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United States Senate special election in Alabama, 2017

A special election for the United States Senate in Alabama took place on December 12, 2017 to fill a vacancy in the Senate through the end of the term ending on January 3, 2021, arising from the resignation on February 8, 2017 of Jeff Sessions to serve as U.S. Attorney General. Doug Jones declared victory over Republican candidate Roy Moore by less than a two percent margin. Jones is the first Democrat to win a U.S. Senate seat in the state since 1992.

United States Senate special election in Alabama, 2017
Alabama
← 2014 December 12, 2017 (2017-12-12) 2020 →
Turnout 40.46% (estimated) Increase
  Doug Jones headshot.jpg Judge Roy Moore (cropped).jpg
Nominee Doug Jones Roy Moore
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 671,151 650,436
Percentage 49.9% 48.4%

2017 United States Senate special election in Alabama results map by county.svg
Jones:
     50–60%      60–70%      70–80%      80–90%
Moore:
     40–50%      50–60%      60–70%      70–80%      80–90%

U.S. Senator before election

Luther Strange
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Doug Jones
Democratic

On February 9, 2017, Governor Robert J. Bentley named Luther Strange, the Attorney General of Alabama, to fill the vacancy until a special election could take place. Jones, a former U.S. Attorney for the Northern District of Alabama, won the Democratic primary election while Moore, a former Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Alabama won the Republican primary, defeating Strange in the primary runoff.[1] In late November, retired Marine Colonel Lee Busby launched a write-in campaign.[2]

In mid-November, multiple women alleged that Moore had made unwanted advances or sexual assaults on them when he was in his early thirties and they were in their teens (the youngest was 14 at the time).[3][4] As a result of these allegations, many national Republican leaders and office holders called for Moore to withdraw from the special election or withdrew their endorsements of him.[5][6][7] However, Donald Trump and many Alabama Republicans reaffirmed their support.[8] At the time of the revelations, it was too late to remove his name from the ballot. Many Republican leaders proposed shifting their support to a write-in candidate such as Strange.[9] Moore has stated that he never engaged in sexual misconduct, although he has not denied that he approached or dated teenagers under the age of 16 while he was in his 30s. Sixteen is the legal age of consent in Alabama.[10][11]

At 9:23 p.m. CST, the Associated Press called the election for Jones, though Moore has refused to concede.[12][13] Once the victory is certified, Jones will become the first Democratic candidate to win an open seat in a statewide election in Alabama since former Lieutenant Governor Lucy Baxley was elected President of the Alabama Public Service Commission in 2008.[14]

Contents

BackgroundEdit

Potential appointeesEdit

Following then-President-elect Donald Trump's nomination of then-Senator Sessions to be U.S. Attorney General, Robert Aderholt, a member of the United States House of Representatives, had asked to be appointed to the seat.[15] Representative Mo Brooks had also expressed interest in the seat, while Strange had stated before being selected that he would run for the seat in the special election whether or not he was appointed.[16][17] Other potential choices Bentley interviewed for the appointment included Moore, Del Marsh, the President Pro Tem of the Alabama Senate, and Jim Byard, the director of the Alabama Department of Economic and Community Affairs.[18]

Republican primaryEdit

CampaignEdit

The Republican primary attracted national attention, especially following Trump's endorsement of incumbent Senator Luther Strange. Strange was backed by several key figures within the Republican establishment, most notably Mitch McConnell. His two main rivals in the primary consisted of former state judge Roy Moore and Mo Brooks. While Strange showed no signs of losing the first round of the primary, almost every opinion poll showed him trailing Roy Moore in a runoff. Strange came in second place in the first round of the primary behind Roy Moore, securing a spot in the runoff.[19]

National interest in the race dramatically increased in the month before the runoff. Strange maintained his endorsement from Trump, who campaigned for him in Huntsville during the closing days of the campaign.[20] Trump's endorsement of Strange sparked criticism among his own base, many of whom preferred Moore and detested Strange for his seemingly establishment feel. Several notable people close to Trump broke from the President to endorse Moore, including HUD Secretary Ben Carson and Breitbart Executive Chairman Steve Bannon. Despite the endorsement of Trump, Strange was handily defeated by Roy Moore in the runoff.[21]

CandidatesEdit

NominatedEdit

Eliminated in runoffEdit

Eliminated in primaryEdit

WithdrewEdit

DeclinedEdit

EndorsementsEdit

First roundEdit

PollingEdit

Poll source Date(s)
administered
Sample
size
Margin
of error
James
Beretta
Joseph
Breault
Randy
Brinson
Mo
Brooks
Mary
Maxwell
Roy
Moore
Bryan
Peeples
Trip
Pittman
Luther
Strange
Undecided
Trafalgar Group (R)[112] August 13–14, 2017 870 ± 3.3% 1% 1% 6% 17% 1% 38% 1% 6% 24% 5%
Emerson College[113] August 10–12, 2017 373 ± 5.0% 1% 0% 0% 15% 0% 29% 0% 10% 32% 11%
Trafalgar Group (R)[114] August 8–10, 2017 1,439 ± 2.6% 1% 1% 4% 20% 2% 35% 1% 6% 23% 8%
Cygnal[115] August 8–9, 2017 502 ± 4.4% 2% 18% 31% 7% 23% 13%
Strategy Research[116] August 7, 2017 2,000 ± 2.0% 1% 1% 1% 19% 4% 35% 1% 9% 29% 0%
JMC Analytics (R)[117] August 5–6, 2017 500 ± 4.4% 2% 19% 30% 6% 22% 17%
RRH Elections (R)[118] July 31 – August 3, 2017 426 ± 5.0% 2% 18% 31% 8% 29% 11%
Strategy Research[119] July 24, 2017 3,000 ± 2.0% 1% 1% 2% 16% 5% 33% 2% 5% 35%
Cygnal[120] July 20–21, 2017 500 ± 2.0% 16% 26% 33%

ResultsEdit

Republican primary results[1]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Roy Moore 164,524 38.9%
Republican Luther Strange (incumbent) 138,971 32.8%
Republican Mo Brooks 83,287 19.7%
Republican Trip Pittman 29,124 6.9%
Republican Randy Brinson 2,978 0.6%
Republican Bryan Peeples 1,579 0.4%
Republican Mary Maxwell 1,543 0.4%
Republican James Beretta 1,078 0.3%
Republican Dom Gentile 303 0.1%
Republican Joseph Breault 252 0.1%
Total votes 423,282 100.0%

RunoffEdit

DebatesEdit

AveragesEdit

Model Moore Strange Spread
RealClearPolitics[121] 52.5% 41.5% Moore +11.0

PollingEdit

Poll source Date(s)
administered
Sample
size
Margin
of error
Roy
Moore
Luther
Strange
Undecided
Cygnal[122] September 23–24, 2017 996 ± 3.1% 52% 41% 7%
Trafalgar Group (R)[123] September 23–24, 2017 1,073 ± 3.0% 57% 41% 2%
Optimus (R)[124] September 22–23, 2017 1,045 ± 2.9% 55% 45%
Emerson College[125] September 21–23, 2017 367 ± 5.1% 50% 40% 10%
Gravis Marketing[126] September 21–22, 2017 559 ± 4.1% 48% 40% 12%
Strategy Research[127] September 20, 2017 2,000 ± 3.0% 54% 46%
Strategy Research[128] September 18, 2017 2,930 ± 3.0% 53% 47%
JMC Analytics (R)[129] September 16–17, 2017 500 ± 4.4% 47% 39% 14%
Voter Consumer Research (R-SLF)[130] September 9–10, 2017 604 ± 4.0% 41% 40% 19%
Emerson College[131] September 8–9, 2017 355 ± 5.2% 40% 26% 34%
Strategic National[132] September 6–7, 2017 800 ± 3.5% 51% 35% 14%
Southeast Research[133] August 29–31, 2017 401 ± 5.0% 52% 36% 12%
Harper Polling[134] August 24–26, 2017 600 ± 4.0% 47% 45% 8%
Voter Consumer Research (R-SLF)[135] August 21–23, 2017 601 ± 4.0% 45% 41% 14%
Opinion Savvy[136] August 22, 2017 494 ± 4.4% 50% 32% 18%
JMC Analytics (R)[137] August 17–19, 2017 515 ± 4.3% 51% 32% 17%
Cygnal[115] August 8–9, 2017 502 ± 4.4% 45% 34% 11%
RRH Elections (R)[118] July 31 – August 3, 2017 426 ± 5.0% 34% 32% 34%

ResultsEdit

Republican primary runoff results[138]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Roy Moore 262,204 54.6%
Republican Luther Strange (incumbent) 218,066 45.4%
Total votes 480,270 100.0%
Results of first round and runoff
 
 

Democratic primaryEdit

CandidatesEdit

NominatedEdit

Eliminated in primaryEdit

WithdrewEdit

  • Ron Crumpton, activist, nominee for the State Senate in 2014 and nominee for the U.S. Senate in 2016[146][50]
  • Brian McGee, retired teacher and Vietnam War veteran[24][147][148]

DeclinedEdit

EndorsementsEdit

PollingEdit

Poll source Date(s)
administered
Sample
size
Margin
of error
Will
Boyd
Vann
Caldwell
Jason
Fisher
Michael
Hansen
Doug
Jones
Robert
Kennedy Jr.
Charles
Nana
Undecided
Emerson College[113] August 10–12, 2017 164 ± 7.6% 8% 2% 1% 0% 40% 23% 1% 25%
Strategy Research[171] August 7, 2017 2,000 ± 2.0% 9% 5% 3% 7% 30% 40% 5%
Strategy Research[172] July 24, 2017 3,000 ± 2.0% 6% 4% 4% 4% 28% 49% 5%

ResultsEdit

Democratic primary results[1]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Doug Jones 109,105 66.1%
Democratic Robert Kennedy Jr. 29,215 17.7%
Democratic Michael Hansen 11,105 6.7%
Democratic Will Boyd 8,010 4.9%
Democratic Jason Fisher 3,478 2.1%
Democratic Brian McGee 1,450 0.9%
Democratic Charles Nana 1,404 0.9%
Democratic Vann Caldwell 1,239 0.8%
Total votes 165,006 100.0%
Results
 

Independents and write-in candidatesEdit

CandidatesEdit

DeclaredEdit

  • Ron Bishop (L, write-in),[173]
  • Lee Busby (R, write-in), retired Marine colonel[174]
  • Jeff "Cog" Coggin (I, write-in), Air Force veteran[175]
  • Chanda Mills Crutcher (I, write-in), minister[176]
  • Eulas Kirtdoll (I, write-in)[177]
  • Arlester "Mack" McBride (I, write-in)[178]
  • Mac Watson (R, write-in)[179]

DeclinedEdit

General electionEdit

ControversiesEdit

On November 9, The Washington Post reported that four women had accused Roy Moore of engaging in sexual conduct with them when they were teenagers and he was an assistant district attorney in his thirties. One of the women was 14 years old at the time, below the legal age of consent.[3] A few days later a fifth woman said that she had received unwanted attention from Moore when she was 15 years old, and that in December 1977 or January 1978,[180] when she was 16, Moore sexually assaulted her.[4][181] Moore denied the allegations.

After this, certain Republican leaders and conservative organizations withdrew their endorsements of Moore or asked him to drop out of the campaign. These included Texas Senator Ted Cruz, Jeff Sessions, Ivanka Trump,[182] National Republican Senatorial Committee,[183] former Republican presidential nominees Mitt Romney[184] and John McCain,[185] Republican Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell,[186] Ohio Governor John Kasich,[187] Utah Senator Mike Lee,[188] Montana Senator Steve Daines,[189] and House Representatives Barbara Comstock, Carlos Curbelo, and Adam Kinzinger.[190][191] Other conservative websites and organizations such as National Review urged readers not to vote for Moore.[192][193] A week before the election President Donald Trump strongly endorsed Moore.[194] Following Trump's endorsement, the RNC reinstated their support for him,[195] and Republican leaders said they would "let the people of Alabama decide" whether to elect Moore.[196]

At the time of the revelations, it was too close to the election for Moore's name to be removed from the ballot.[197] Republican officials proposed various ways to promote an alternate Republican candidate. One suggestion was to ask Governor Kay Ivey to delay the special election until 2018,[9] but Ivey said she had no plans to change the election date.[198] Some Republicans such as Senator Lisa Murkowski floated the prospect of a write-in campaign to elect Luther Strange, with Utah Senator Orrin Hatch actively endorsing a write-in campaign for Strange.[199] However, Strange said it was "highly unlikely" that he would run a write-in campaign.[200] Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell proposed Attorney General Jeff Sessions, who formerly held the Senate seat, as a write-in candidate.[201] In late November, Retired Marine Col. Lee Busby launched a write-in campaign stating that he thought there is room for a centrist in the race.[2]

DebatesEdit

Republican nominee Roy Moore refused to debate Democratic nominee Doug Jones.[202][203][204] Moore turned down debate invitations extended by the League of Women Voters,[203] WHNT-TV and AL.com.[204][202] Jones' campaign said that Jones was "willing to debate Roy Moore anytime, anywhere" and accused Moore of "hiding from the voters, from the media and from his record for weeks."[204][202] Moore and his campaign stated that he refused to debate Jones because their policy positions were already clear to voters and thus there was no need for a formal debate.[204][202]

PredictionsEdit

Source Ranking As of
The Cook Political Report[205] Tossup December 7, 2017
Sabato's Crystal Ball[206] Tossup December 7, 2017
Rothenberg Political Report[207] Tossup December 7, 2017

CandidatesEdit

On ballotEdit

Write-inEdit

EndorsementsEdit

PollingEdit

Poll source Date(s)
administered
Sample
size
Margin
of error
Roy
Moore (R)
Doug
Jones (D)
Lee
Busby (R)
Other Undecided
Change Research[375] December 9–11, 2017 1,543 ± 2.0% 51% 45% 4%
SurveyMonkey[376] November 30 – December 11, 2017 2,203 ± 4.5% 47% 49% 4%
Fox News[377] December 7–10, 2017 1,127 ± 3.0% 40% 50% 2% 8%
Emerson College[378] December 7–9, 2017 600 ± 3.9% 53% 44% 4%
Monmouth University[379] December 6–9, 2017 546 ± 4.2% 46% 46% 2% 6%
Public Policy Polling (D-Not One Penny)*[380] December 7–8, 2017 1,092 46% 48% 6%
Gravis Marketing[381] December 5–8, 2017 1,254 ± 2.8% 49% 45% 6%
Trafalgar Group (R)[382] December 6–7, 2017 1,419 ± 3.1% 51% 46% 3%
Change Research[383] December 5–7, 2017 2,443 ± 2.0% 51% 44% 5%
SurveyMonkey[384] November 30 – December 7, 2017 1,559 ± 5.5% 47% 49% 4%
WBRC-TV/Strategy Research[385] December 4, 2017 3,200 ± 2.0% 50% 43% 3% 4%
Gravis Marketing[386] December 1–3, 2017 1,276 ± 2.7% 44% 48% 8%
Emerson College[387] November 30 – December 2, 2017 500 ± 4.3% 49% 46% 5%
CBS News/YouGov[388] November 28 – December 1, 2017 1,067 ± 3.8% 49% 43% 4% 4%
Washington Post/Schar School[389] November 27–30, 2017 739 ± 4.5% 47% 50% 3%
JMC Analytics (R)[390] November 27–28, 2017 650 ± 3.8% 49% 44% 5% 2%
The Polling Company/National Research Inc (R)[391] November 26–28, 2017 600 ± 4.0% 46% 45% 9%
Change Research[392] November 26–27, 2017 1,868 ± 2.3% 49% 44% 7%
Emerson College[393] November 25–27, 2017 500 ± 4.3% 53% 47%
WBRC-TV/Strategy Research[394] November 20, 2017 3,000 ± 2.0% 47% 45% 3% 5%
WT&S Consulting (R)[395] November 18–20, 2017 11,641 ± 1.2% 46% 40% 13%
Change Research[396] November 15–16, 2017 2,090 43% 46% 11%
The Polling Company/National Research Inc (R)[391] November 13–16, 2017 600 ± 4.0% 41% 49% 10%
Gravis Marketing[397] November 14–15, 2017 628 ± 3.5% 42% 47% 11%
Fox News[398] November 13–15, 2017 649 ± 3.5% 42% 50% 2% 7%
FOX10 News/Strategy Research[399] November 13, 2017 3,000 ± 2.0% 49% 43% 8%
NRSC (R)[400][401] November 12–13, 2017 500 39% 51% 10%
WT&S Consulting (R)[402] November 11, 2017 1,536 ± 3.3% 50% 40% 11%
Emerson College[403] November 9–11, 2017 600 ± 3.9% 55% 45%
JMC Analytics (R)[404] November 9–11, 2017 575 ± 4.1% 44% 48% 2% 6%
Change Research[405] November 9–11, 2017 1,855 44% 40% 3% 13%
Gravis Marketing[406] November 10, 2017 478 ± 4.5% 48% 46% 6%
WT&S Consulting (R)[402] November 9, 2017 1,354 ± 3.5% 50% 39% 11%
Opinion Savvy[407] November 9, 2017 515 ± 4.3% 46% 46% 4% 4%
NRSC (R)[400] November 6–7, 2017 51% 42% 8%
WBRC-TV/Strategy Research[408] November 6, 2017 2,200 ± 2.0% 51% 40% 9%
Axis Research (R-SLF)[409] October 24–26, 2017 503 ± 4.5% 56% 39% 5%
FOX10 News/Strategy Research[410] October 19, 2017 3,000 ± 3.0% 52% 41% 7%
WBRC-TV/Strategy Research[411] October 16, 2017 3,000 ± 2.5% 51% 40% 9%
Fox News[412] October 14–16, 2017 801 ± 3.5% 42% 42% 3% 11%
NRSC (R)[400] October 3–5, 2017 53% 37% 10%
Cygnal/L2[413] October 2–5, 2017 497 ± 4.4% 49% 41% 9%
JMC Analytics (R)[414] September 30 – October 1, 2017 500 ± 4.4% 48% 40% 1% 11%
Opinion Savvy[415] September 27–28, 2017 590 ± 4.0% 50% 45% 5%
Emerson College[125] September 21–23, 2017 519 ± 4.3% 52% 30% 18%
Emerson College[131] September 8–9, 2017 416 ± 4.8% 44% 40% 16%

* Unpublished poll released on December 15

ResultsEdit

External video
  Doug Jones election night remarks, December 12, 2017, C-SPAN
  Roy Moore election night remarks, December 12, 2017, C-SPAN

Doug Jones defeated Roy Moore by a margin of 20,715 votes. Voter turnout was 40.46% of Alabama's 3,326,812[417] registered voters.

Jones won primarily by running up huge margins in the state's major cities. The state's four largest counties–Jefferson (home to Birmingham), Mobile (home to Mobile), Montgomery (home to the state capital of Montgomery) and Madison (home to Huntsville)–all gave Jones 56 percent or more of the vote. His margins in Jefferson or Montgomery alone would have been more than enough to give him the victory. Jones also dominated the Black Belt. He took over 96 percent of the black vote, and 61 percent of votes from those under 45. While Moore dominated the state's rural areas, he significantly underperformed Trump's totals in those areas, as well as the suburbs.[418]

However, as of December 15, Moore has demanded a recount and refuses to concede the race, despite being urged by both Trump, Bannon and others to do so. If the final margin of victory is less than 0.5%, then a recount will be automatically triggered. If not, then either candidate can request a recount at his expense.[419][420] However, Alabama Secretary of State John Merrill estimates that a recount could cost as much as $1.5 million, an amount that must be paid in full when the request is made. Moore had only $636,046 on hand by the time the campaign ended.[421] A number of right-leaning Websites have pushed conspiracy theories about voter fraud providing the margin for Jones.[422]

It is expected that Luther Strange will continue to hold the seat until January 3, 2018. All of Alabama's 67 counties have to certify their election results to the Alabama Secretary of State. They have until December 22, 2017 to do so, though they are permitted to do so earlier. Once they have all done so, the certified results are transmitted to the secretary of the U.S. Senate by the Governor and Secretary of State of Alabama. However, by the time this occurs the U.S. Senate will likely have gone into recess until January 3, thus Jones will likely be taking up the seat at that time.[423]

Merrill told The Washington Post that the election results will be certified on December 28, 2017.[422] Assuming that the margin holds after the results are certified, Jones will become the first Democrat to win a statewide race in Alabama since former Lieutenant Governor Lucy Baxley (D) was elected President of the Alabama Public Service Commission in 2008 over Republican Twinkle Andress Cavanaugh.[14] Prior to that, Democrat Jim Folsom Jr. was elected Lieutenant Governor of Alabama in 2006 over Republican Luther Strange.[424]

General election results[417]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Doug Jones 671,151 49.9% +49.9%
Republican Roy Moore 650,436 48.4% -48.6%
Write-in Write-ins 22,780 1.7% -1.1%
Total votes 1,346,147 100.0% N/A
Democratic gain from Republican Swing

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Bloch, Matthew; Lee, Jasmine (August 15, 2017). "Alabama Election Results: Two Republicans Advance, Democrat Wins in U.S. Senate Primaries". The New York Times. Retrieved August 15, 2017. 
  2. ^ a b Scherer, Michael (November 27, 2017). "Retired Marine colonel to launch Senate write-in campaign in Alabama". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 27, 2017. 
  3. ^ a b McCrummen, Stephanie; Crites, Alice; Reinhard, Beth (November 9, 2017). "Woman says Roy Moore initiated sexual encounter when she was 14, he was 32". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 9, 2017. 
  4. ^ a b Tillett, Emily (November 13, 2017). "New accuser steps forward in Roy Moore case – live updates". CBS News. 
  5. ^ Isenstadt, Alex; Debenedetti, Gabriel (November 10, 2017). "Moore defiant as Senate Republicans sever ties". Politico. Retrieved November 11, 2017. 
  6. ^ Sullivan, Sean (November 14, 2017). "Paul Ryan joins GOP calls for Roy Moore to end campaign amid sexual misconduct allegations". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 14, 2017. 
  7. ^ Sullivan, Sean; Viebeck, Elise (November 13, 2017). "McConnell calls on Roy Moore to end Senate campaign following accusations of sexual misconduct". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 13, 2017. 
  8. ^ Berenson, Tessa (November 10, 2017). "All the Ways Alabama Republicans Are Defending Roy Moore". Time. Retrieved November 10, 2017. 
  9. ^ a b Martin, Jonathan; Burns, Alexander (November 10, 2017). "Republicans Try to Block Moore's Path as Candidate Denies Sexual Misconduct". The New York Times. Retrieved November 16, 2017. 
  10. ^ Walsh, Deidre. “Alabama Rep. Bradley Byrne says he'll vote for Roy Moore”, CNN (November 16, 2017).
  11. ^ Bethea, Charles (November 13, 2017). "Locals Were Troubled by Roy Moore's Interactions with Teen Girls at the Gadsden Mall". The New Yorker. ISSN 0028-792X. 
    Lyman, Brian (November 10, 2017). "Roy Moore denies sexual misconduct allegations". Montgomery Adviser. 
  12. ^ Chandler, Kim; Peoples, Steve (December 12, 2017). "Jones wins in stunning Alabama upset". Associated Press. Retrieved December 12, 2017. 
  13. ^ Sullivan, Sean; Weigel, David; Fahrenthold, David A. (December 12, 2017). "Doug Jones declared victor in Alabama race for Senate; Roy Moore may seek recount". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved December 13, 2017. 
  14. ^ a b Lyman, Brian. "Former Alabama Lt. Gov. Lucy Baxley dies at 78". Montgomery Advertiser. USA Today Network. Retrieved December 13, 2017. 
  15. ^ "Sessions' Nomination Sets Off Political Jockeying for Alabama Senate Seat". Rollcall.com. November 18, 2016. Retrieved January 15, 2017. 
  16. ^ "Who Might Replace Sessions?". Rollcall.com. November 16, 2016. Retrieved January 15, 2017. 
  17. ^ "Alabama AG Luther Strange to Run for Sessions Senate Seat". Weeklystandard.com. November 22, 2016. Retrieved January 15, 2017. 
  18. ^ "Alabama Governor Near Decision on Sessions Replacement". The Daily Progess. [dead link]
  19. ^ "Alabama Primary Results". The New York Times. Retrieved August 15, 2017. 
  20. ^ "At rally for Sen. Luther Strange, Trump vents frustrations in rambling speech". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 23, 2017. 
  21. ^ "Runoff Results". The New York Times. Retrieved September 26, 2017. 
  22. ^ Cason, Mike (April 26, 2017). "Roy Moore announces run for US senate: Alabama chief justice challenging Luther Strange". AL.com. Retrieved April 26, 2017. 
  23. ^ a b Sharp, John (January 17, 2017). "All eyes on 'Big' Luther Strange as Alabama looks to fill Jeff Sessions' Senate seat". al.com. Retrieved January 21, 2017. 
  24. ^ a b c d e f Gore, Leada (May 17, 2017). "Alabama Senate race updated list: 11 Republicans, 8 Democrats qualify". AL.com. Retrieved May 17, 2017. 
  25. ^ Koplowitz, Howard (June 6, 2017). "Senate candidate Joseph Breault keeping a low profile". AL.com. Retrieved June 6, 2017. 
  26. ^ Lyman, Brian (April 24, 2017). "Christian Coalition head Randy Brinson makes Senate bid". Montgomery Advertiser. Retrieved April 24, 2017. 
  27. ^ "GOP Rep. Brooks enters Alabama Senate race". The Hill. May 15, 2017. Retrieved August 25, 2017. 
    "Brooks Announces Primary Challenge to Strange". Rollcall.com. May 15, 2017. Retrieved August 25, 2017. 
  28. ^ Poe, Kelly (May 9, 2017). "Hoover businessman Dom Gentile announces run for U.S. Senate seat". AL.com. Retrieved May 9, 2017. 
  29. ^ Koplowitz, Howard (July 17, 2017). "Senate candidate Dom Gentile drops out of race, endorses Mo Brooks". AL.com. Retrieved July 17, 2017. 
  30. ^ Koplowitz, Howard (May 24, 2017). "Senate special election hopeful withdraws; candidates shrink to 18". AL.com. Retrieved May 24, 2017. 
  31. ^ "2017 U.S. Senate Special Election Info". Alabama Republican Party. Retrieved May 16, 2017. 
  32. ^ Maxwell, Mary W. (May 17, 2017). "A New Legislator on the Horizon?". Gumshoe News. Retrieved May 17, 2017. 
  33. ^ Gore, Leada (May 16, 2017). "Birmingham businessman Bryan Peeples running for U.S. Senate seat". AL.com. Retrieved May 16, 2017. 
  34. ^ Sharp, John (May 17, 2017). "Alabama State Senator Trip Pittman announces run for U.S. Senate". AL.com. Retrieved May 17, 2017. 
  35. ^ Sell, Mary (April 17, 2017). "Ed Henry says he'll run for US Senate seat". Decatur Daily. Retrieved April 17, 2017. 
  36. ^ Edgemon, Erin (May 17, 2017). "Ed Henry says he will not run for U.S. Senate". AL.com. Retrieved May 17, 2017. 
  37. ^ "Aderholt not running for Senate seat". Decatur Daily. April 29, 2017. Retrieved April 30, 2017. 
  38. ^ a b Gore, Leada (April 19, 2017). "Who will challenge Sen. Luther Strange? With new election date set, here are some possibilities". al.com. Retrieved April 19, 2017. 
  39. ^ Walsh, Lauren [@LaurenWalshTV] (May 17, 2017). "Sen. Slade Blackwell (R-Mountain Brook) also considered a run for US Senate, but decided not to enter race" (Tweet). Retrieved May 17, 2017 – via Twitter. 
  40. ^ a b c d e Gattis, Paul (April 19, 2017). "Alabama's sudden Senate race: Who's in, who's out, and who's on the fence?". al.com. Retrieved April 19, 2017. 
  41. ^ Sharp, John (May 1, 2017). "U.S. Rep. Bradley Byrne not running for Senate". AL.com. Retrieved May 2, 2017. 
  42. ^ Gattis, Paul (May 16, 2017). "Perry Hooper Jr. sets Senate announcement, expected to join race". AL.com. Retrieved May 16, 2017. 
  43. ^ a b Koplowitz, Howard (May 17, 2017). "Perry Hooper Jr. not running for Senate; endorses Luther Strange". AL.com. Retrieved May 17, 2017. 
  44. ^ a b Moseley, Brandon (April 24, 2017). "Qualifying for Senate Seat Begins Today". Alabama Political Reporter. Retrieved April 24, 2017. 
  45. ^ a b c Sharp, John (February 9, 2017). "Does Senate appointment hurt Luther Strange's 2018 prospects?". al.com. Retrieved February 9, 2017. 
  46. ^ Lyman, Brian (May 2, 2017). "Del Marsh confirms DC trip; blasts Luther Strange". Montgomery Advertiser. Retrieved May 4, 2017. 
  47. ^ Cason, Mike (May 17, 2017). "Del Marsh will not run for Alabama seat in U.S. Senate". AL.com. Retrieved May 17, 2017. 
  48. ^ Wetzel, Michael (May 11, 2017). "Merrill noncommittal on seeking governor's job". The Decatur Daily. Retrieved May 11, 2017. 
  49. ^ "Bentley interviews Aderholt, Byard and Magee for Senate". The Montgomery Advertiser. December 30, 2016. Retrieved January 21, 2017. 
  50. ^ a b Gattis, Paul (May 16, 2017). "Democrat Ron Crumpton drops out of Senate race". AL.com. Retrieved May 16, 2017. 
  51. ^ Vazquez, Maegan (December 4, 2017). "Trump fully endorses Roy Moore". CNN. Retrieved December 4, 2017. 
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  241. ^ James, Frannie [@KudzuFrannie] (September 23, 2017). "Thank you for being there. And, for your support of #DougJonesforSenate. Happy to have you aboard the #DigDoug2017Express #ALSENpic.twitter.com/IaePqMiHQp" (Tweet) – via Twitter. 
  242. ^ Jones, Doug [@gdouglasjones] (September 23, 2017). "Proud to be w/AL Rep Anthony Daniels as he accepts a Champion of Women's Health from Planned Parenthood #WePersistpic.twitter.com/tSWqdraQMR" (Tweet). Retrieved November 12, 2017 – via Twitter. 
  243. ^ Weigel, David (September 27, 2017). "Who is Doug Jones, and can he defeat Roy Moore in conservative Alabama?". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 12, 2017. 
  244. ^ Fisher, Jason [@Fisher4Alabama] (November 3, 2017). "If he blocks his opponent & refuses to debate, he'll also ignore his constituents if elected" (Tweet). Retrieved November 12, 2017 – via Twitter. 
  245. ^ Bidgood, Jess (November 19, 2017). "In Race Against Roy Moore, Democratic Candidate Is Mostly on His Own". The New York Times. Retrieved November 23, 2017. 
  246. ^ "Browse Individual contributions". FEC.gov. Retrieved October 28, 2017. 
  247. ^ "Log In or Sign Up to View". Facebook.com. Retrieved November 12, 2017. [non-primary source needed]
  248. ^ "Doug Jones for Senate Committee – committee overview". FEC.gov. Retrieved November 12, 2017. 
  249. ^ Westly, Steve [@SteveWestly] (November 15, 2017). "Doug Jones should represent Alabama in the Senate because he is an admirable and progressive leader. As an added benefit, he's not Roy Moore!ow.ly/seH830gBMWh" (Tweet). Retrieved November 23, 2017 – via Twitter. 
  250. ^ Woodfin, Randall [@WoodfinForBham] (November 18, 2017). "I proudly endorse @GDouglasJones for US Senate. Doug Jones has a spotless record of public service and will represent the citizens of our state with honor and integrity. VOTE DECEMBER 12TH!" (Tweet). Retrieved November 18, 2017 – via Twitter. 
  251. ^ Jones, Doug [@GDouglasJones] (December 11, 2017). "Charles Barkley, Uzo Aduba of Orange Is The New Black will join Doug tonight to host our GOTV rally in Birmingham at 6 p.m. Check out the event details below" (Tweet) – via Twitter. 
  252. ^ Abramson, Seth [@SethAbramson] (October 12, 2017). "There are 3 people I can't react calmly toward, as I consider them the 3 worst people in America: Donald Trump, Roy Moore and Jeanine Pirro" (Tweet). Retrieved November 12, 2017 – via Twitter. 
  253. ^ Anzalone, John [@JohnAnzo] (November 10, 2017). "@GDouglasJones is the real deal" (Tweet). Retrieved November 12, 2017 – via Twitter. 
  254. ^ Barber, Rev Dr [@RevDrBarber] (November 10, 2017). "AL auditor's bizarre read on the Holy family reveals twisted logic of #slaveholderreligion. If you read the Bible to justify hurting the ppl Jesus loved, you can no longer see the good news for anyone" (Tweet). Retrieved November 12, 2017 – via Twitter. 
  255. ^ Pillion, Dennis (November 25, 2017). "Charles Barkley: Roy Moore should have been disqualified 'way before this woman stuff came up'". AL.com. Retrieved November 25, 2017. [I]f I lived here, I'd vote for Doug Jones. 
  256. ^ Begala, Paul [@PaulBegala] (November 7, 2017). "Every Virginian who worked and walked; every American who phoned and donated; every progressive who put unity over division, you did this. Let's do it again soon. In Alabama on Dec. 12, then in all 50 states in 2018!" (Tweet). Retrieved November 12, 2017 – via Twitter. 
  257. ^ Bell, W. Kamau [@wkamaubell] (November 9, 2017). "Also... Alabama, I spend a lot of time defending you. Don't make me a jerk outta me by turning Roy Moore into a Senator. On December 12 vote for @GDouglasJones!" (Tweet). Retrieved November 12, 2017 – via Twitter. 
  258. ^ Best, Adam [@adamcbest] (September 26, 2017). "If Roy Moore wins today, we must help Doug Jones beat him. An anti-LGBTQ birther who totes a gun on stage doesn't belong in the US Senate" (Tweet) – via Twitter. 
  259. ^ Cardona, Maria [@MariaTCardona] (October 23, 2017). "WOWZA!!! And this is a FOX NEWS POLL!!! Fox News Senate poll: Doug Jones, Roy Moore are tied" (Tweet). Retrieved October 28, 2017 – via Twitter. 
  260. ^ Carville, James [@JamesCarville] (October 4, 2017). "MUST READ from Bama experts on AL Sen @JohnAnzo and @ZacMcCrary I'm not for the Tide but I'm for @GDouglasJones" (Tweet). Retrieved October 28, 2017 – via Twitter. 
  261. ^ Cheadle, Don [@DonCheadle] (October 30, 2017). "Alabama residents: you have less than a month to register to vote! Register today/support @GDouglasJones for #ALsen!" (Tweet). Retrieved November 12, 2017 – via Twitter. 
  262. ^ Cherny, Andrei [@AndreiCherny] (October 23, 2017). "Hard to imagine a more stark choice between Doug Jones and Roy Moore" (Tweet). Retrieved October 28, 2017 – via Twitter. 
  263. ^ Clinton, Chelsea [@chelseaclinton] (October 31, 2017). "Republican Alabama Senate candidate" (Tweet). Retrieved November 12, 2017 – via Twitter. 
  264. ^ Jones, Doug [@GDouglasJones] (December 10, 2017). "Thank you to great Alabamians Mike Cooley and @drivebytruckers for your support and endorsement! #VoteDec12 #GOTV4Doug" (Tweet) – via Twitter. 
  265. ^ Collins, Misha [@mishacollins] (December 12, 2017). "If you have a friend in Alabama, call them right now & tell them to get out & vote for @GDouglasJones! votefordoug.com" (Tweet) – via Twitter. 
  266. ^ Cox, Laverne [@Lavernecox] (November 14, 2017). "As someone who was born and raised in Mobile, Alabama, who went to high school in Birmingham I implore the citizens of my home state to vote for #DougJones for the U.S. Senate. Please show the country who we really are" (Tweet). Retrieved November 23, 2017 – via Twitter. 
  267. ^ Daughtry, Leah D. [@LeahDaughtry] (October 23, 2017). "I'll be going to #Alabama to campaign for Doug Jones, who prosecuted ages old 16thSt Baptist bombing case and won" (Tweet). Retrieved October 28, 2017 – via Twitter. 
  268. ^ Dworkin, Scott [@funder] (September 27, 2017). "If u were wondering if we're gonna push for Doug Jones to win in Alabama, the answer is absolutely- yes" (Tweet) – via Twitter. 
  269. ^ Ferguson, Jesse [@JesseFFerguson] (November 4, 2017). "Longtime Republican, former Jeff Sessions-staffer, supporting Doug Jones for Senate" (Tweet). Retrieved November 12, 2017 – via Twitter. 
  270. ^ Fuller, Bonnie [@BonnieFuller] (October 23, 2017). "Doug Jones for senator in Alabama: come on Alabama do what's right for your state & your families!" (Tweet). Retrieved October 28, 2017 – via Twitter. 
  271. ^ "Browse Individual contributions". FEC.gov. Retrieved October 28, 2017. 
  272. ^ Jones, Doug [@GDouglasJones] (December 10, 2017). ""Please go out and vote, vote for Doug Jones on Tuesday. Do it, it's the right thing to do" Jason Isbell" (Tweet) – via Twitter. 
  273. ^ Jones, Doug [@GDouglasJones] (November 3, 2017). "Honored to have the support of @chicmadesimple and all Republicans crossing over to ensure a better future for Alabama!pic.twitter.com/rpKqQAM0ue" (Tweet). Retrieved November 12, 2017 – via Twitter. 
  274. ^ Jeffery, Clara [@ClaraJeffery] (November 3, 2017). "Doug Jones is all that stands between us and a future with Roy Moore as a Senator: Read @pemalevy:" (Tweet). Retrieved November 12, 2017 – via Twitter. 
  275. ^ Kelly, Michael [@michaeljkellyjr] (October 21, 2017). "Watch this video, follow this man @GDouglasJones , & let's tell all our friends in #Alabama that this is the direction our Country can go" (Tweet). Retrieved October 28, 2017 – via Twitter. 
  276. ^ Kessler, Jim [@ThirdWayKessler] (October 20, 2017). "Roy Moore isn't just a kook. He's a crook" (Tweet). Retrieved October 28, 2017 – via Twitter. 
  277. ^ Samuels, Brett (December 11, 2017). "Kimmel donates to Doug Jones in Alabama Senate race". The Hill. 
  278. ^ King, Shaun [@ShaunKing] (December 10, 2017). "Progressives. I share every position you do from Medicare For All, on down. If you say you won't vote for Doug Jones in Alabama because he he doesn't support 82 out of 82 of your positions, that's dumb AND privileged. Rethink that" (Tweet) – via Twitter. 
  279. ^ Kristol, Bill [@BillKristol] (October 18, 2017). "1. Doug Jones would be a better U.S. senator than Roy Moore. Moore as a senator would be a constant embarrassment to the GOP" (Tweet). Retrieved October 28, 2017 – via Twitter. 
  280. ^ Lavin, Talia B. [@chick_in_kiev] (October 30, 2017). "god i hope doug jones wins" (Tweet). Retrieved November 12, 2017 – via Twitter. 
  281. ^ LeGate, William [@williamlegate] (November 20, 2017). "Priorities rn for anyone who cares about our country: 1. Kill #GOPTaxScam 2. Call FCC to demand they keep net neutrality (vote is over Thanksgiving holidays to try to sneak it through) 3. Get Doug Jones elected to Senate" (Tweet). Retrieved November 23, 2017 – via Twitter. 
  282. ^ Sean, McElwee [@SeanMcElwee] (September 26, 2017). "Doug Jones will run against Roy Moore in December. Let's replace white nationalist Jeff Sessions with the man who prosecuted the KKK" (Tweet) – via Twitter. 
  283. ^ Messing, Debra [@DebraMessing] (September 28, 2017). "Support this decent man!" (Tweet). Retrieved October 28, 2017 – via Twitter. 
  284. ^ Milano, Alyssa [@Alyssa_Milano] (September 22, 2017). "I love Alabama. And I also love @GDouglasJones" (Tweet). Retrieved October 28, 2017 – via Twitter. 
  285. ^ Greenwood, Max (November 21, 2017). "GOP operative: 'I just donated to a Democrat for the first time' in Alabama Senate race". The Hill. Retrieved November 23, 2017. 
  286. ^ O'Reilly, Holly [@AynRandPaulRyan] (November 10, 2017). "She worked for Republicans: Luther Strange Jeff Sessions Haley Barbour But she's voting for Doug Jones on December 12. Thank you, @chicmadesimple, and every Republican who will vote their conscience" (Tweet). Retrieved November 23, 2017 – via Twitter. 
  287. ^ Oswalt, Patton [@pattonoswalt] (November 12, 2017). "If everyone who followed ME gave @GDouglasJones $1, we could all wave bye-bye to #RoyMooreChildMolester" (Tweet). Retrieved November 23, 2017 – via Twitter. 
  288. ^ Painter, Richard W. [@RWPUSA] (September 27, 2017). "Alabama: Unless you want a man who talks like the Taliban representing you in the Senate Doug Jones is your man" (Tweet) – via Twitter. 
  289. ^ Parkhomenko, Adam [@AdamParkhomenko] (November 4, 2017). "Russia is actively trying to change the perceptions of voters to favor GOP candidates in Alabama & Virginia. Where the hell is the outrage?" (Tweet). Retrieved November 12, 2017 – via Twitter. 
  290. ^ Parnell, Archie [@Archie4Congress] (September 28, 2017). "Pay attention to the #ALSen race, & support @GDouglasJones. Doug Jones can win this special election w your support" (Tweet) – via Twitter. 
  291. ^ Perabo, Piper [@PiperPerabo] (November 12, 2017). "I believe in Doug Jones and I believe in Alabama, and I donated" (Tweet). Retrieved November 23, 2017 – via Twitter. 
  292. ^ Jean-Pierre, Karine [@K_JeanPierre] (December 12, 2017). "Dear Alabama:Polls are now open! Let's send a resounding loud message against bigotry & sexual assault. We believe in you!VOTE Doug Jones!!" (Tweet) – via Twitter. 
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  294. ^ a b c Shelbourne, Mallory (December 6, 2017). "GOP strategist donates to Alabama Democrat". The Hill. Retrieved December 10, 2017. 
  295. ^ Sanders, Symone D. [@SymoneDSanders] (November 21, 2017). "Today, Tim Miller did the right thing. Be like Tim" (Tweet). Retrieved November 23, 2017 – via Twitter. 
  296. ^ Schmidt, Steve [@SteveSchmidtSES] (November 10, 2017). "Every Alabama Republican who processes an ounce of decency will vote for Doug Jones on December 12th. Every GOP member of Congress with an ounce of decency will 1. unendorse 2. demand no party money is spent. 3.refuse to caucus with Moore 4. Call for Moore to drop out" (Tweet). Retrieved November 23, 2017 – via Twitter. 
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  299. ^ Sellers, Bakari [@Bakari_Sellers] (November 7, 2017). "First things first. Not 2018 but Alabama! Go here. Contribute. $5, $10, whatever you can. I'll be in Bama soon" (Tweet). Retrieved November 12, 2017 – via Twitter. 
  300. ^ Sinyangwe, Samuel [@samswey] (November 9, 2017). "If Alabama elects Doug Jones to the Senate on 12/12, he'd be seated by 12/15 and effectively *shut down* the GOP legislative agenda.*By next month.*" (Tweet). Retrieved November 23, 2017 – via Twitter. 
  301. ^ Spiro, Topher [@TopherSpiro] (November 11, 2017). "Republicans already stole a Supreme Court seat. Now they're trying to steal a Senate seat by rescheduling the election (!). You know what to do" (Tweet). Retrieved November 23, 2017 – via Twitter. 
  302. ^ Skolnik, Michael [@MichaelSkolnik] (December 12, 2017). "Dear Alabama, We believe in you!! Vote for Doug Jones! Sincerely, America" (Tweet) – via Twitter. 
  303. ^ Takei, George [@GeorgeTakei] (September 26, 2017). "Tonight, AL Republicans nominated anti-LGBT anti-immigrant Roy Moore to be their Senate candidate. Let's help elect Dem Doug Jones instead" (Tweet). Retrieved November 12, 2017 – via Twitter. 
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  305. ^ Vietor, Tommy [@TVietor08] (November 9, 2017). "Today is a damn good day to donate $5, $10, $50 to @GDouglasJones here:" (Tweet). Retrieved November 23, 2017 – via Twitter. 
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  309. ^ Willis, Oliver [@owillis] (November 21, 2017). "this doug jones ad is good. its also like a lot of ads that hrc ran and im still pessimistic about alabama" (Tweet). Retrieved November 23, 2017 – via Twitter. 
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  311. ^ Wallace, George [@MrGeorgeWallace] (December 11, 2017). "People of Alabama, 'Tis I, George Wallace. Do as I, George Wallace, say and vote for Doug Jones. I only want the best for Alabama, as I am George Wallace. Roy Moore hates you & Auburn & the Crimson Tide too. I'm George Wallace & I approved this message & whatnot" (Tweet) – via Twitter. 
  312. ^ Reiner, Rob [@robreiner] (December 12, 2017). "Today decency,Democracy,Donald Trump are on the ballot. If Alabama votes Doug Jones,it will have a huge impact on preserving our Republic" (Tweet) – via Twitter. 
  313. ^ Reiner, Carl [@carlreiner] (December 12, 2017). "Doug Jones, I meant Doug Jones, I'm 95* 8 mos and I am forgetful.....don't vote for the sexual predator, Moore, vote JONES!" (Tweet) – via Twitter. 
  314. ^ Jones, Doug [@GDouglasJones] (December 12, 2017). "Thank you @kerrywashington for your support and endorsement! Don't know where to vote? Go to VoteForDoug.com pic.twitter.com/fdv5q9Rbo9" (Tweet) – via Twitter. 
  315. ^ Jones, Doug [@GDouglasJones] (December 12, 2017). "Thank you, @BellamyYoung for your kind words and endorsement! Have voting questions? VoteForDoug.com pic.twitter.com/e57fPXEvls" (Tweet) – via Twitter. 
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