brother Khalid offered Khashoggi assurances that it would be safe for the journalist to enter Saudi Arabia's consulate in Istanbul. Although the CIA reportedly had not determined whether Khalid had any foreknowledge of Khashoggi's ultimate fate upon entering the consulate, it believed that Khalid conveyed this message to Khashoggi at his brother's behest. In the CIA's analysis, the killing was most likely motivated by Prince Mohammed's privately stated belief that Khashoggi was an Islamist with problematic connections to the Muslim Brotherhood, a perception that differs markedly from the Saudi government's public remarks on Khashoggi's death.
On 4 December 2018, a group of United States senators were briefed by CIA Director Gina Haspel on the murder of Khashoggi. After the briefing, senators were more than certain that Mohammad bin Salman played a major role in the killing of Khashoggi. GOP Senator Lindsey Graham said, "You have to be willfully blind not to come to the conclusion that this was orchestrated and organized by people under the command of MBS and that he was intrinsically involved in the demise of Mr. Khashoggi." Another GOP Senator Bob Corker said that the prince "ordered, monitored, the killing" and "If he were in front of a jury, he would be convicted of murder in about 30 minutes." On 5 December 2018, UN Human Rights chief Michelle Bachelet asked for an international investigation to determine who was behind the journalist’s murder.
A former Saudi intelligence chief and senior member of the Saudi royal family, Prince Turki bin Faisal Al Saud, dismissed the CIA's reported finding that Mohammed bin Salman ordered journalist's killing, saying that "The CIA has been proved wrong before. Just to mention the invasion of Iraq for example."
Mohammed bin Salman’s net worth is estimated at US$3.0 billion. In 2015, he purchased the Italian-built and Bermuda-registered yacht Serene from Russian vodka tycoon Yuri Shefler for €500 million. The New York Times reported that he purchased the Chateau Louis XIV in France for over $300 million in 2015.
In December 2017, a number of sources reported that the Crown Prince, using his close associate Prince Badr bin Abdullah bin Mohammed Al Farhan as an intermediary, had bought Leonardo da Vinci's Salvator Mundi; the sale in November at $450.3 million set a new record price for a work of art. This report has been denied by the auctioneer Christie's, the Embassy of Saudi Arabia, and the Government of the United Arab Emirates, which has announced that it is the actual owner of the painting. The painting is presently located at its permanent home in the Louvre Museum's extension in Abu Dhabi, UAE.
Mohammed has travelled extensively around the world, meeting with politicians, business leaders and celebrities. In June 2016, he travelled to Silicon Valley and met key people in the US high tech industry, including Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg.
In early 2018 Prince Mohammed visited the United States, where he met with many politicians, business people and Hollywood stars, including President Trump, Bill and Hillary Clinton, Henry Kissinger, Michael Bloomberg, George W. Bush, George H. W. Bush, Bill Gates, Jeff Bezos, Oprah Winfrey, Rupert Murdoch, Richard Branson, Mayor Eric Garcetti of Los Angeles, Michael Douglas, Morgan Freeman and Dwayne Johnson. President Trump praised his relationship with Prince Mohammed. Mohammed also visited the United Kingdom, where he met with Prime Minister Theresa May, Queen Elizabeth II and Prince William.
Mohammed bin Salman married Princess Sarah bint Mashhoor in 2008, and together they have four children.
|Ancestors of Mohammad bin Salman|
- "Profile: Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman". Al Jazeera. 21 June 2017. Archived from the original on 22 June 2017. Retrieved 2 January 2018.
- "Profile: Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman". Al Jazeera. 21 June 2017. Archived from the original on 22 June 2017. Retrieved 2 January 2018.
- "Ministries". Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia - Washington, DC. 30 April 2003. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 2 January 2018.
- "Who is Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed?". BBC News. 6 November 2017. Archived from the original on 14 October 2017. Retrieved 2 January 2018.
- "Mohammad bin Salman named new Saudi Crown Prince". TASS. Beirut. 21 June 2017. Archived from the original on 22 June 2017. Retrieved 22 June 2017.
- "Mohammed bin Nayef kingpin in new Saudi Arabia: country experts". Middle East Eye. 1 February 2015. Archived from the original on 3 February 2015. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
- Anthony Bond, Rachael Burford (24 October 2017). "Saudi Arabia will return to moderate, open Islam and 'will destroy extremist ideas', says crown prince". Daily Mirror. Archived from the original on 24 October 2017. Retrieved 24 October 2017.
- CNN, Nicole Chavez, Tamara Qiblawi and James Griffiths. "Saudi Arabia's king replaces nephew with son as heir to throne". CNN. Archived from the original on 22 June 2017.
- Raghavan, Sudarsan; Fahim, Kareem (21 June 2017). "Saudi king names son as new crown prince, upending the royal succession line". The Washington Post. Retrieved 21 June 2017.
- "Saudi royal decrees announcing Prince Mohammed BinSalman as the new crown prince". The National. Abu Dhabi: Abu Dhabi Media. Archived from the original on 21 June 2017. Retrieved 21 June 2017.
- Mark Mazzetti; Ben Hubbard (16 October 2016). "Rise of Saudi Prince Shatters Decades of Royal Tradition". The New York Times. p. A1. Archived from the original on 16 October 2016. Retrieved 17 October 2016.
- "Saudi Arabia will finally allow women to drive". The Economist. 27 September 2017. Archived from the original on 28 September 2017.
- "Saudi Arabia to allow women to enter stadiums to watch soccer". New York Post. 12 January 2018. Archived from the original on 10 February 2018. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
- "Mohammed bin Salman's reforms in Saudi Arabia could benefit us all". The Independent. 2 March 2018. Archived from the original on 8 March 2018.
- "Saudi Arabia is considering an IPO of Aramco, probably the world's most valuable company". The Economist. 7 January 2016. Retrieved 16 August 2018.
- "Saudi Arabia denies rights activists tortured and sexually harassed in jail". Middle East Eye. 24 November 2018.
- Summers, Hannah (15 October 2018). "Yemen on brink of 'world's worst famine in 100 years' if war continues". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 21 October 2018. Retrieved 21 October 2018.
- CNN, Hamdi Alkhshali and Tamara Qiblawi,. "Saudi Crown Prince calls Qatar embargo a 'small issue'". CNN. Archived from the original on 6 November 2017. Retrieved 19 November 2017.
- Hearst, David (21 June 2017). "Mohammed Bin Salman, Saudi Arabia's Prince Of Chaos". HuffPost. Archived from the original on 18 November 2017. Retrieved 19 November 2017.
- Eye, Middle East (22 June 2017). "Mohammed bin Salman, Saudi Arabia's prince of chaos". Medium. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 19 November 2017.
- Mazzetti, Mark; Hubbard, Ben (15 October 2016). "Rise of Saudi Prince Shatters Decades of Royal Tradition". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 16 October 2016. Retrieved 19 November 2017.
- "Saudi Arabia: Intensified Repression of Writers, Activists". Human Rights Watch. 6 February 2017. Archived from the original on 18 October 2017. Retrieved 19 November 2017.
- "Saudi Arabia: 2 Rights Advocates Arrested". Human Rights Watch. 11 January 2017. Archived from the original on 15 May 2017. Retrieved 19 November 2017.
- "Update: Saudi Arabia: Systematic targeting of members of ACPRA continues". gc4hr.org. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 19 November 2017.
- Tisdall, Simon (24 June 2017). "Mohammed bin Salman al-Saud: The young hothead who would be king". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 26 October 2017. Retrieved 2 January 2018.
- David D. Kirkpatrick (6 June 2015). "Surprising Saudi Rises as a Prince Among Princes". The New York Times. Riyadh. Retrieved 29 October 2015.
- Mustafa Al Labbad (27 January 2016). "The new Saudi power triangle". Al Monitor. Archived from the original on 25 April 2017. Retrieved 24 April 2017.
- "Family Tree of Salman bin Abdulaziz bin Abdul Rahman Al Saud". Datarabia. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 2 March 2013.
- "Council of Ministers: Membership". Embassy of Saudi Arabia, Washington DC. Archived from the original on 16 June 2011. Retrieved 25 January 2015.
- Profile of Prince Mohammed bin Salman – Defense Minister of Saudi Arabia. Retrieved 30 March 2015
- "HRH Prince Mohammed bin Salman bin Abdulaziz to inaugurate Cityscape Riyadh 2011". AMEinfo. 31 October 2011. Archived from the original on 1 November 2011. Retrieved 2 March 2013.
- "Chairman of the Board". MISK. Archived from the original on 28 January 2015. Retrieved 25 January 2015.
- "Prince Sultan arrives to Bahrain to attend Bahrain Grand Prix". Bahrain News Agency. 22 April 2012. Retrieved 23 April 2012.
- "Leadership's trust in me is my motivation – Muhammad". Saudi Gazette. 3 March 2013. Archived from the original on 20 August 2014. Retrieved 2 March 2013.
- "Prince Mohammed appointed president of crown prince court". Saudi Business News. 2 March 2013. Archived from the original on 11 April 2013. Retrieved 2 March 2013.
- "Prince Mohammed bin Salman appointed Special Advisor to Crown Prince". Asharq Alawsat. 3 March 2013. Archived from the original on 11 March 2013. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
- "Saudi King Abdullah passes away". Al Arabiya. 23 January 2015. Archived from the original on 23 January 2015. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
- "Saudi Prince Mohammed bin Salman named defense minister". Al Arabiya. 23 January 2015. Archived from the original on 23 January 2015. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
- Profile: Prince Mohammed bin Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud Archived 2 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Al Arabiya. 27 January 2015. Retrieved 28 February 2015
- Anthony H. Cordesman (24 January 2015). "Saudi Succession: The King Is Dead, Long Live the King". Newsweek. Retrieved 26 January 2015.
- Yemen profile - Timeline Archived 30 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine., BBC, 6 July 2017
- Saudi and Arab allies bomb Houthi positions in Yemen Archived 26 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine., Al Jazeera, 26 March 2015
- "Risk-taking Saudi prince gambling with stability". lfpress. 8 February 2017.
- "The most dangerous man in the world?". Independent. 8 January 2016. Archived from the original on 15 June 2017.
- "Saudi Arabia's king appoints new interior minister". BBC. 5 November 2012. Archived from the original on 6 November 2012. Retrieved 5 November 2012.
- "Council of Ministers: Membership". Royal Embassy, Washington DC. Archived from the original on 16 June 2011. Retrieved 25 January 2015.
- "King Salman: The man in charge of the 'most dangerous man in the world'". Independent. 22 January 2016. Archived from the original on 15 June 2017.
- "Transcript: Interview with Muhammad bin Salman". The Economist. 6 January 2016. Archived from the original on 10 January 2016. Retrieved 11 January 2016.
- "Prince Mohammed bin Salman: Naive, arrogant Saudi prince is playing with fire". The Independent. 10 January 2016. Archived from the original on 10 January 2016.
- Browning, Noah; Irish, John (15 December 2015). "Saudi Arabia announces 34-state Islamic military alliance against terrorism". Reuters. Dubai/Paris. Retrieved 5 July 2018.
- McKernan, Bethan (27 November 2017). "More than 40 Islamic countries just met and vowed to wipe terrorism off the map". The Independent. Beirut. Retrieved 5 July 2018.
- "Mohammed bin Salman named Saudi Arabia's crown prince". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 21 June 2017.
- Justin Huggler (2 December 2015). "Saudi Arabia 'destabilising Arab world', German intelligence warns". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 9 January 2016.
- Patrick Cockburn (9 January 2016). "Prince Mohammed bin Salman: Naive, arrogant Saudi prince is playing with fire: German intelligence memo shows the threat from the kingdom's headstrong defence minister". The Independent. Archived from the original on 10 January 2016.
- Alison Smaledec (3 December 2015). "Germany Rebukes Its Own Intelligence Agency for Criticizing Saudi Policy". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 7 July 2017.
- "Trump congratulates newly-elevated Saudi Arabian crown prince".
- Ignatius, David; Ignatius, David (20 April 2017). "A young prince is reimagining Saudi Arabia. Can he make his vision come true?". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 10 July 2017.
- "Beating Up on Canada Again: the Canada Letter". New York Times. 10 August 2018.
Prince Mohammed is a Saudi nationalist
- "Saudi Arabia's Dark Nationalism". The Atlantic. 2 June 2018.
- "Saudi Arabia's Populist King in Waiting". Politico. 22 September 2017.
- "Saudi Arabia's corruption crackdown risks scaring off investors". Financial Times. 30 January 2018.
MbS, who also controls foreign and defence policy, has combined populism at home with hawkish nationalism abroad
- "Heir's modernising vision risks conservative discontent". The Times. 22 June 2017.
Prince Mohammed's vision is conservative in a political sense — he will be an autocratic king — but it is socially more liberal.
- "Meet the Two Princes Reshaping the Middle East". Politico. 13 June 2017.
- "A Saudi Prince's Quest to Remake the Middle East". The New Yorker. 9 April 2018.
- Rula, Jebreal (19 October 2018). "Jamal Khashoggi Secret Interview: The Saudi Journalist's Views of Islam, America and the 'Reformist' Prince Implicated in His Murder". Newsweek. Archived from the original on 20 October 2018. Retrieved 20 October 2018.
- Simeon Kerr (30 January 2015). "Saudi king stamps his authority with staff shake-up and handouts". Financial Times. Riyadh. Archived from the original on 1 February 2015. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
- Waldman, Peter (21 April 2016). "Project to Get Saudi Arabia's Economy Off Oil". Bloomberg Businessweek. Archived from the original on 15 October 2016. Retrieved 17 October 2016.
- "Saudi crown prince says Israelis have right to their own land". Reuters. Reuters. 3 April 2018. Retrieved 25 June 2018.
- "Saudi crown prince recognizes Israel's right to exist, talks up future ties". timesofisrael.com. Retrieved 25 June 2018.
- "Palestinians and the Israelis have the right to have their own land : Prince Mohammed bin Salman". Mohammedbinsalman.com. Mohammedbinsalman.com. Retrieved 25 June 2018.
- GOLDBERG, JEFFREY (2 April 2018). "Saudi Crown Prince: Iran's Supreme Leader 'Makes Hitler Look Good". The Atlantic Monthly Group. TheAtlantic.com. Retrieved 25 June 2018.
- Saudi Vision 2030 (13 May 2016). "Full text of Saudi Arabia's Vision 2030". Riyadh: Al Arabiya. Archived from the original on 24 May 2016. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
- Al Omran, Ahmed; Kerr, Simeon; Raval, Anjli (24 October 2017). "Saudis aim to diversify economy with new $500bn city". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 10 February 2018. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
- Wachman, Richard (24 October 2017). "Robots to roam $500 billion Saudi city". Arab News. Archived from the original on 25 October 2017. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
- Glen, Carey; Nereim, Vivian; Cannon, Christopher (26 October 2017). "Sun, sea and robots: Saudi Arabia's sci-fi city in the desert". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 5 November 2017. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
- Shahine, Alaa; Nereim, Vivian (1 August 2017). "Saudi Arabia plans a huge Red Sea Beach tourism project". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 27 January 2018. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
- "Saudi crown prince launches mega Red Sea tourism project". Arab News. 1 August 2017. Archived from the original on 4 October 2017. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
- "Saudi aims to issue tourist visas next year, official says". Reuters. 23 November 2017. Archived from the original on 2 January 2018. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
- "Saudi Arabia opens high-speed railway linking holy cities". BBC News. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
- "Interview of Prince Mohammed bin salman – His vision for the future Saudi Arabia by Turki Al-Dakhil of Al Arabia". Website of Prince Mohammed. Archived from the original on 10 November 2016.
- "Saudi stock exchange appoints first female chair". Reuters. Archived from the original on 31 March 2018. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
- "Saudi Stock Exchange appoints first female chief in history of the kingdom". Independent. Archived from the original on 31 March 2018. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
- "Prince Mohammed bin Salman announces Saudi plans for largest entertainment city". Al Arabiya. 8 April 2017. Archived from the original on 28 December 2017. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
- "World-class entertainment park coming up in Al-Qiddiya". Saudi Gazette. 26 October 2017. Archived from the original on 9 February 2018. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
- "Saudi women to start own business without male permission". Al Arabiya. Archived from the original on 31 March 2018. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
- "Divorced Saudi women win right to get custody of children". CNN. Archived from the original on 22 March 2018. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
- Smith, Lydia (9 December 2017). "Saudi Arabia hosts first-ever concert by female performer". The Independent. Archived from the original on 10 February 2018. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
- Ellyat, Holly (18 April 2018). "Saudi Arabia brings back movie theaters — and 'staggering' demand is expected". CNBC. Retrieved 10 June 2018.
- Reid, David (11 December 2017). "Saudi Arabia to reopen public cinemas for the first time in 35 years". CNBC. Archived from the original on 25 January 2018. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
- Ian Black (25 April 2016). "Saudi Arabia approves ambitious plan to move economy beyond oil". The Guardian. United Kingdom. Archived from the original on 17 May 2016. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
- Saad Al-Qahtani, Saudi Aramco IPO part of Kingdom’s diversification plan Archived 7 July 2017 at the Wayback Machine., Thomsonreuters.com, 10 May 2017
- "Saudi Aramco's IPO is a mess". The Economist. 19 October 2017. Archived from the original on 20 October 2017.
- "Rise of Prince Mohammed bin Salman rattles Saudi Arabia". The Times of India. 17 October 2016. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017.
- "At last Saudi women will be allowed to take the wheel". The Economist. 30 September 2017. Archived from the original on 29 September 2017.
- Chulov, Martin (24 October 2017). "I will return Saudi Arabia to moderate Islam, says crown prince". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 5 November 2017. Retrieved 5 November 2017.
- "Kingdom a country of moderate Islam". saudigazette.com.sa. 24 October 2017. Archived from the original on 25 October 2017. Retrieved 5 November 2017.
- Denning, Liam (5 November 2017). "Saudi Sweep Is a Double-Edged Sword". Bloomberg L.P. Archived from the original on 6 November 2017. Retrieved 6 November 2017.
- "Saudi Arabia's Saturday Night Massacre". Geopolitical Futures. 8 November 2017. Archived from the original on 15 November 2017.
- Mishaal al Gergawi (22 November 2017). "Saudi Arabia's Populist King in Waiting". politico.com. Archived from the original on 24 November 2017. Retrieved 25 November 2017.
- Ali, Ayaan Hirsi (4 December 2017). "Opinion – The Plot Behind Saudi Arabia's Fight With Qatar". New York Times. Archived from the original on 4 December 2017. Retrieved 4 December 2017.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 11 November 2017. Retrieved 12 November 2017.
- Alwaleed bin Talal, two other billionaires tycoons among Saudi arrests Archived 5 November 2017 at the Wayback Machine., Daily Sabah, 4 November 2017.
- Saudi Arabia Arrests 11 Princes, Including Billionaire Waleed bin Talal Archived 8 November 2017 at the Wayback Machine. New York Times, By David D. Kirkpatrick, 4 November 2017
- Khan, Muqtedar (4 November 2017). "Power Consolidation Or Failed Coup In Saudi Arabia?". HuffPost. Archived from the original on 5 November 2017. Retrieved 6 November 2017.
- Saudi princes among dozens detained in anti-corruption purge Archived 5 November 2017 at the Wayback Machine., BBC, 5 November 2017
- Mufson, Steven (6 November 2017). "What the royal purge means for Saudi Arabia — and its oil". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 6 November 2017. Retrieved 6 November 2017.
- "Saudi Arabia 'at a crossroads': What the arrests of several princes mean for the kingdom's future". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 6 November 2017. Retrieved 6 November 2017.
- Pfeffer, Anshel (8 November 2017). "The Saudi purge: The real reason behind Mohammed bin Salman's unprecedented crackdown". Middle East News. Archived from the original on 11 November 2017. Retrieved 11 November 2017.
- Malsin, Jared (6 November 2017). "Inside the Arrest of Saudi Arabia's Alwaleed Bin Talal". Time. Archived from the original on 9 November 2017. Retrieved 11 November 2017.
- Langton, James; Duncan, Gillian (8 May 2018). "Arab Youth Survey 2018: Saudi Crown Prince and his reforms win huge support from young people across the Middle East". The National. Retrieved 10 June 2018.
- Matthew J. Belvedere (6 November 2017). "Saudi crackdown 'would be like' the US arresting Warren Buffett". CNBC. Archived from the original on 8 November 2017. Retrieved 11 November 2017.
- Donald J. Trump (6 November 2017). "Donald J. Trump on Twitter: "I have great confidence in King Salman and the Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia, they know exactly what they are doing "". Twitter.com. Archived from the original on 10 November 2017. Retrieved 11 November 2017.
- Donald J. Trump (6 November 2017). "Donald J. Trump on Twitter: "Some of those they are harshly treating have been 'milking' their country for years!"". Twitter.com. Archived from the original on 10 November 2017. Retrieved 11 November 2017.
- "More than 200 detained in Saudi Arabia in $100 billion corruption sweep". Chicago Tribune. 25 October 2017. Archived from the original on 11 November 2017. Retrieved 11 November 2017.
- MiSK Foundation showcases Saudi Arabia’s focus on building the capabilities and knowledge of future generations through multi-platform sponsorship of Inside the Middle East on CNN Archived 22 June 2017 at the Wayback Machine., Cnnpressroom.blogs.cnn.com, 24 November 2016
- 9th Youth Forum Archived 10 June 2016 at the Wayback Machine. UNESCO. 26 October 2015. Retrieved 20 May 2016
- "MiSK Foundation " Prince Mohammed bin Salman Foundation".
- Trump's uncritical embrace of MBS set the stage for Khashoggi crisis --CNN
- "Saudi Prince Mohammed bin Salman has Western leaders very worried". News. 13 January 2016. Archived from the original on 25 July 2016.
- Robertson, Nic (21 June 2018). "Mohammed bin Salman is on a make or break mission". CNN. Retrieved 1 September 2018.
- "Yemen crisis: President resigns as rebels tighten hold". BBC. 23 January 2015. Retrieved 1 September 2018.
- Carapico, Sheila (25 February 2015). "Yemen on brink as Gulf Co-operation Council initiative fails". BBC. Retrieved 1 September 2018.
- Raghavan, Sudarsan (29 July 2018). "US allies have killed thousands of Yemenis – including 22 at a wedding". The Independent. Retrieved 1 September 2018.
- "Saudi Arabia accused of Yemen war crimes as crown prince completes UK visit". The Herald. 10 March 2018.
- MacAskill, Ewen (27 January 2016). "UN report into Saudi-led strikes in Yemen raises questions over UK role". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 2 February 2016.
- "Airstrikes hit Médecins Sans Frontières hospital in Yemen Archived 29 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine.". The Guardian. 27 October 2015.
- Paul, Katie; El Gamal, Rania (19 December 2017). "Saudi Arabia intercepts Houthi missile fired toward Riyadh; no reported casualties". Reuters. Riyadh. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
- "Over 130 civilians killed in 11 days in airstrikes in Yemen, reports UN rights office". news.un.org. United Nations. 19 December 2017. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
- Vonberg, Judith; Elbagir, Nima (28 August 2018). "All sides in Yemen conflict could be guilty of war crimes, says UN". CNN. Retrieved 1 September 2018.
- "The war in Yemen is disastrous. America is only making things worse". The Guardian. 11 June 2018.
- "Saudi Crown Prince Aids Yemen as He Hits It With Airstrikes". Time. 6 April 2018.
- Kristof, Nicholas (31 August 2017). "The Photos the U.S. and Saudi Arabia Don't Want You to See" – via www.NYTimes.com.
- editor, Patrick Wintour Diplomatic (16 November 2017). "Saudis must lift Yemen blockade or 'untold' thousands will die, UN agencies warn" – via www.theguardian.com.
- Press, Associated (16 November 2017). "50,000 children in Yemen have died of starvation and disease so far this year, monitoring group says". Chicago Tribune.
- "Is Intentional Starvation the Future of War?". The New Yorker. 11 July 2018.
- Kristof, Nicholas (31 August 2017). "The Photos the U.S. and Saudi Arabia Don't Want You to See" – via www.NYTimes.com.
- "In blocking arms to Yemen, Saudi Arabia squeezes a starving population". Reuters. 11 October 2017.
- "UN receives nearly $1 billion from Saudi Arabia and UAE for humanitarian response to Yemen crisis". United Nations. Archived from the original on 29 March 2018. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
- "Saudi Arabia says it intercepts Houthi missile fired toward Riyadh, no reported damage". cnbc.com. 19 December 2017. Retrieved 22 October 2018.
- Emily Thornberry. "Britain's red carpet for the Saudi ruler is shameless". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 October 2018.
- Emmons, Alex (1 August 2018). "Saudi Arabia planned to invade Qatar last summer. Rex Tillerson's efforts to stop it may have cost him his job". The Intercept. Retrieved 15 October 2018.
- "Rights groups condemn Saudi arrests as crackdown on dissent". Reuters. 15 September 2017. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
- "Saudi Arabia: Arrest of two prominent activists a deadly blow for human rights". www.amnesty.org. Archived from the original on 14 December 2017. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
- Al Omran, Ahmed; Kerr, Simon (19 September 2017). "Saudi security forces clamp down on dissent". Financial Times. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
- Batrawy, Aya; Al-Shihri, Abdullah (3 June 2018). "Saudi Prosecutor Says 17 Detained in Case Against Activists". Bloomberg. Riyadh. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
- McKernan, Bethan (23 May 2018). "Saudi police arrest three more women's rights activists". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 23 May 2018. Retrieved 23 May 2018.
- "Saudi Arabia releases eight people held in activist crackdown". Reuters. Riyadh. 2 June 2018. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
- al-Fassi, Hatoon Ajwad (2011). "Dr Hatoon Ajwad al-Fassi هتون أجواد الفاسي". King Saud University. Archived from the original on 29 May 2011. Retrieved 29 May 2011.
- Dadouch, Sarah (27 June 2018). "Prominent Saudi women's rights activist detained as driving ban lifted: sources". Reuters. Riyadh. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
- "Saudis arrest another women's right activist". Al Jazeera English. 27 June 2018. Archived from the original on 27 June 2018. Retrieved 27 June 2018.
- Graham-Harrison, Emma (22 August 2018). "Saudi Arabia seeks death penalty against female human rights activist". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
- "Saudi Arabia 'seeks death penalty for woman activist'". BBC News. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
- "Saudi Prosecution Seeks Death Penalty for Female Activist". Human Rights Watch. 21 August 2018. Archived from the original on 22 August 2018. Retrieved 23 August 2018.
- Brennan, David (21 August 2018). "Who Is Israa al-Ghomgham? Female Saudi Activist May Be Beheaded After Death Sentence". Newsweek. Archived from the original on 24 August 2018. Retrieved 24 August 2018.
- "Trump Jr. and Other Aides Met With Gulf Emissary Offering Help to Win Election". The New York Times. 19 May 2018.
- "Trump Jr. met Gulf princes' emissary in 2016 who offered campaign help". Reuters. 19 May 2018.
- Jon Gambrell (5 August 2018). "Saudi Arabia expels Canadian ambassador, freezes trade in human rights dispute". Toronto Star. Associated Press.
- "'We don't have a single friend': Canada's Saudi spat reveals country is alone". The Guardian. 11 August 2018.
- "U.S. refuses to back Canada in Saudi Arabia dispute". The Globe and Mail. 7 August 2018.
- "On Saudi Arabia, Canada's stance is principled — but conflicted". Toronto Star. 10 August 2018. Retrieved 11 August 2018.
- "Turkey 'has recording proving Saudi murder'". BBC News. 12 October 2018. Retrieved 12 October 2018.
- "Jamal Khashoggi: Turkey says journalist was murdered in Saudi consulate". BBC News. Retrieved 7 October 2018.
- Harris, Shane (10 October 2018). "Crown prince sought to lure Khashoggi back to Saudi Arabia and detain him, U.S. intercepts show". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 15 October 2018. Retrieved 15 October 2018.
- "EXCLUSIVE: Seven of bin Salman's bodyguards among Khashoggi suspects", Middle East Eye (17 October 2018).
- Sawers, John (19 October 2018). "Evidence suggests crown prince ordered Khashoggi killing, says ex-MI6 chief". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 20 October 2018. Retrieved 20 October 2018.
- Rutenberg, Jim (14 October 2018). "Reality Breaks Up a Saudi Prince Charming's Media Narrative". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 20 October 2018. Retrieved 20 October 2018.
- Lhatoo, Yonden (20 October 2018). "What's the life of Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi to US President Donald Trump? Nothing". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 20 October 2018. Retrieved 20 October 2018.
- "Jamal Khashoggi: Trump says if anyone knew about plot to kill journalist 'it would be Mohammed bin Salman'". The Independent. Retrieved 24 October 2018.
- "Who is Ahmed al-Asiri, the sacked Saudi intelligence chief?". Al Jazeera. 19 October 2018.
- Benner, Katie; Mazzetti, Mark; Hubbard, Ben; Isaac, Mike. "Saudis' Image Makers: A Troll Army and a Twitter Insider". The New York Times.
- Jacinto, Leela (October 25, 2018). "Saudi 'Mr. Hashtag' becomes fall guy in Khashoggi case, but is he really down?". France 24.
- "'Tell Your Boss': Recording Is Seen to Link Saudi Crown Prince More Strongly to Khashoggi Killing". The New York times. Retrieved 12 November 2018.
- "Saudis shield crown prince as death penalty sought over Khashoggi murder". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 November 2018.
- "Saudi prosecutor seeks death penalty for Khashoggi murder, says journalist was killed by sedative overdose". CNN. Retrieved 15 November 2018.
- Harris, Shane; Miller, Greg; Dawsey, Josh (16 November 2018). "CIA concludes Saudi crown prince ordered Jamal Khashoggi's assassination". Washington Post. Retrieved 17 November 2018.
- "Khashoggi murder: Saudi crown prince crazy, says US senator". BBC News. Retrieved 4 December 2018.
- "Saudi crown prince 'ordered, monitored' killing of Khashoggi, Corker says". CNN. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
- "U.N. rights boss Bachelet seeks international inquiry into Khashoggi murder". Reuters. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
- "Saudi Prince Slams CIA Assessment Report on Khashoggi Murder". Bloomberg. 24 November 2018.
- "REVEALED: The Saudi death squad MBS uses to silence dissent". Middle East Eye. 22 October 2018. Retrieved 22 October 2018.
- "Is Saudi Arabia safe in Mohammed bin Salman's hands?". Middle East Eye. 22 October 2018. Retrieved 22 October 2018.
- "Prince Mohammed books out hotel to dine with Murdoch". The Sydney Morning Herald. 4 April 2018.
- "A 30-year-old Saudi prince could jump-start the kingdom – or drive it off a cliff". The Washington Post. 28 June 2016. Archived from the original on 29 June 2016.
- Mazzetti, Mark; Hubbard, Ben (15 October 2016). "Rise of Saudi Prince Shatters Decades of Royal Tradition". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 1 February 2017.
- "World's Most Expensive Home? Another Bauble for a Saudi Prince". New York Times. Archived from the original on 21 March 2018. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
- Harris, Shane; Crow, Kelly; Said, Summer (7 December 2017). "Saudi Arabia's Crown Prince Identified as Buyer of Record-Breaking da Vinci". Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 7 December 2017. Retrieved 7 December 2017.
- Meixler, Eli (7 December 2017). "The Mystery Buyer of a $450 Million Leonardo da Vinci Painting Was a Saudi Prince". Fortune. Archived from the original on 7 December 2017. Retrieved 7 December 2017.
- "Mystery Buyer of $450 Million 'Salvator Mundi' Was a Saudi Prince". New York Times. Archived from the original on 17 April 2018. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
- "Mystery buyer of famed da Vinci is Saudi prince: Report". CBS. Archived from the original on 31 March 2018. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
- "Embassy Statement on Art Work Purchase". The Embassy of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Archived from the original on 28 March 2018. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
- "Louvre Abu Dhabi: UAE has acquired Da Vinci's Salvator Mundi". The National. Archived from the original on 28 March 2018. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
- "Saudi Arabian Embassy Says The Buyer Of The Da Vinci Painting Is Not The Saudi Crown Prince". Forbes. Archived from the original on 28 March 2018. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
- "Leonardo's Salvator Mundi: Abu Dhabi bought world's most expensive painting". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 21 March 2018. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
- Saudi’s Deputy Crown Prince meets Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg Archived 7 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine. Al Arabiya. 22 June 2016. Retrieved 23 April 2017.
- "Saudi Arabia's Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman toured Hollywood, Harvard and Silicon Valley on US visit". The Independent. 7 April 2018.
- "MBS meets AIPAC, anti-BDS leaders during US visit". Al-Jazeera. 29 March 2018.
- "Trump praises arms sales as he meets Saudi crown prince". Financial Times. 20 March 2018.
- "Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed Bin Salman meets Theresa May at Chequers on day two of UK state visit". The Independent. 8 March 2018 .
- Langer, Marko (5 November 2017). "Saudi Arabia's Mohammed bin Salman: Reformer and hard-liner | Middle East| News and analysis of events in the Arab world | DW | 5 November 2017". DW.COM. Archived from the original on 17 January 2018. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mohammed bin Salman.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Mohammad bin Salman|
- Saudi Deputy Crown Prince: The War Will Be Waged in Iran, Not Saudi Arabia; No to Direct Dialogue with Iran, MEMRI TV, 2017
- Saudi King’s Son Plotted Effort to Oust His Rival New York Times
Prince Muhammad bin Nayef
| First Deputy Prime Minister
21 June 2017 – present
Prince Muhammad bin Nayef
| Second Deputy Prime Minister
29 April 2015 – 21 June 2017
Prince Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud
| Minister of Defence
23 January 2015 – present
| Chief of the Royal Court
23 January 2015 – present
|Saudi Arabian royalty|
Prince Muhammad bin Nayef
| Deputy Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia
29 April 2015 – 21 June 2017
| Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia
21 June 2017 – present