Illinois House of Representatives
The Illinois House of Representatives is the lower house of the Illinois General Assembly, the bicameral legislature of the U.S. state of Illinois. The body was created by the first Illinois Constitution adopted in 1818. The House consists of 118 representatives elected from individual legislative districts for two-year terms with no limits; redistricted every 10 years, based on the 2010 U.S. census each representative represents approximately 108,734 people.
Illinois House of Representatives
|Illinois General Assembly|
New session started
|January 11, 2017|
Length of term
|Authority||Article IV, Illinois Constitution|
|Salary||$67,836/year + per diem|
|November 6, 2018|
|November 3, 2020|
|House of Representatives Chamber|
Illinois State Capitol
|Illinois House of Representatives|
The state legislature has the power to make laws and impeach judges. Lawmakers must be at least 21 years of age and a resident of the district in which they serve for at least two years.
The Illinois General Assembly was created by the first Illinois Constitution adopted in 1818. The candidates for office split into political parties in the 1830s, initially as the Democratic and Whig parties, until the Whig candidates reorganized as Republicans in the 1850s.
Abraham Lincoln began his political career in the Illinois House of Representatives as a member of the Whig party in 1834. He served there until 1842. Although Republicans held the majority of seats in the Illinois House after 1860, in the next election it returned to the Democrats. The Democratic Party-led legislature worked to frame a new state constitution that was ultimately rejected by voters After the 1862 election, the Democratic-led Illinois House of Representatives passed resolutions denouncing the federal government's conduct of the war and urging an immediate armistice and peace convention, leading the Republican governor to suspend the legislature for the first time in the state's history. In 1864, Republicans swept the state legislature and at the time of Lincoln's assassination at Ford's Theater, Illinois stood as a solidly Republican state.
Cutback Amendment of 1980Edit
From 1870 to 1980, Illinois' lower house had several unique features:
- The House comprised 177 members; three representatives were elected from each of 59 "legislative districts".
- Elections were conducted using cumulative voting; each individual voter was given three votes to cast for House seats, and they could distribute them to three candidates (one vote each), one candidate (receiving three votes—this was called a "bullet vote") or two candidates (each receiving 1½ votes).
- Though not constitutionally mandated, the two parties had an informal agreement that they would only run two candidates per district. Thus, in most districts, only four candidates were running for three seats, guaranteeing not only that there would be a single loser, but that each party would have significant representation—a minimum of one-third of the seats (59 out of 177)—in the House. In most cases, particularly outside Chicago, this system virtually assured that the district's minority party would win a seat.
The Cutback Amendment was proposed to abolish this system. Since its passage in 1980, representatives have been elected from 118 single-member districts formed by dividing the 59 Senate districts in half. Each representative is "associated" with a senator.
Since the adoption of the Cutback Amendment, there have been proposals by some major political figures in Illinois to bring back multi-member districts. A task force led by former governor Jim Edgar and former federal judge Abner Mikva issued a report in 2001 calling for the revival of cumulative voting, in part because it appears that such a system increases the representation of racial minorities in elected office. The Chicago Tribune editorialized in 1995 that the multi-member districts elected with cumulative voting produced better legislators. Others have argued that the now-abandoned system provided for greater "stability" in the lower house.
The Democratic Party won a majority of House seats in 1982. Except for a brief two-year period of Republican control from 1995 to 1997, the Democrats have held the majority since then.
The first two African-American legislators in Illinois were John W. E. Thomas, first elected in 1876, and George French Ecton, elected in 1886. In 1922, Lottie Holman O'Neill became the first woman elected to the Illinois House of Representatives. In 1958, Floy Clements became the first African American woman to serve as state Representative. In 1982, Joseph Berrios became the first Hispanic American state representative. Theresa Mah became the first Asian American to serve in the Illinois House when she was sworn into office January 10, 2017.
The Illinois House of Representatives meets at the Illinois State Capitol in Springfield, Illinois. It is required to convene on the second Wednesday of January each year. Along with the Illinois Senate and governor, it is vested with the power to make laws, come up with a state budget, act on federal constitutional amendments, and propose constitutional amendments to the state constitution. The Illinois House of Representatives also holds the power to impeach executive and judicial officials.
A person must be a U.S. citizen and two-year resident of an electoral district of at least 21 years of age to serve in the Illinois House of Representatives. Members of the House cannot hold other public offices or receive appointments by the governor while in office.
Composition of the HouseEdit
(Shading indicates majority caucus)
|End of previous legislature||71||47||118||0|
|August 1, 2018||50||117||1|
|Latest voting share||57.3%||42.7%|
The current Speaker of the Illinois House of Representatives is Michael Madigan (D-Chicago), who represents the 22nd district. The Democratic Party of Illinois currently holds a majority of seats in the House. Under the Illinois Constitution, the office of minority leader is recognized for the purpose of making certain appointments. Jim Durkin (R-Western Springs), representing the 82nd district, currently holds the post.
- Clerk of the House: Timothy D. Mapes
- Chief Doorkeeper: Lee A. Crawford
- Parliamentarian: Heather Wier Vaught & Justin Cox
- Assistant Clerk of the House: Bradley S. Bolin
|1||Daniel J. Burke||Democratic||January 1991||Chicago|
|2||Theresa Mah||Democratic||December 2006 Ɨ||Chicago|
|3||Luis Arroyo||Democratic||December 2006 Ɨ||Chicago|
|4||Cynthia Soto||Democratic||January 2001||Chicago|
|5||Juliana Stratton||Democratic||January 2017||Chicago|
|6||Sonya Harper||Democratic||October 2015 Ɨ||Chicago|
|7||Emanuel Chris Welch||Democratic||January 2013||Hillside|
|8||LaShawn Ford||Democratic||January 2007||Chicago|
|9||Art Turner||Democratic||December 2010 ƗƗ||Chicago|
|10||Melissa Conyears||Democratic||January 2017||Chicago|
|11||Ann Williams||Democratic||January 2011||Chicago|
|12||Sara Feigenholtz||Democratic||January 1995||Chicago|
|13||Greg Harris||Democratic||December 2006 ƗƗ||Chicago|
|14||Kelly Cassidy||Democratic||May 2011 Ɨ||Chicago|
|15||John C. D'Amico||Democratic||November 2004 ƗƗ||Chicago|
|16||Lou Lang||Democratic||January 1987||Skokie|
|17||Laura Fine||Democratic||January 2013||Glenview|
|18||Robyn Gabel||Democratic||April 2010 Ɨ||Evanston|
|19||Robert F. Martwick, Jr||Democratic||January 2013||Norridge|
|20||Michael P. McAuliffe||Republican||July 1996 Ɨ||Chicago|
|21||Celina Villanueva||Democratic||July 2018 Ɨ||Chicago|
|22||Michael Madigan||Democratic||January 1971||Chicago|
|23||Michael J. Zalewski||Democratic||December 2008 ƗƗ||Riverside|
|24||Elizabeth Hernandez||Democratic||January 2007||Cicero|
|25||Barbara Flynn Currie||Democratic||January 1979||Chicago|
|26||Christian Mitchell||Democratic||January 2013||Chicago|
|27||Justin Slaughter||Democratic||January 2017 Ɨ||Chicago|
|28||Robert Rita||Democratic||January 2003||Blue Island|
|29||Thaddeus Jones||Democratic||January 2011||Calumet City|
|30||William Davis||Democratic||January 2003||Homewood|
|31||Mary E. Flowers||Democratic||January 1985||Chicago|
|32||Andre Thapedi||Democratic||January 2009||Chicago|
|33||Marcus C. Evans, Jr.||Democratic||April 2012 Ɨ||Chicago|
|34||Nicholas Smith||Democratic||February 2018 Ɨ||Chicago|
|35||Frances Ann Hurley||Democratic||January 2013||Chicago|
|36||Kelly M. Burke||Democratic||January 2011||Evergreen Park|
|37||Margo McDermed||Republican||January 2015||Mokena|
|38||Al Riley||Democratic||January 2007||Olympia Fields|
|39||Will Guzzardi||Democratic||January 2015||Chicago|
|40||Jaime Andrade Jr.||Democratic||August 2013 Ɨ||Chicago|
|41||Grant Wehrli||Republican||January 2015||Naperville|
|42||Jeanne Ives||Republican||January 2013||Wheaton|
|43||Anna Moeller||Democratic||March 2014 Ɨ||Elgin|
|44||Fred Crespo||Democratic||January 2007||Hoffman Estates|
|45||Christine Winger||Republican||January 2015||Wood Dale|
|46||Deborah Conroy||Democratic||January 2013||Villa Park|
|47||Deanne Mazzochi||Republican||July 2018 Ɨ||Elmhurst|
|48||Peter Breen||Republican||January 2015||Lombard|
|49||Mike Fortner||Republican||January 2007||West Chicago|
|50||Keith R. Wheeler||Republican||January 2015||Oswego|
|51||Helene Walsh||Republican||August 2018 Ɨ||Mundelein|
|52||David McSweeney||Republican||January 2013||Barrington Hills|
|53||David Harris||Republican||January 2011||Mount Prospect|
|54||Thomas Morrison||Republican||January 2011||Palatine|
|55||Marty Moylan||Democratic||January 2013||Des Plaines|
|56||Michelle Mussman||Democratic||January 2011||Schaumburg|
|57||Jonathan Carroll||Democratic||October 2017 Ɨ||Northbrook|
|58||Scott Drury||Democratic||January 2013||Highwood|
|59||Carol Sente||Democratic||September 2009 Ɨ||Vernon Hills|
|60||Rita Mayfield||Democratic||July 2010 Ɨ||Waukegan|
|61||Sheri Jesiel||Republican||August 2014 Ɨ||Winthrop Harbor|
|62||Sam Yingling||Democratic||January 2013||Grayslake|
|63||Steve Reick||Republican||January 2017||Woodstock|
|64||Barbara Wheeler||Republican||January 2013||Crystal Lake|
|65||Steven Andersson||Republican||January 2015||Geneva|
|66||Allen Skillicorn||Republican||January 2017||Algonquin|
|67||Litesa Wallace||Democratic||August 2014 Ɨ||Rockford|
|68||John Cabello||Republican||August 2012 Ɨ||Machesney Park|
|69||Joe Sosnowski||Republican||January 2011||Rockford|
|70||Jeff Keicher||Republican||August 2018 Ɨ||DeKalb|
|71||Tony McCombie||Republican||January 2017||Savanna|
|72||Michael Halpin||Democratic||January 2017||Milan|
|73||Ryan Spain||Republican||January 2017||Peoria|
|74||Daniel Swanson||Republican||January 2017||Woodhull|
|75||David Welter||Republican||July 2016 Ɨ||Morris|
|76||Jerry Lee Long||Republican||January 2017||Streator|
|77||Kathleen Willis||Democratic||January 2013||Addison|
|78||Camille Y. Lilly||Democratic||April 2010 Ɨ||Chicago|
|79||Lindsay Parkhurst||Republican||January 2017||Kankakee|
|80||Anthony DeLuca||Democratic||March 2009 Ɨ||Chicago Heights|
|81||David S. Olsen||Republican||August 2016 Ɨ||Downers Grove|
|82||Jim Durkin||Republican||January 2006 Ɨ||Western Springs|
|83||Linda Chapa LaVia||Democratic||January 2003||Aurora|
|84||Stephanie Kifowit||Democratic||January 2013||Oswego|
|85||John Connor||Democratic||June 2017 Ɨ||Lockport|
|86||Lawrence M. Walsh, Jr.||Democratic||April 2012 Ɨ||Elwood|
|87||Tim Butler||Republican||March 2015 Ɨ||Springfield|
|88||Keith P. Sommer||Republican||January 1999 Ɨ||Morton|
|89||Brian W. Stewart||Republican||October 2013 Ɨ||Freeport|
|90||Tom Demmer||Republican||January 2013||Dixon|
|91||Michael D. Unes||Republican||January 2011||East Peoria|
|92||Jehan Gordon||Democratic||January 2009||Peoria|
|93||Norine Hammond||Republican||December 2010 Ɨ||Macomb|
|94||Randy Frese||Republican||January 2015||Paloma|
|95||Avery Bourne||Republican||February 2015 Ɨ||Pawnee|
|96||Sue Scherer||Democratic||January 2013||Decatur|
|97||Mark Batinick||Republican||January 2015||Plainfield|
|98||Natalie Manley||Democratic||January 2013||Joliet|
|99||Sara Wojcicki Jimenez||Republican||November 2015 Ɨ||Leland Grove|
|100||C. D. Davidsmeyer||Republican||December 2012 Ɨ||Jacksonville|
|101||Bill Mitchell||Republican||January 1999||Forsyth|
|102||Brad Halbrook||Republican||January 2017||Shelbyville|
|103||Carol Ammons||Democratic||January 2015||Urbana|
|104||Michael Marron||Republican||September 2018 Ɨ||Fithian|
|105||Dan Brady||Republican||January 2001||Bloomington|
|106||Thomas M. Bennett||Republican||January 2015||Gibson City|
|107||John Cavaletto||Republican||January 2009||Salem|
|108||Charles Meier||Republican||January 2013||Okawville|
|109||David Reis||Republican||January 2005||Olney|
|110||Reginald Phillips||Republican||January 2015||Charleston|
|111||Monica Bristow||Democratic||December 2017 Ɨ||Alton|
|112||Katie Stuart||Democratic||January 2017||Edwardsville|
|113||Jay Hoffman||Democratic||January 2013||Swansea|
|114||LaToya Greenwood||Democratic||January 2017||East St. Louis|
|115||Terri Bryant||Republican||January 2015||Murphysboro|
|116||Jerry Costello II||Democratic||July 2011 Ɨ||Smithton|
|117||Dave Severin||Republican||January 2017||Benton|
|118||Natalie Phelps Finnie||Democratic||September 2017 Ɨ||Elizabethtown|
Ɨ Legislator was appointed to the Illinois House of Representatives during session.
ƗƗ Legislator was appointed to the Illinois House of Representatives after being elected, but prior to inauguration day of the General Assembly to which they were elected.
Past composition of the House of RepresentativesEdit
- White, Jr., Ronald C. (2009). A. Lincoln: A Biography. Random House, Inc. ISBN 978-1-4000-6499-1, p. 59.
- VandeCreek, Drew E. Politics in Illinois and the Union During the Civil War (accessed May 28, 2013)
- "FairVote - Illinois' Drive to Revive Cumulative Voting". Archive.fairvote.org. Retrieved January 31, 2011.
- "FairVote - Black Representation Under Cumulative Voting in Illinois". Archive.fairvote.org. Retrieved January 31, 2011.
- "Cumulative Voting - Illinois | The New Rules Project". Newrules.org. January 12, 2005. Retrieved January 31, 2011.
- "HeinOnline". HeinOnline. Retrieved January 31, 2011.
- Joens, David A. From Slave to State Legislator: John WE Thomas, Illinois' First African American Lawmaker. SIU Press, 2012.
- "Illinois Women in Congress and General Assembly" (PDF). Springfield, Illinois: Illinois General Assembly Legislative Research Unit. February 11, 2016. Retrieved August 21, 2017.
- Bone, Jan, ed. (June 1974). "Commission on the Status of Women. Report and Recommendations to the Governor and the General Assembly" (PDF). Springfield, Illinois: Illinois Commission on the Status of Women. p. 26. Retrieved August 21, 2017.
- Fremon, David K. (December 1991). "How first Hispanic congressional district remaps Chicago politics". Illinois Issues. Springfield, Illinois: Sangamon State University. pp. 22–24. Retrieved August 21, 2017.
- Miller, Rich (April 29, 2016). "How the South Side elected the state's first Asian-American lawmaker". Crain's Chicago Business. Retrieved November 8, 2016.
- Constitution of the State of Illinois, Article IV, The Legislature (accessed May 28, 2013)
- Republican Nick Sauer (District 51) resigns. 
- "Current House Members (98th General Assembly)". Illinois General Assembly. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Illinois House of Representatives.|
- Illinois General Assembly - House official government website
- Illinois House Republicans official party website
- Illinois House Democrats official party website
- Legislature of Illinois at Project Vote Smart
- Illinois campaign financing at FollowTheMoney.org
- Illinois House of Representatives at Ballotpedia