Open main menu

Richard Joseph Durbin (born November 21, 1944) is an American attorney and politician serving as the senior United States Senator from Illinois, a seat he was first elected to in 1996. He has been the Senate Democratic Whip since 2005, the second-highest position in the Democratic leadership in the U.S. Senate.

Dick Durbin
Richard Durbin official photo.jpg
Senate Minority Whip
Assumed office
January 3, 2015
LeaderHarry Reid
Chuck Schumer
Preceded byJohn Cornyn
In office
January 3, 2005 – January 3, 2007
LeaderHarry Reid
Preceded byHarry Reid
Succeeded byTrent Lott
United States Senator
from Illinois
Assumed office
January 3, 1997
Serving with Tammy Duckworth
Preceded byPaul Simon
Senate Majority Whip
In office
January 3, 2007 – January 3, 2015
LeaderHarry Reid
Preceded byMitch McConnell
Succeeded byJohn Cornyn
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Illinois's 20th district
In office
January 3, 1983 – January 3, 1997
Preceded byPaul Findley
Succeeded byJohn Shimkus
Personal details
Born
Richard Joseph Durbin

(1944-11-21) November 21, 1944 (age 74)
East St. Louis, Illinois, U.S.
Political partyDemocratic
Spouse(s)
Loretta Schaefer (m. 1967)
Children3
EducationGeorgetown University (BS, JD)
Signature
WebsiteSenate website

Durbin was born in East St. Louis, Illinois. He graduated from the Georgetown University School of Foreign Service and Georgetown University Law Center. Working in state legal counsel throughout the 1970s, he made an unsuccessful run for Lieutenant Governor of Illinois in 1978. He was elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1982, representing the Springfield-based 20th congressional district. In 1996, he won election to the U.S. Senate by an unexpected 15-point margin. He has served as Senate Democratic Whip since 2005, and for a period of eight years (2007–2015) served as the Senate Majority Whip. He is currently dean of the Illinois congressional delegation, as he has served in Congress since 1983 as a U.S. Representative from Illinois 20th Congressional District, and from 1997 as a U.S. Senator from Illinois.

Durbin now serves as the Senate Minority Whip following the 2014 midterm elections, where the Republicans gained a majority in the U.S. Senate and when he won reelection, defeating Republican Jim Oberweis, by a margin of 53.55% to 42.69%.

Contents

Early life, education and careerEdit

Durbin was born in East St. Louis, Illinois, to an Irish-American father, William Durbin, and a Lithuanian-born mother, Anna (née Kutkin; Lithuanian: Ona Kutkaitė).[1] He graduated from Assumption High School in East St. Louis in 1962. During his high school years he worked at a meatpacking plant. He earned a B.S. from the School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University in 1966. He was an intern in the office of Senator Paul Douglas of Illinois during his senior year in college. Durbin earned his J.D. from Georgetown University Law Center in 1969 and was admitted to the Illinois bar later that year.

After graduating from law school, Durbin started a law practice in Springfield. He was legal counsel to Lieutenant Governor Paul Simon from 1969 to 1972, and then legal counsel to the Illinois State Senate Judiciary Committee from 1972 to 1982. Durbin was an unsuccessful Democratic candidate for a seat in the Illinois State Senate in 1976.[2] He ran for Lieutenant Governor in 1978 as the running mate of State Superintendent of Schools Michael Bakalis. They were defeated by Republican incumbents Jim Thompson and Dave O'Neal. Durbin then worked as an adjunct professor at the Southern Illinois University School of Medicine for five years while maintaining his law practice.

U.S. House of RepresentativesEdit

In 1982, Durbin won the Democratic nomination for the now-eliminated 20th congressional district, which included Macon and most of Springfield. He scored a 1,400 vote victory, defeating 22-year incumbent Paul Findley, a U.S. Navy veteran, whose district lines had been substantially redrawn to remove rural farms and add economically depressed Macon, replacing 35-percent of the voters[3][4] and include more Democrats as part of the decennial redistricting. Durbin's campaign emphasized unemployment and financial difficulties facing farmers, and told voters that electing him would send "a message to Washington and to President Reagan that our economic policies are not working." Durbin benefited from donations by pro-Israel groups from around the United States, in particular, concentrated support from AIPAC supporters,[5] that were opposed to Findley's advocacy on behalf of the Palestine Liberation Organization[6] in the year prior to the election. Durbin was re-elected six times, rarely facing serious opposition, and winning more than 55% of the vote in each election except 1994.[7][8][9]

U.S. SenateEdit

 
Durbin speaks during the final night of the 2008 Democratic National Convention in Denver, Colorado, introducing his party's nominee, fellow Illinoisan Barack Obama

In 1996, Durbin defeated Pat Quinn to become the Democratic Party's nominee to replace the retiring Democratic incumbent, Senator Paul Simon, a long-time friend. He faced Republican State Representative Al Salvi in the November general election. Although the election had been expected to be competitive, Durbin benefited from Bill Clinton's 18-point win in Illinois that year and was able to capture a 15-point margin over his opponent. He has since been re-elected in 2002, 2008 and 2014, each time by at least 10%.

CommitteesEdit

Caucus membershipsEdit

LeadershipEdit

 
Durbin eating lunch with President Barack Obama, Vice President Joe Biden, and House Majority Leader Steny Hoyer.

In November 1998, Senate Minority Leader Tom Daschle appointed Durbin as his Assistant Democratic Whip. Following the 2004 election, Durbin became the Democratic Whip in the 109th Congress. He became the first senator from Illinois to serve as a Senate Whip since Everett Dirksen did so in the late 1950s, and the fifth to serve in Senate Leadership.[14] Durbin served as Assistant Minority Leader from 2005 until 2007, when the Democrats became the Majority Party in the Senate. He then assumed the role of Assistant Majority Leader, or Majority Whip.

In addition to his caucus duties, Durbin is Chairman of the Subcommittee on Human Rights and the Subcommittee on Financial Services and General Government.[15]

In 2000, Democratic presidential nominee Al Gore reportedly considered asking Durbin to be his running mate and candidate for Vice President of the United States.[16] Gore ultimately selected Connecticut Senator Joe Lieberman.[17]

When Majority Leader Harry Reid faced a difficult re-election fight in 2010, some pundits predicted a possibly heated fight to succeed him between his assistant Durbin and Senator Chuck Schumer, who is well known for his fund-raising prowess.[18] Reid's re-election victory, however, rendered such speculation moot.

Political positionsEdit

Durbin is one of the most liberal members of Congress. Mother Jones has called him a "top Senate liberal."[19] His voting record is very similar to the Democratic caucus position, consistent with his leadership position as Whip, which has the duty of persuading senators to follow the party line in their votes. As a trial lawyer, Durbin has excellent debating abilities, so much so that majority leader Harry Reid called him "the best debater" in the U.S. senate.[citation needed]

AbortionEdit

As a congressman, Durbin voted consistently to uphold existing restrictions on abortion or impose new limitations, including supporting a Constitutional amendment that would have nullified Roe v. Wade.[20] He reversed his position in 1989 and has since voted to maintain access to abortion, including support for Medicaid funding of it, and opposition to any limitation he considers a practical or potential encroachment upon Roe.[21] Durbin has maintained that this reversal came about due to personal reflection and his growing awareness of potentially harmful implications of his previous policy with respect to women facing dangerous pregnancies.[22] While visiting a home for abused children in Quincy, Illinois, the director, a friend, asked him to speak with two girls who were about to turn 18 and be turned out of state care. Talking with those girls, victims of gang rape and incest, made him reconsider his position on the subject. He says, "I still oppose abortion and would try my best to convince any woman in my family to carry the baby to term. But I believe that ultimately the decision must be made by the woman, her doctor, her family, and her conscience."[23]

Child careEdit

In 2019, Durbin and 34 other senators introduced the Child Care for Working Families Act, a bill that created 770,000 new child care jobs and that ensured families under 75 percent of the state median income did not pay for child care with higher earning families having to pay "their fair share for care on a sliding scale, regardless of the number of children they have." The legislation also supported universal access to high-quality preschool programs for all 3 and 4-year-olds and gave the child care workforce a changed compensation and training to aid both teachers and caregivers.[24]

Criminal justice reformEdit

In July 2017, along with Cory Booker, Elizabeth Warren, and Kamala Harris, Durbin was one of four senators to introduce the Dignity for Incarcerated Women Act, legislation implementing a ban on the shackling of pregnant women and mandating the Bureau of Prisons to form superior visitation policies for parents along with providing parenting classes and offering health products such as tampons and pads for free. The bill also restricted prison employees from entering restrooms of the opposite sex with the exception of pressing circumstances.[25]

In December 2018, Durbin voted for the First Step Act, legislation aimed at reducing recidivism rates among federal prisoners through expanding job training and other programs in addition to forming an expansion of early-release programs and modifications on sentencing laws such as mandatory minimum sentences for nonviolent drug offenders, "to more equitably punish drug offenders."[26]

DarfurEdit

On March 2, 2005, then-Senator Jon Corzine presented the Darfur Peace and Accountability Act (S. 495) to the Senate. Durbin was one of 40 senators who co-sponsored that bill. The Darfur Accountability Act is noted as the premier legislative attempt to instill peace in Darfur. The bill also asks that all people involved in or deemed in some way responsible for the genocide in Darfur to be denied visas and entrance to the U.S.

In 2006, Durbin co-sponsored the Durbin-Leahy Amendment to the Supplemental Appropriations bill for emergency funding to instill peace in Darfur. In 2006, he also co-sponsored the Lieberman Resolution, and the Clinton Amendment.

On June 7, 2007, Durbin introduced the Sudan Disclosure Enforcement Act, which as "[a]imed at enhancing the U.S. Government's ability to impose penalties on violators of U.S. sanctions against Sudan." The bill called for the U.S. Security Council to vote on sanctions against the Sudanese Government for the genocide in Darfur.

Durbin has voted in favor of all Darfur-related legislation. In addition to the Darfur Peace and Accountability Act, he also supported the Civilian Protection No-Fly Zone Act, the Hybrid Force Resolution, and the Sudan Divestment Authorization Act.

MyanmarEdit

In October 2017, Durbin condemned the genocide of the Rohingya Muslim minority in Myanmar and called for a stronger response to the crisis.[27]

Guantanamo BayEdit

Durbin has openly compared the U.S. treatment of prisoners at Guantanamo Bay Naval Base to the atrocities committed by "Nazis, Soviets in their gulags, or some mad regime -- Pol Pot or others -- that had no concern for human beings." Demands that he apologize were initially rebuffed,[28] however Durbin later apologized to the military for the 2005 remarks, which he admitted were "a very poor choice of words."[29]

Gun lawEdit

Durbin received an "F" grade from the National Rifle Association for his consistent support for gun control.[30]

Durbin sent a letter to Attorney General Jeff Sessions in May 2017 asking for support in expanding the Chicago Police Department's violence prevention programs by expanding access to the Strategic Decision Support Centers and the National Integrated Ballistic Information Network. He also asked the Justice Department to support the Stop Illegal Trafficking in Firearms Act, which would stop illegal state-to-state gun trafficking.[31]

In response to mass shootings, such as the Orlando nightclub shooting and Las Vegas shooting, Durbin has repeatedly called for expanded gun control laws, stating that Congress would be "complicit" in the shooting deaths of people if they did not act.[32][33]

Following the Las Vegas shooting in October 2017, Durbin was one of twenty-four senators to sign a letter to National Institutes of Health Director Dr. Francis Collins espousing the view that it was critical the NIH "dedicate a portion of its resources to the public health consequences of gun violence" at a time when 93 Americans die per day from gun-related fatalities and noted that the Dickey Amendment did not prohibit objective, scientific inquiries into shooting death prevention.[34]

In January 2019, Durbin was one of forty senators to introduce the Background Check Expansion Act, a bill that would require background checks for either the sale or transfer of all firearms including all unlicensed sellers. Exceptions to the bill's background check requirement included transfers between members of law enforcement, loaning firearms for either hunting or sporting events on a temporary basis, providing firearms as gifts to members of one's immediate family, firearms being transferred as part of an inheritance, or giving a firearm to another person temporarily for immediate self-defense.[35]

HIV/AIDSEdit

In March 2007, Durbin introduced the African Health Capacity Investment Act of 2007 to the Senate. The bill was designed so that over a three-year period, the U.S. would supply over $600 million to help create safer medical facilities and working conditions, and the recruitment and training of doctors from all over North America.

In December 2007, Durbin and two other senators co-sponsored Senator John Kerry's Nondiscrimination in Travel and Immigration Act. Also, in March 2007, he joined thirty-two other senators to co-sponsor the Early Treatment for HIV Act of 2007.

2001 Invasion of AfghanistanEdit

Durbin voted to approve the Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Terrorists. This act granted the executive broad military powers, and was used to justify the US' invasion of Afghanistan in 2001, along with many subsequent military interventions.[36]

Iraq WarEdit

On September 9, 2002, Durbin was the first of four Democratic senators (the others being Bob Graham, Feinstein, and Levin) on the Select Committee on Intelligence (SSCI), responding to the Bush administration's request for a joint resolution authorizing a preemptive war on Iraq without having prepared a National Intelligence Estimate (NIE), to ask Central Intelligence Director George Tenet to prepare a NIE on the status of Iraq's Weapon of mass destruction programs.[37] Durbin was also one of few senators who read the resulting prepared October 1, 2002 NIE, Iraq's Continuing Programs for Weapons of Mass Destruction.[38]

On September 29, 2002, Durbin held a news conference in Chicago to announce that "absent dramatic changes" in the resolution, he would vote against the resolution authorizing war on Iraq.[39] On October 2, 2002, at the first high-profile Chicago anti-Iraq War rally in Federal Plaza, he repeated his promise to oppose the resolution in a letter read during the rally.[40]

On October 10, 2002, the U.S. Senate failed to pass Durbin's amendment to the resolution to strike "the continuing threat posed by Iraq" and insert "an imminent threat posed by Iraq's weapons of mass destruction", by a 30-70 vote, with most Democratic senators voting for the amendment, but with 21 joining all 49 Republican senators voting against it.[41] On October 11, 2002, Durbin was one of 23 senators to vote against the joint resolution authorizing the Iraq War.[42]

On April 25, 2007, Durbin said that as an intelligence committee member he knew in 2002 from classified information that the American people were being misled by the Bush Administration into a war on Iraq, but he could not reveal this because, as an intelligence committee member, he was sworn to secrecy.[43] This revelation prompted an online attack ad against Durbin by the National Republican Senatorial Committee.[44]

Fair Sentencing ActEdit

Durbin authored the Fair Sentencing Act of 2010, a legislation that corrected some of the imbalance in cocaine sentencing.[45]

ImmigrationEdit

Durbin is the chief proponent for the Development, Relief and Education for Alien Minors (DREAM) Act, a piece of proposed federal legislation. This bill would provide certain students who entered or were brought to the nation illegally with the opportunity to earn conditional permanent residency if they arrived in the US as children, graduated from a US high school, have been in the country continuously for at least five years prior to the bill's enactment, submit biometric data, pass a criminal background check, and complete two years toward a four-year degree from an accredited university or complete at least two years in the military within a five-year period. Durbin's leadership on this issue was recognized in 2013, when the Immigrant Legal Resource Center presented him with the inaugural Nancy Pelosi Award for Immigration & Civil Rights Policy.[46]

On January 28, 2013, Durbin was a member of a bi-partisan group of eight Senators, the Gang of Eight,[47] which announced principles for comprehensive immigration reform (CIR).[48]

In April 2018, Durbin was one of five senators to send a letter to acting director of ICE Thomas Homan on standards used by the agency when determining how to detain a pregnant woman, requesting that pregnant women not be held in custody unless under extraordinary standards after reports "that ICE has failed to provide critical medical care to pregnant women in immigration detention — resulting in miscarriages and other negative health outcomes".[49]

In July 2018, Durbin said Homeland Security Secretary Kirstjen Nielsen should resign over the Trump administration family separation policy. He argued it "is and was a cruel policy inconsistent with the bedrock values of the nation," adding someone "in this administration has to accept responsibility." Tyler Houlton, a DHS spokesman, replied through Twitter that "obstructionists in Congress should get to work".[50]

In July 2019, following reports that the Trump administration intended to end protections of spouses, parents and children of active-duty service members from deportation, Durbin was one of twenty-two senators to sign a letter led by Tammy Duckworth arguing that the program allowed service members the ability "to fight for the United States overseas and not worry that their spouse, children, or parents will be deported while they are away" and that the program's termination would cause both personal hardship and a negatively impact for service members in combat.[51]

Tobacco regulationEdit

In 1987, Durbin introduced major tobacco regulation legislation in the House. This bill was to ban cigarette smoking on airline flights of two hours or less. He was joined by Rep. C.W. Bill Young (R-FL), in saying that the rights of smokers to smoke end where their smoking affects the health and safety of others, such as on airplanes. The bill went on to pass as part of the 1988 transportation spending bill. In 1989, Congress banned cigarette smoking on all domestic airline flights.[52]

In March 1994, Durbin proposed an amendment to the Improving America's Schools Act that required schools receiving Federal drug prevention money to teach elementary and secondary students about the dangers of tobacco, drugs, and alcohol. The amendment also required schools to warn students against tobacco and teach them how to resist peer pressure to smoke.[53]

In February 2008, Durbin called on Congress to support a measure that would allow the Food and Drug Administration to oversee the tobacco industry. This measure would require companies to disclose the contents of tobacco products, restrict advertising and promotions, and it would mandate the removal of harmful ingredients in tobacco products. The measure would also prohibit tobacco companies from using terms like "low risk," "light," and "mild" on packaging.

Durbin attributes his stance against tobacco smoking to his father, who smoked two packs of Camel cigarettes a day and died of lung cancer.

RussiaEdit

Durbin spearheaded a nonbinding resolution in July 2018 "warning President Trump not to let the Russian government question diplomats and other officials". The resolution states the United States "should refuse to make available any current or former diplomat, civil servant, political appointee, law enforcement official or member of the Armed Forces of the United States for questioning by the government of Vladimir Putin". It passed 98-0.[54]

In December 2018, after United States Secretary of State Mike Pompeo announced the Trump administration was suspending its obligations in the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty in 60 days in the event that Russia continued to violate the treaty, Durbin was one of 26 senators to sign a letter expressing concern over the administration "now abandoning generations of bipartisan U.S. leadership around the paired goals of reducing the global role and number of nuclear weapons and ensuring strategic stability with America's nuclear-armed adversaries" and calling on President Trump to continue arms negotiations.[55]

Freedom of expressionEdit

In 2007, speaking as Senate Majority Whip, Durbin went on record as stating that "It's time to reinstitute the Fairness Doctrine."[56]

In 2010, Durbin cosponsored and passed from committee the Combating Online Infringement and Counterfeits Act, a bill aiming to combat media piracy by blacklisting websites though many opposed to the bill argue that it violates First Amendment rights and promotes censorship.[57][58] The announcement of the bill was followed by a wave of protest from digital rights activists, including the Electronic Frontier Foundation calling it censorship and stating that action may be taken against all users of sites in which only some users are uploading infringing material.[59]

Durbin was a sponsor of the PROTECT IP Act.[60]

Financial crisis of 2007–2010Edit

 
Durbin meeting with Raj Date, then Acting Director of the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, to discuss helping consumers compare bank fees

On April 27, 2009, in an interview with WJJG talk radio host Ray Hanania, Durbin accused banks of creating the financial crisis of 2007–2010. Durbin expressed a belief that many of the banks responsible for creating the crisis "own the place," referring to the power wielded by the banking lobby on Capitol Hill.[61]

On September 18, 2008, Durbin attended a closed meeting with congressional leaders, then-Treasury Secretary Henry Paulson and Federal Reserve Chairman Ben Bernanke, and was urged to craft legislation to help financially troubled banks. That same day (trade effective the next day), Durbin sold mutual-fund shares worth $42,696, and reinvested it all with Warren Buffett.[62]

On February 26, 2009, Durbin introduced the Protecting Consumers from Unreasonable Credit Rates Act of 2009, calling for a maximum annual interest rate cap of 36%, including all interest and fees.[63] This bill was intended to put an end to predatory lending activities.

Rod BlagojevichEdit

Shortly after Governor Rod Blagojevich's arrest on federal corruption charges on December 9, 2008, Durbin called for the Illinois legislature to quickly pass legislation for a special election to fill then President-elect Barack Obama's vacant Senate seat.[64] He stated that no United States Senate appointment of Blagojevich's could produce a credible replacement under the circumstances.[65]

Durbin and Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid led all 50 members of the Senate Democratic Caucus in writing Illinois Governor Blagojevich to urge him to resign and not name a successor to Obama following Blagojevich's arrest.[66]

TradeEdit

In January 2005, Durbin changed his longstanding position on sugar tariffs and price supports. After several years of voting to keep sugar quotas and price supports, Durbin now favors abolishing the program. "The sugar program depended on congressmen like me from states that grew corn," Durbin said, referring to the fact that, though they were formerly a single entity, the sugar market and the corn syrup market are now largely separate.[67]

In May 2006, Durbin campaigned to maintain a $0.54 per gallon tariff on imported ethanol. Durbin justified the tariff by joining Barack Obama in stating that "ethanol imports are neither necessary nor a practical response to current gasoline prices," arguing instead that domestic ethanol production is sufficient and expanding.[68] The American Coalition for Ethanol gave him a rating of 100%.[citation needed]

American Airlines praised him for arguing for the need to lower rising oil prices.[69]

EnvironmentEdit

Among Durbin's legislative causes are environmental protection, particularly the protection of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. League of Conservation Voters gives him a rating of 89%. Sierra Club gives him a 90% rating.[citation needed]

Other positionsEdit

 
Durbin meets with Elena Kagan

Durbin has also been a major proponent of expanded Amtrak funding and support. In October 2007, he opposed a bill in the Illinois General Assembly that would allow three casinos to be built, saying, "I really, really think we ought to stop and catch our breath and say, 'Is this the future of Illinois? That every time we want to do something we'll just build more casinos?'"[70]

Durbin reintroduced the Fair Elections Now Act during the 112th Congress. The bill would provide public funds to candidates who do not take political donations larger than $100 from any donor.[71]

In April 2013, Durbin chaired a hearing in the Senate Judiciary Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights and Human Rights concerning the moral, legal and constitutional issues surrounding targeted killings and the use of drones. Durbin stated, "Many in the national security community are concerned that we may undermine our counter-terrorism efforts if we do not carefully measure the benefits and costs of targeted killing."[72]

In August 2013, Durbin was one of twenty-three Democratic senators to sign a letter to the Defense Department warning of some payday lenders "offering predatory loan products to service members at exorbitant triple digit effective interest rates and loan products that do not include the additional protections envisioned by the law" and asserting that service members along with their families "deserve the strongest possible protections and swift action to ensure that all forms of credit offered to members of our armed forces are safe and sound."[73]

In June 2015, Durbin sent a letter to the prime minister of Ukraine, Arseniy Yatsinuk, about fully supporting of Yatsinuk's efforts of governing.[citation needed]

In March 2018, Durbin was one of 10 senators to sign a letter spearheaded by Jeff Merkley lambasting a proposal from FCC Chairman Ajit Pai that would curb the scope of benefits from the Lifeline program during a period where roughly 6.5 million people in poor communities relied on Lifeline to receive access to high-speed internet, citing that it was Pai's "obligation to the American public, as the Chairman of the Federal Communications Commission, to improve the Lifeline program and ensure that more Americans can afford access, and have means of access, to broadband and phone service." The senators also advocated for insuring "Lifeline reaches more Americans in need of access to communication services."[74]

In March 2019, Durbin was one of 10 Democratic senators to sign a letter to Salman of Saudi Arabia requesting the release of human rights lawyer Waleed Abu al-Khair and writer Raif Badawi, women's rights activists Loujain al-Hathloul and Samar Badawi, and Dr. Walid Fitaih. The senators wrote, "Not only have reputable international organizations detailed the arbitrary detention of peaceful activists and dissidents without trial for long periods, but the systematic discrimination against women, religious minorities and mistreatment of migrant workers and others has also been well-documented."[75]

In April 2019, Durbin was one of 34 senators to sign a letter to President Trump encouraging him "to listen to members of your own Administration and reverse a decision that will damage our national security and aggravate conditions inside Central America", asserting that Trump had "consistently expressed a flawed understanding of U.S. foreign assistance" since becoming president and that he was "personally undermining efforts to promote U.S. national security and economic prosperity" through preventing the use of Fiscal Year 2018 national security funding. The senators argued that foreign assistance to Central American countries created less migration to the U.S., citing the funding's helping to improve conditions in those countries.[76]

In April 2019, Durbin was one of 6 senators to send a letter to Director of the CFPB Kathy Kraninger expressing concern "CFPB leadership has abandoned its supervision and enforcement activities related to federal student loan servicers" and opined that such behavior displayed "a shocking disregard for the financial well-being of our nation's public servants, including teachers, first responders, and members of the military." The senators requested that Kraninger clarify the role of the CFPB in overseeing the Public Service Loan Forgiveness's student loan servicers handling since December 2017 such as examinations made by the CFPB.[77]

In April 2019, Durbin was one of 41 senators to sign a bipartisan letter to the housing subcommittee praising the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development's Section 4 Capacity Building program as authorizing "HUD to partner with national nonprofit community development organizations to provide education, training, and financial support to local community development corporations (CDCs) across the country" and expressing disappointment that President Trump's budget "has slated this program for elimination after decades of successful economic and community development." The senators wrote of their hope that the subcommittee would support continued funding for Section 4 in Fiscal Year 2020.[78]

In June 2019, Durbin was one of 15 senators to introduce the Affordable Medications Act, legislation intended to promote transparency through mandating pharmaceutical companies disclose the amount of money going toward research and development in addition to both marketing and executives' salaries. The bill also abolished the restriction that stopped the federal Medicare program from using its buying power to negotiate lower drug prices for beneficiaries and hinder drug company monopoly practices used to keep prices high and disable less expensive generics entering the market.[79]

Guantanamo interrogation criticismEdit

Durbin received media attention on June 14, 2005, when in the U.S. Senate chambers he compared interrogation techniques used at Camp X-Ray, Guantanamo Bay, as reported by the Federal Bureau of Investigation, to those utilized by such regimes as Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union, and the Khmer Rouge:

When you read some of the graphic descriptions of what has occurred here – I almost hesitate to put them in the record, and yet they have to be added to this debate. Let me read to you what one FBI agent saw. And I quote from his report:

On a couple of occasions, I entered interview rooms to find a detainee chained hand and foot in a fetal position to the floor, with no chair, food or water. Most times they urinated or defecated on themselves, and had been left there for 18–24 hours or more. On one occasion, the air conditioning had been turned down so far and the temperature was so cold in the room, that the barefooted detainee was shaking with cold.... On another occasion, the [air conditioner] had been turned off, making the temperature in the unventilated room well over 100 degrees. The detainee was almost unconscious on the floor, with a pile of hair next to him. He had apparently been literally pulling his hair out throughout the night. On another occasion, not only was the temperature unbearably hot, but extremely loud rap music was being played in the room, and had been since the day before, with the detainee chained hand and foot in the fetal position on the tile floor.

If I read this to you and did not tell you that it was an FBI agent describing what Americans had done to prisoners in their control, you would most certainly believe this must have been done by Nazis, Soviets in their gulags, or some mad regime – Pol Pot or others – that had no concern for human beings. Sadly, that is not the case. This was the action of Americans in the treatment of their prisoners.[80]

Durbin's comments drew widespread criticism that comparing U.S. actions to such regimes insulted the United States and victims of genocide. Radio host Rush Limbaugh and White House deputy chief of staff Karl Rove accused Durbin of treason,[81] while former Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich called on the Senate to censure Durbin.[82] Chicago Mayor Richard Daley, whose son Patrick was serving in U.S. Army, also called on Durbin to apologize for his remarks, saying that he thought it was a "disgrace to say that any man or woman in the military would act like that."[83] John Wertheim, Democratic state party chairman of New Mexico, and Jim Pederson, Arizona Democratic party chairman, also criticized Durbin's remarks.[84] The leader of the Veterans of Foreign Wars also demanded an apology,[85] as did the Anti-Defamation League[83]

Durbin initially did not apologize, but on June 21, 2005, he went before the Senate, saying, "More than most people, a senator lives by his words ... occasionally words fail us, occasionally we will fail words."[86]

Andrew Sullivan, former editor of The New Republic, praised Durbin for raising serious moral issues about U.S. policy.[87] Other commentators, including liberal commentator Markos Moulitsas Zúniga of Daily Kos, condemned Durbin for apologizing to his critics, arguing Durbin made a mistake in making himself, rather than detention and torture concerns at Guantanamo Bay, the focus of media coverage.[88][89]

Attempts to remove PAC radio advertisementsEdit

In July 2014, Americas PAC, a Political Action Committee designed to elect conservative Republicans, released a radio advertisement attacking Durbin on his staff salaries.[90] This was based upon a Washington Times article that stated Durbin's female staff members made $11,000 less annually than his male staffers.[91] In response, lawyers representing Durbin submitted a letter claiming the information in the ad was false and that the radio stations would be liable for airing the ad, with the possibility of losing their FCC license.[92] The radio station stated the sources provided to back up the information provided by Americas PAC were checked and proved to be in line and that they would keep the radio advertisement on air.[93]

Electoral historyEdit

Illinois's 20th congressional district: Results 1982–1994[94]
Year Democratic Votes Pct Republican Votes Pct
1982 Richard J. Durbin 100,758 50.4% Paul Findley (inc.) 99,348 49.6%
1984 Richard J. Durbin (inc.) 145,092 61.3% Richard Austin 91,728 38.7%
1986 Richard J. Durbin (inc.) 126,556 68.1% Kevin McCarthey 59,291 31.9%
1988 Richard J. Durbin (inc.) 153,341 68.9% Paul Jurgens 69,303 31.1%
1990 Richard J. Durbin (inc.) 130,114 66.2% Paul Jurgens 66,433 33.8%
1992 Richard J. Durbin (inc.) 154,869 56.5% John M. Shimkus 119,219 43.5%
1994 Richard J. Durbin (inc.) 108,034 54.8% Bill Owens 88,964 45.2%
United States Senator (Class II): Results 1996–2014[94]
Year Democratic Votes Pct Republican Votes Pct
1996 Richard J. Durbin 2,384,028 56% Al Salvi 1,728,824 41%
2002 Richard J. Durbin 2,103,766 60% Jim Durkin 1,325,703 38%
2008 Richard J. Durbin 3,516,846 68% Steve Sauerberg 1,479,984 29%
2014 Richard J. Durbin 1,929,637 53.5% Jim Oberweis 1,538,522 42.7%

Personal lifeEdit

FamilyEdit

Durbin and his wife Loretta have had three children, Christine, Jennifer and Paul. After several weeks in the hospital with complications due to a congenital heart condition, Christine died on November 1, 2008.[95]

Conflict of interest issuesEdit

Durbin's wife Loretta was a lobbyist, and it was reported by the Chicago Tribune in 2014 that some of her "clients have received federal funding promoted by [Durbin]".[96] In addition to announcing the award of monies to ten clients of his wife's lobbying firm, these conflicts included her lobbying firm receiving a one-year contract with a housing nonprofit group around the time the senator went to bat for the organization; a state university receiving funds through an earmark by Durbin when his wife was its lobbyist; and Durbin arranging federal money for a public health nonprofit when his wife was seeking state support for the same group.[96][29] The Durbins maintain that they try to avoid conflicts of interest, however.[96]

ReligionEdit

Dick Durbin is Roman Catholic. In 2004, the Roman Catholic Diocese of Springfield in Illinois barred him from receiving communion because he voted against the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act. The current bishop of the Diocese said Durbin stays away from his Springfield parish because "he doesn't want to make a scene."[97] Durbin responded to the communion ban in 2004 saying that he is accountable to his constituents, even if it means defying Church teachings.[98] In 2018, the decision to deny Durbin communion in the Springfield Diocese was affirmed by Bishop Thomas John Paprocki after Durbin's vote against the Pain-Capable Unborn Child Protection Act.[99] Durbin continues to practice his faith, attending mass and receiving communion at Old Saint Patrick's church in Chicago.[98]

In 2017, Durbin was criticized by the editorial board at his alma mater, Georgetown, a Catholic university, for his requesting a clarification of then-judicial nominee Amy Coney Barrett during her Judiciary Committee confirmation hearing, regarding her self-descriptive terminology, "orthodox Catholic." He contended that might unfairly characterize Catholics who may not agree with the church's positions about abortion or the death penalty. She contended, "litigants and the general public are entitled to impartial justice, and that may be something that a judge who is heedful of ecclesiastical pronouncements cannot dispense." Barrett opined that judges aren't bound by precedent conflicting with the Constitution.[100] Barrett wrote that judges could recuse themselves from hearing matters if their faith conflicted with issues to be decided in cases they might otherwise hear.[101] A article in the conservative National Review contended, "Senators must inquire about these issues when considering lifetime appointments because ensuring impartiality and fidelity to precedent are critical for the rule of law."[100][102] The issue prompted questions regarding the application of Article VI, Section 3 of the Constitution which mandates: "No religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United States."[103]

Film and television appearancesEdit

Film
Year Title Role Notes
2010 Pricele$$ Himself Documentary
2015 The Gettysburg Address Himself Documentary

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "durbin". Freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com. November 21, 1944. Retrieved August 1, 2016.
  2. ^ "Senator Dick Durbin - Biography - Project Vote Smart". Votesmart.org. November 21, 1944. Retrieved September 15, 2012.
  3. ^ Bohlen, Celestine (October 31, 1982). "THE 1982 ELECTIONS: THE ILLINOIS 20TH DISTRICT RACE". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved July 10, 2018.
  4. ^ "redistricting and Reaganomics Feb 1983". www.lib.niu.edu. Retrieved July 10, 2018.
  5. ^ The Israel Lobby, p. 157, by John Mearsheimer and Stephen Walt
  6. ^ Reprints, Eli Lake EliLake Josh Rogin joshrogin Subscribe. "How Obama Out-Muscled Aipac". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved August 31, 2016.
  7. ^ Malcolm, Andrew (September 5, 1982). "The Midwest". The New York Times. Retrieved February 1, 2012.
  8. ^ Clymer, Adam (October 3, 1982). "Democrats Shaping Election as Referendum on Economy". The New York Times. Retrieved February 1, 2012.
  9. ^ Clymer, Adam (October 30, 1982). "GOP House Candidates Leading in Fundraising". The New York Times. Retrieved February 1, 2012.
  10. ^ "Tribune Article on Senate Defense Cmte". Chicago Tribune. January 28, 2013. Retrieved January 28, 2013.
  11. ^ "Portman and Durbin Launch Senate Ukraine Caucus". Rob Portman United States Senator for Ohio. February 9, 2015. Archived from the original on February 11, 2015. Retrieved February 11, 2015.
  12. ^ "Members". Afterschool Alliance. Retrieved April 17, 2018.
  13. ^ "Members". Congressional NextGen 9-1-1 Caucus. Retrieved June 8, 2018.
  14. ^ "February 14, 2005 - The Nation". archive.is. September 12, 2012. Archived from the original on September 12, 2012.
  15. ^ "Dick Durbin's Biography - The Voter's Self Defense System". Vote Smart. November 21, 1944. Retrieved August 1, 2016.
  16. ^ Durbin Off The Vp List Chicago Tribune
  17. ^ "CNN Transcript - Inside Politics: Joseph Lieberman Accepts Al Gore's Offer to Join the Democratic Ticket - August 8, 2000". Transcripts.cnn.com. August 8, 2000. Retrieved August 1, 2016.
  18. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on November 13, 2013. Retrieved February 5, 2011.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  19. ^ Khimm, Suzy (December 8, 2010) Top Senate Liberal Defends Obama on Tax Cuts, Mother Jones
  20. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on September 13, 2006. Retrieved August 4, 2006.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  21. ^ "Richard Durbin on Abortion". Massscorecard.org. Retrieved August 1, 2016.
  22. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on September 14, 2006. Retrieved August 4, 2006.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  23. ^ Parsons, Christi (December 2, 2007). "Dick Durbin's Challenge". Chicago Tribune. pp. 15–19, 26–27.
  24. ^ "U.S. Senator Tammy Baldwin Helps Introduce Legislation to Ensure Child Care for All". urbanmilwaukee.com. March 1, 2019.
  25. ^ "Kamala Harris slams Sessions on criminal justice". The Hill. July 18, 2017.
  26. ^ Fandos, Nicholas (December 18, 2018). "Senate Passes Bipartisan Criminal Justice Bill". New York Times.
  27. ^ "Sen. Todd Young urges action to end Muslim genocide in Myanmar". IndyStar. October 22, 2017. Retrieved March 5, 2019.
  28. ^ "US senator stands by Nazi remark". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved July 10, 2018.
  29. ^ a b Berlin, Kim Janssen, Jonathon. "Durbin's history of scrapes". chicagotribune.com. Retrieved July 10, 2018.
  30. ^ "The Voter's Self Defense System". Vote Smart. Retrieved October 4, 2017.
  31. ^ Gossett, Stephen. "Sen. Durbin Asks DOJ For Help Curbing Chicago Gun Violence Ahead Of Summer". Chicagoist. Archived from the original on November 4, 2017. Retrieved October 4, 2017.
  32. ^ Savransky, Rebecca (June 12, 2016). "Durbin calls for Congress to pass gun control laws". TheHill. Retrieved October 4, 2017.
  33. ^ "Morning Spin: Illinois Democrats talk gun control after Las Vegas shooting; Trump's office talks Chicago". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved October 4, 2017.
  34. ^ Weizel, Nathaniel (October 11, 2017). "Senate Dems urge NIH to renew gun research grants". The Hill.
  35. ^ "U.S. Senator Tammy Baldwin Helps Introduce Background Check Expansion Act To Reduce Gun Violence". urbanmilwaukee.com. January 9, 2019.
  36. ^ "U.S. Senate: U.S. Senate Roll Call Votes 107th Congress - 1st Session". www.senate.gov.
  37. ^ Select Committee on Intelligence (July 9, 2004). "Report on the U.S. Intelligence Community's Prewar Intelligence Assessments on Iraq" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on August 30, 2006.
    Durbin, Richard (September 10, 2002). "Assessing Iraq's military capabilities". Congressional Record--Senate. pp. S8427–S8429.
    Sweet, Lynn (September 11, 2002). "U.S. lacks Iraq analysis: Durbin" (paid archive). Chicago Sun-Times. p. 5.
  38. ^ Windrem, Bob; Murray, Mark (May 25, 2007). "Hillary and the 2002 NIE". msnbc.com. Archived from the original on December 8, 2007.
    CNN (May 29, 2007). "Records: Senators who OK'd war didn't read key report". cnn.com.
    Raju, Manu; Schor, Elana; Wurman, Ilan (June 19, 2007). "Few senators read Iraq NIE report". The Hill.
  39. ^ Dorning, Mike; Chase, John (September 30, 2002). "Durbin opposes Bush war resolution" (paid archive). Chicago Tribune. p. 1 (Metro).
  40. ^ Glauber, Bill (October 3, 2002). "War protesters gentler, but passion still burns" (paid archive). Chicago Tribune. p. 1.
    Strausberg, Chinta (October 3, 2002). "War with Iraq undermines U.N." Chicago Defender. p. 1. Archived from the original (paid archive) on October 14, 2009. Retrieved March 17, 2008.
    Bryant, Greg (October 2, 2002). "300 protesters rally to oppose war with Iraq". Medill News Service.[permanent dead link]
    Katz, Marilyn (October 2, 2007). "Five Years Since Our First Action". Chicagoans Against War & Injustice. Archived from the original on July 21, 2011.
  41. ^ U.S. Senate (October 10, 2002). "Roll call vote No. 236 on the Durbin Amendment No. 4865".
    Sweet, Lynn (October 11, 2002). "Durbin loses bid to limit authority" (paid archive). Chicago Sun-Times. p. 7.
  42. ^ U.S. Senate (October 11, 2002). "Roll call vote No. 237 on H.J.Res. 114".
    Goldberg, Michelle (November 11, 2002). "Wellstone was right". Salon.com. Archived from the original on September 21, 2007.
  43. ^ Durbin, Richard (April 25, 2007). "Iraq Supplemental Appropriations Bill". Congressional Record--Senate. pp. S5026–S5028.
    Lengell, Sean (April 27, 2007). "Durbin kept silent on prewar knowledge" (paid archive). The Washington Times. p. A1.
    Oberman, Keith (April 27, 2007). "5. Changing Tenets". Countdown with Keith Olbermann. msnbc.com. Archived from the original on May 18, 2008.
    SilentPatriot (April 28, 2007). "Sen. Durbin drops bombshells on the Senate floor". Crooks and Liars. Archived from the original on June 18, 2008.
  44. ^ Krol, Eric (May 3, 2007). "GOP goes after Durbin with online ad" (paid archive). Daily Herald. p. 10.
    Byrne, Dennis (May 7, 2007). "Oath upheld, but at what cost?" (paid archive). Chicago Tribune. p. 21.
  45. ^ "Fair Sentencing Act of 2010" Archived March 3, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, Families Against Mandatory Minimums, Famm.org, accessed September 30, 2010.
  46. ^ "23rd Phillip Burton Immigration & Civil Rights Awards | Immigrant Legal Resource Center". ILRC. May 31, 2013. Archived from the original on June 25, 2013. Retrieved August 1, 2016.
  47. ^ "Immigration and the DREAM Act | U.S. Senator Dick Durbin of Illinois". www.durbin.senate.gov. Retrieved March 21, 2019.
  48. ^ "Senators Reach a Bipartisan Agreement for Comprehensive Immigration Reform". The National Law Review. Fowler White Boggs P.A. January 31, 2013. Retrieved February 1, 2013.
  49. ^ "Democrats question ICE standards for detaining pregnant women". The Hill. April 5, 2018.
  50. ^ Weixel, Nathaniel. "Top Senate Dem calls on DHS secretary to resign over family separations". The Hill. Retrieved August 1, 2018.
  51. ^ Domingo, Ida (July 11, 2019). "Senate Democrats to Trump: don't deport military families". wset.com.
  52. ^ "House Passes Ban on Smoking on Flights of 2 Hours or Less". The New York Times. Associated Press. July 15, 1987.
  53. ^ Katharine Seelye (March 23, 1994). "Congress Considers Smoking Ban in Schools". The New York Times.
  54. ^ Carney, Jordain. "Senate approves resolution warning Trump not to hand over US officials". The Hill. Retrieved July 22, 2018.
  55. ^ Mitchell, Ellen (December 13, 2018). "Senate Dems urge Trump to continue nuclear arms control negotiations after treaty suspension". The Hill.
  56. ^ "News Archive". TheHill. Retrieved August 1, 2016.
  57. ^ Patrick Leahy. "Combating Online Infringement and Counterfeits Act (2010; 111th Congress S. 3804)". GovTrack.us. Retrieved August 1, 2016.
  58. ^ "The 19 Senators Who Voted To Censor The Internet". Techdirt. November 18, 2010. Retrieved August 1, 2016.
  59. ^ "Censorship of the Internet Takes Center Stage in "Online Infringement" Bill". eff.org. September 21, 2010. Retrieved October 16, 2010.
  60. ^ "Cosponsors: S.968 — 112th Congress (2011-2012)". Congress.gov. Retrieved June 27, 2017.
  61. ^ Grim, Ryan (April 29, 2009). "Dick Durbin: Banks "Frankly Own The Place"". www.HuffingtonPost.com. Retrieved June 6, 2009.
  62. ^ "Durbin Invests With Buffett After Funds Sale Amid Market Plunge" June 13, 2008, "Archived copy". Archived from the original on September 20, 2008. Retrieved September 14, 2008.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link). Retrieved September 14, 2008.
  63. ^ "S. 500: Protecting Consumers from Unreasonable Credit Rates Act of 2009". Govtrack.us. February 26, 2009. Retrieved March 26, 2009.
  64. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on December 14, 2008. Retrieved December 14, 2008.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  65. ^ "Durbin urges special election to succeed Obama". Usatoday.Com. December 10, 2008. Retrieved August 1, 2016.
  66. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on February 15, 2011. Retrieved December 14, 2008.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  67. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on April 30, 2006. Retrieved April 25, 2006.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  68. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on June 1, 2006. Retrieved January 21, 2007.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  69. ^ "American Airlines Praises Congressional Effort to Enhance Accountability in the Oil Markets". American Airlines. Retrieved October 30, 2014.
  70. ^ "Durbin Cautions State on Casino Plan". WBEZ. October 8, 2007. Archived from the original on February 8, 2009. Retrieved November 9, 2008.
  71. ^ "Fair Elections Now". Common Cause. Archived from the original on April 27, 2014. Retrieved April 27, 2014.
  72. ^ Robert Koenig (May 1, 2013). "Drone wars: Do 'targeted killings' undermine 'hearts and minds' counterterrorism efforts?". St. Louis Beacon. Archived from the original on July 20, 2013.
  73. ^ "Senate Dems ask DOD to protect service members from predatory lenders". The Hill. August 15, 2013.
  74. ^ "Dems slam FCC head for proposed limits to low-income internet program". The Hill. March 29, 2018.
  75. ^ Budryk, Zack (March 19, 2019). "Senate Dems petition Saudi king to release dissidents, US citizen". The Hill.
  76. ^ Frazin, Rachel (April 4, 2019). "More than 30 Senate Dems ask Trump to reconsider Central American aid cuts". The Hill.
  77. ^ Turner, Cory (April 5, 2019). "Senators To Consumer Watchdog: Prove You're Protecting Student Borrowers". NPR.org.
  78. ^ "Wyden, Merkley urge more affordable housing funds". ktvz.com. April 16, 2019.
  79. ^ "U.S. Senator Tammy Baldwin Helps Introduce Comprehensive Reform to Address Skyrocketing Prescription Drug Prices". urbanmilwaukee.com. June 12, 2019.
  80. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on June 24, 2005. Retrieved June 21, 2005.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  81. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on November 3, 2006. Retrieved October 31, 2006.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  82. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved August 16, 2006.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  83. ^ a b "Durbin Apologizes for Remarks on Abuse". Washingtonpost.com. Retrieved August 1, 2016.
  84. ^ "Durbin's Gitmo remarks draw fire back in Illinois - Washington Times". Washtimes.com. Retrieved August 1, 2016.
  85. ^ "News and Events | Veterans of Foreign Wars". Vfw.org. Archived from the original on January 14, 2010. Retrieved August 1, 2016.
  86. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on June 24, 2005. Retrieved June 24, 2005.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  87. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved November 14, 2006.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  88. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on September 11, 2005. Retrieved June 25, 2005.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  89. ^ "Durbin fucked up". Dailykos.com. June 22, 2005. Retrieved August 1, 2016.
  90. ^ "New Radio Ad Slams Durbin on Equal Pay". Capitol Fax. July 11, 2014.
  91. ^ "Dick Durbin Pays Female Staffers $11K Less Than Men, on Average". Washington Times. April 8, 2014.
  92. ^ "America's PAC's Advertisement Regarding Senator Dick Durbin" (PDF). Americaspc527.com. Retrieved August 1, 2016.
  93. ^ "Intimidation from Durbin?". Quincy Times. July 18, 2014. Archived from the original on August 10, 2014.
  94. ^ a b "Election Statistics". Office of the Clerk of the House of Representatives. Archived from the original on December 26, 2007. Retrieved August 8, 2007.
  95. ^ "Daughter of Illinois Sen. Durbin dies at 40 -- chicagotribune.com". www.chicagotribune.com. Archived from the original on November 6, 2008. Retrieved November 1, 2008.
  96. ^ a b c Skiba, Katherine; Geiger, Kim (October 4, 2014). "When Interests Overlap for Durbin, Lobbyist Wife". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved July 29, 2016.
  97. ^ Spearie, Steven (June 19, 2014). "Paprocki: Durbin still not welcome at communion". The State Journal-Register. Retrieved July 8, 2018.
  98. ^ a b Manya A. Brachear (April 2, 2004). "Durbin keeps faith, despite votes". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved May 1, 2018.
  99. ^ Jessica Chasmar (February 23, 2018). "Durbin barred from Communion by Catholic bishop of Springfield". Washington Times. Retrieved May 1, 2018.
  100. ^ a b Dianne Feinstein Attacks Judicial Nominee's Catholic Faith, National Review, Alexandra DeSanctis, September 6, 2017. Retrieved September 9, 2018.
  101. ^ Donnelly one of few Democrats to back potential Supreme Court justice Amy Coney Barrett, Indianapolis Star, Maureen Groppe, October 31, 2017. Retrieved September 9, 2018.
  102. ^ "Did Durbin and Feinstein Impose a Religious Test for Office?". National Review. September 8, 2017. Retrieved July 10, 2018.
  103. ^ "EDITORIAL: Religious Tests Unfit for Court". September 15, 2017. Retrieved July 10, 2018.

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit

U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by
Paul Findley
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Illinois's 20th congressional district

1983–1997
Succeeded by
John Shimkus
Party political offices
Preceded by
Paul Simon
Democratic nominee for U.S. Senator from Illinois
(Class 2)

1996, 2002, 2008, 2014
Most recent
Preceded by
Harry Reid
Senate Democratic Whip
2005–present
Incumbent
U.S. Senate
Preceded by
Paul Simon
U.S. Senator (Class 2) from Illinois
1997–present
Served alongside: Carol Moseley Braun, Peter Fitzgerald, Barack Obama, Roland Burris, Mark Kirk, Tammy Duckworth
Incumbent
Preceded by
Harry Reid
Senate Minority Whip
2005–2007
Succeeded by
Trent Lott
Preceded by
Mitch McConnell
Senate Majority Whip
2007–2015
Succeeded by
John Cornyn
Preceded by
John Cornyn
Senate Minority Whip
2015–present
Incumbent
U.S. order of precedence (ceremonial)
Preceded by
Pat Roberts
United States Senators by seniority
10th
Succeeded by
Jack Reed