List of governors of Ohio

(Redirected from List of Governors of Ohio)

The governor of Ohio is the head of government of Ohio[2] and the commander-in-chief of the U.S. state's military forces.[3] The officeholder has a duty to enforce state laws, the power to either approve or veto bills passed by the Ohio General Assembly,[4] the power to convene the legislature[5] and the power to grant pardons, except in cases of treason and impeachment.[6]

Governor of the State of Ohio
Seal of the governor of Ohio
Standard of the governor of Ohio
Incumbent
Mike DeWine
since January 14, 2019
Government of Ohio
StyleThe Honorable
ResidenceOhio Governor's Mansion
Term lengthFour years, renewable once consecutively
Inaugural holderEdward Tiffin
FormationMarch 3, 1803
DeputyLieutenant Governor of Ohio
Salary$148,886 (2015)[1]
Websitegovernor.ohio.gov

There have been 64 governors of Ohio, serving 70 distinct terms. The longest term was held by Jim Rhodes, who was elected four times and served just under sixteen years in two non-consecutive periods of two terms each (1963–1971 and 1975–1983). The shortest terms were held by John William Brown and Nancy Hollister, who each served for only 11 days after the governors preceding them resigned in order to begin the terms to which they had been elected in the United States Senate; the shortest-serving elected governor was John M. Pattison, who died in office five months into his term. The current governor is Republican Mike DeWine, who took office on January 14, 2019.

Qualifications edit

 
The governor's working office is in the Vern Riffe State Office Tower in downtown Columbus

To become governor of Ohio, a candidate must be a qualified elector in the state. This means that any candidate for governor must be at least 18 years old at the time of election, a resident of Ohio for at least 30 days before the election, and a U.S. citizen. Convicted felons and those deemed by the courts as incompetent to vote are not eligible. There is a term limit of two consecutive terms as governor.

Powers edit

The governor is the commander-in-chief of the state's military forces. The governor has a duty to enforce state laws; the power to either approve or veto bills passed by the Ohio State Legislature; the power to convene the legislature; and the power to grant pardons, except in cases of treason and impeachment.

Other duties and privileges of the office include:

  • Executing all laws and requiring written information on any office from the head of that office
  • Making an annual address to the General Assembly, with recommendation for legislation
  • Convening extraordinary sessions of the legislature with limited purposes
  • Adjourning the legislature when the two chambers cannot agree to do so themselves, not to include the privilege of adjourning the legislature past the sine die set for the regular session
  • Keeping and using "The Great Seal of the State of Ohio"
  • Signing and sealing all commissions granted in the name of the state of Ohio
  • Nominating, in the event of a vacancy in the Lieutenant Governor's office, a new officer, subject to a confirmatory vote of both chambers of the legislature
  • Making vacancy appointments for all "key state officers" (the Auditor, the Treasurer, the Secretary of State, and the Attorney General. Such appointments are for the remainder of the term when the next general election is less than 40 days away and until the next general election otherwise
  • Accepting a report from the head of each executive department at least once a year, not later than five days before the regular session of the legislature convenes, and including the substance of those reports in the annual address to the legislature
  • Making all appointments not otherwise provided for, with the advice and consent of the Senate, unless the Senate refuses to act, in which case the Governor's appointee takes offices by default

Succession edit

Should the office of governor become vacant due to death, resignation, or conviction of impeachment, the lieutenant governor assumes the title of governor. Should the office of lieutenant governor also become vacant, the president of the senate becomes the acting governor.[7] If the vacancy of both offices took place during the first twenty months of the term, a special election is to be held on the next even-numbered year to elect new officers to serve out the current term.[8] Prior to 1851, the speaker of the senate acted as governor for the term.[9] Since 1978, the governor and lieutenant governor have been elected on the same ticket; prior to then, they could be (and often were) members of different parties.[10]

List of governors edit

Northwest Territory edit

The Territory Northwest of the Ohio River, commonly known as the Northwest Territory, was organized on July 13, 1787.[11] Many territories and states were split from Northwest Territory over the years, with the last portion being split between Indiana Territory and the newly-admitted state of Ohio on March 1, 1803.[12][13]

Throughout its 15-year history, Northwest Territory had only one governor appointed by the federal government, Arthur St. Clair. He was removed from office by President Thomas Jefferson on November 22, 1802, and no successor was named; Secretary of the Territory Charles Willing Byrd acted as governor until statehood.[14]

Governor of the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio
Governor Term in office[a] Appointed by
  Arthur St. Clair
(1737–1818)
[15]
October 5, 1787[b]

November 22, 1802
(removed)[c]
Continental Congress
George Washington
John Adams

State of Ohio edit

Ohio was admitted to the Union on March 1, 1803. Since then, it has had 64 governors, six of whom (Allen Trimble, Wilson Shannon, Rutherford B. Hayes, James M. Cox, Frank Lausche, and Jim Rhodes) served non-consecutive terms.

The first constitution of 1803 allowed governors to serve for two-year terms, limited to six of any eight years, commencing on the first Monday in the December following an election.[21] The current constitution of 1851 removed the term limit, and shifted the start of the term to the second Monday in January following an election.[10] In 1908, Ohio switched from holding elections in odd-numbered years to even-numbered years, with the preceding governor (from the 1905 election) serving an extra year.[22] A 1957 amendment[10] lengthened the term to four years and allowed governors to only succeed themselves once, having to wait four years after their second term in a row before being allowed to run again.[23] An Ohio Supreme Court ruling in 1973 clarified this to mean governors could theoretically serve unlimited terms, as long as they waited four years after every second term.[10]

Governors of the State of Ohio
No. Governor Term in office Party Election Lt. Governor[d][e]
1     Edward Tiffin
(1766–1829)
[24][25]
March 3, 1803[26]

March 4, 1807
(resigned)[f]
Democratic-
Republican
[27]
1803 Office did not exist
1805
2   Thomas Kirker
(1760–1837)
[28][29]
March 4, 1807[26]

December 12, 1808
(lost election)
Democratic-
Republican
[27]
Speaker of
the Senate
acting
1807[g]
3   Samuel Huntington
(1765–1817)
[30][31]
December 12, 1808[26]

December 8, 1810
(did not run)
Democratic-
Republican
[27]
1808
4   Return J. Meigs Jr.
(1764–1825)
[32][33]
December 8, 1810[26]

March 25, 1814
(resigned)[h]
Democratic-
Republican
[27]
1810
1812
5   Othniel Looker
(1757–1845)
[34][35]
March 25, 1814[i]

December 8, 1814
(lost election)
Democratic-
Republican
[27]
Speaker of
the Senate
acting
6   Thomas Worthington
(1773–1827)
[36][37]
December 8, 1814[26]

December 14, 1818
(did not run)
Democratic-
Republican
[27]
1814
1816
7   Ethan Allen Brown
(1776–1852)
[38][39]
December 14, 1818[26]

January 4, 1822
(resigned)[j]
Democratic-
Republican
[27]
1818
1820
8   Allen Trimble
(1783–1870)
[40][41]
January 4, 1822[26]

December 28, 1822
(lost election)
Democratic-
Republican
[27]
Speaker of
the Senate
acting
9   Jeremiah Morrow
(1771–1852)
[42][43]
December 28, 1822[26]

December 19, 1826
(did not run)[42]
Democratic-
Republican
[27]
1822
1824
10   Allen Trimble
(1783–1870)
[40][41]
December 19, 1826[26]

December 18, 1830
(did not run)
National
Republican
[27]
1826
1828
11   Duncan McArthur
(1772–1839)
[44][45]
December 18, 1830[26]

December 7, 1832
(did not run)[k]
National
Republican
[27]
1830
12   Robert Lucas
(1781–1853)
[46][47]
December 7, 1832[48]

December 13, 1836
(did not run)
Democratic[49] 1832
1834
13   Joseph Vance
(1786–1852)
[50][51]
December 13, 1836[52]

December 13, 1838
(lost election)
Whig[49] 1836
14   Wilson Shannon
(1802–1877)
[53][54]
December 13, 1838[55]

December 16, 1840
(lost election)
Democratic[49] 1838
15   Thomas Corwin
(1794–1865)
[56][57]
December 16, 1840[58]

December 14, 1842
(lost election)
Whig[49] 1840
16   Wilson Shannon
(1802–1877)
[53][54]
December 14, 1842[59]

April 15, 1844
(resigned)[l]
Democratic[49] 1842
17   Thomas W. Bartley
(1812–1885)
[60][61]
April 15, 1844[m]

December 3, 1844
(lost nomination)[n]
Democratic[49] Speaker of
the Senate
acting
18   Mordecai Bartley
(1783–1870)
[63][64]
December 3, 1844[65]

December 12, 1846
(did not run)[63]
Whig[49] 1844
19   William Bebb
(1802–1873)
[66][67]
December 12, 1846[68]

January 22, 1849
(did not run)[66]
Whig[49] 1846
20   Seabury Ford
(1801–1855)
[69][70]
January 22, 1849[71]

December 12, 1850
(did not run)
Whig[49] 1848[o]
21   Reuben Wood
(d. 1864)
[72][73]
December 12, 1850[74]

July 13, 1853
(resigned)[p]
Democratic[49] 1850
1851   William Medill
22   William Medill
(1802–1865)
[75][76]
July 13, 1853[77]

January 14, 1856
(lost election)
Democratic[49] Succeeded from
lieutenant
governor
Vacant
1853 James Myers
23   Salmon P. Chase
(1808–1873)
[78][79]
January 14, 1856[80]

January 9, 1860
(did not run)[q]
Republican[49] 1855 Thomas H. Ford
1857 Martin Welker
24   William Dennison Jr.
(1815–1882)
[81][82]
January 9, 1860[83]

January 13, 1862
(did not run)
Republican[49] 1859 Robert C. Kirk
25   David Tod
(1805–1868)
[84][85]
January 13, 1862[86]

January 11, 1864
(lost nomination)[r]
Republican[49] 1861 Benjamin Stanton
26   John Brough
(1811–1865)
[87][88]
January 11, 1864[89]

August 29, 1865
(died in office)[87]
Unionist[49] 1863 Charles Anderson[s]
27   Charles Anderson
(1814–1895)
[90][91]
August 29, 1865[92]

January 8, 1866
(did not run)[90]
Republican[49] Succeeded from
lieutenant
governor
Vacant
28   Jacob Dolson Cox
(1828–1900)
[93][94]
January 8, 1866[95]

January 13, 1868
(did not run)[93]
Republican[49] 1865 Andrew McBurney
29   Rutherford B. Hayes
(1822–1893)
[96][97]
January 13, 1868[98]

January 8, 1872
(did not run)
Republican[49] 1867 John C. Lee
1869
30   Edward Follansbee Noyes
(1832–1890)
[99][100]
January 8, 1872[101]

January 12, 1874
(lost election)
Republican[49] 1871 Jacob Mueller
31   William Allen
(1803–1879)
[102][103]
January 12, 1874[104]

January 10, 1876
(lost election)
Democratic[49] 1873 Alphonso Hart[s]
32   Rutherford B. Hayes
(1822–1893)
[96][97]
January 10, 1876[105]

March 2, 1877
(resigned)[t]
Republican[49] 1875 Thomas L. Young
33   Thomas L. Young
(1832–1888)
[106][107]
March 2, 1877[108]

January 14, 1878
(did not run)[106]
Republican[49] Succeeded from
lieutenant
governor
H. W. Curtiss
(acting)
34   Richard M. Bishop
(1812–1893)
[109][110]
January 14, 1878[111]

January 12, 1880
(lost nomination)[u]
Democratic[49] 1877 Jabez W. Fitch
35   Charles Foster
(1828–1904)
[113][114]
January 12, 1880[115]

January 14, 1884
(did not run)
Republican[49] 1879 Andrew Hickenlooper
1881 Rees G. Richards
36   George Hoadly
(1826–1902)
[116][117]
January 14, 1884[118]

January 11, 1886
(lost election)
Democratic[49] 1883 John G. Warwick
37   Joseph B. Foraker
(1846–1917)
[119][120]
January 11, 1886[121]

January 13, 1890
(lost election)
Republican[49] 1885 Robert P. Kennedy
(resigned March 3, 1887)
Silas A. Conrad
1887 William C. Lyon
38   James E. Campbell
(1843–1924)
[122][123]
January 13, 1890[124]

January 11, 1892
(lost election)
Democratic[49] 1889 Elbert L. Lampson[s]
(replaced January 31, 1890)
William V. Marquis
39   William McKinley
(1843–1901)
[125][126]
January 11, 1892[127]

January 13, 1896
(did not run)
Republican[49] 1891 Andrew L. Harris
1893
40   Asa S. Bushnell
(1834–1904)
[128][129]
January 13, 1896[130]

January 8, 1900
(did not run)[128]
Republican[49] 1895 Asa W. Jones
1897
41   George K. Nash
(1842–1904)
[131][132]
January 8, 1900[133]

January 11, 1904
(did not run)[131]
Republican[49] 1899 John A. Caldwell
1901 Carl L. Nippert
(resigned May 1, 1902)
Harry L. Gordon
42   Myron T. Herrick
(1854–1929)
[134][135]
January 11, 1904[136]

January 8, 1906
(lost election)
Republican[49] 1903 Warren G. Harding
43   John M. Pattison
(1847–1906)
[137][138]
January 8, 1906[139]

June 18, 1906
(died in office)
Democratic[49] 1905 Andrew L. Harris[s]
44   Andrew L. Harris
(1835–1915)
[140][141]
June 18, 1906[142]

January 11, 1909
(lost election)
Republican[49] Succeeded from
lieutenant
governor
Vacant
45   Judson Harmon
(1846–1927)
[143][144]
January 11, 1909[145]

January 13, 1913
(did not run)[v]
Democratic[49] 1908 Francis W. Treadway[s]
1910 Atlee Pomerene
(resigned March 4, 1911)
Hugh L. Nichols
46   James M. Cox
(1870–1957)
[146][147]
January 13, 1913[148]

January 11, 1915
(lost election)
Democratic[49] 1912 W. A. Greenlund
47   Frank B. Willis
(1871–1928)
[149][150]
January 11, 1915[151]

January 8, 1917
(lost election)
Republican[49] 1914 John H. Arnold
48   James M. Cox
(1870–1957)
[146][147]
January 8, 1917[152]

January 10, 1921
(did not run)[w]
Democratic[49] 1916 Earl D. Bloom
1918 Clarence J. Brown[s]
49   Harry L. Davis
(1878–1950)
[153][154]
January 10, 1921[155]

January 8, 1923
(did not run)[153]
Republican[49] 1920
50   A. Victor Donahey
(1873–1946)
[156][157]
January 8, 1923[158]

January 14, 1929
(did not run)
Democratic[49] 1922 Earl D. Bloom
1924 Charles H. Lewis[s]
1926 Earl D. Bloom
(resigned April 1928)
William G. Pickrel
(term ended November 1928)
George C. Braden[s]
51   Myers Y. Cooper
(1873–1958)
[159][160]
January 14, 1929[161]

January 12, 1931
(lost election)
Republican[49] 1928 John T. Brown
52   George White
(1872–1953)
[162][163]
January 12, 1931[164]

January 14, 1935
(did not run)
Democratic[49] 1930 William G. Pickrel
1932 Charles W. Sawyer
53   Martin L. Davey
(1884–1946)
[165][166]
January 14, 1935[167]

January 9, 1939
(lost nomination)[x]
Democratic[49] 1934 Harold G. Mosier
1936 Paul P. Yoder
54   John W. Bricker
(1893–1986)
[168][169]
January 9, 1939[170]

January 8, 1945
(did not run)[y]
Republican[49] 1938 Paul M. Herbert
1940
1942
55   Frank Lausche
(1895–1990)
[171][172]
January 8, 1945[173]

January 13, 1947
(lost election)
Democratic[49] 1944 George D. Nye
56   Thomas J. Herbert
(1894–1974)
[174][175]
January 13, 1947[176]

January 10, 1949
(lost election)
Republican[49] 1946 Paul M. Herbert
57   Frank Lausche
(1895–1990)
[171][172]
January 10, 1949[177]

January 3, 1957
(resigned)[z]
Democratic[49] 1948 George D. Nye
1950
1952 John William Brown[s]
1954
58   John William Brown
(1913–1993)
[178][179]
January 3, 1957[180]

January 14, 1957
(successor took office)
Republican[49] Succeeded from
lieutenant
governor
Vacant
59   C. William O'Neill
(1916–1978)
[181][182]
January 14, 1957[183]

January 12, 1959
(lost election)
Republican[49] 1956 Paul M. Herbert
60   Michael DiSalle
(1908–1981)
[184][185]
January 12, 1959[186]

January 14, 1963
(lost election)
Democratic[49] 1958 John W. Donahey
61
Jim Rhodes
(1909–2001)
[187][188]
January 14, 1963[189]

January 11, 1971
(term-limited)
Republican[49] 1962 John William Brown
1966
62   John J. Gilligan
(1921–2013)
[190][191]
January 11, 1971[192]

January 13, 1975
(lost election)
Democratic[49] 1970
63
Jim Rhodes
(1909–2001)
[187][188]
January 13, 1975[193]

January 10, 1983
(term-limited)[aa]
Republican[49] 1974 Dick Celeste[ab]
1978 George Voinovich
(resigned November 1979)
Vacant
64   Dick Celeste
(b. 1937)
[195]
January 10, 1983[196]

January 14, 1991
(term-limited)[aa]
Democratic[195] 1982 Myrl Shoemaker
(died July 30, 1985)
Vacant
1986 Paul Leonard
65   George Voinovich
(1936–2016)
[197]
January 14, 1991[198]

December 31, 1998
(resigned)[ac]
Republican[197] 1990 Mike DeWine
(resigned November 12, 1994)
Vacant
1994 Nancy Hollister
66   Nancy Hollister
(b. 1949)
[199]
December 31, 1998[200]

January 11, 1999
(successor took office)
Republican[199] Succeeded from
lieutenant
governor
Vacant
67   Bob Taft
(b. 1942)
[201]
January 11, 1999[202]

January 8, 2007
(term-limited)[aa]
Republican[201] 1998 Maureen O'Connor
(resigned December 31, 2002)
Vacant
2002 Jennette Bradley
(resigned January 5, 2005)
Bruce Johnson
(resigned December 8, 2006)
Vacant
68   Ted Strickland
(b. 1941)
[203]
January 8, 2007[204]

January 10, 2011
(lost election)
Democratic[203] 2006 Lee Fisher
69   John Kasich
(b. 1952)
[205]
January 10, 2011[206]

January 14, 2019
(term-limited)[aa]
Republican[205] 2010 Mary Taylor
2014
70   Mike DeWine
(b. 1947)
[207]
January 14, 2019[208]

Incumbent[ad]
Republican[207] 2018 Jon Husted
2022

Notes edit

  1. ^ The range given is from the date the governor was confirmed by the Senate, or appointed by the President during a Senate recess, to the date the governor's successor was confirmed, unless noted.
  2. ^ St. Clair was appointed on October 5, 1787, by the Continental Congress,[16] and he established the territorial government on July 15, 1788.[15] He was reconfirmed by the Senate on August 20, 1789;[17] December 11, 1794;[18] January 12, 1798;[19] and February 3, 1801.[20]
  3. ^ St. Clair was removed due to political disagreements with President Thomas Jefferson.[15] Secretary of the Territory Charles Willing Byrd acted as governor until statehood.[15]
  4. ^ The office of lieutenant governor was created in 1851, first being filled in 1852.
  5. ^ Lieutenant governors represented the same party as their governor unless noted.
  6. ^ Tiffin resigned, having been elected to the United States Senate.[24]
  7. ^ Return J. Meigs Jr. won the 1807 election over Nathaniel Massie, but Massie contested, saying Meigs failed the residency requirement. The general assembly declared Meigs was ineligible and Massie had won, but Massie refused the office, and so Kirker remained in office until his term ended on December 12, 1808, having lost the 1808 election.[28][26]
  8. ^ Meigs resigned, having been confirmed as United States Postmaster General.[32]
  9. ^ Sources disagree on if Meigs resigned on March 24[33] or March 25.[34][26]
  10. ^ Brown resigned, having been elected to the United States Senate.[38]
  11. ^ McArthur instead ran unsuccessfully for the United States House of Representatives.[44]
  12. ^ Shannon resigned, having been confirmed as United States Minister to Mexico.[53]
  13. ^ No contemporary sources found so far specify the date Shannon resigned; a notice appeared in the Columbus Statesman on April 15, 1844, but it does not specify that the resignation took place on that day.[62] Modern sources use April 15.[60]
  14. ^ Bartley lost the Democratic nomination to David Tod.[60]
  15. ^ Due to the large number of close elections that year, the general assembly was delayed in qualifying governor-elect Seabury Ford, and William Bebb remained in office for an extra few weeks.[69]
  16. ^ Wood resigned to be consul in Valparaíso, Chile.[72]
  17. ^ Chase was instead elected to the United States Senate.[78]
  18. ^ Tod lost the Unionist nomination to John Brough.[84]
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i Represented the Republican Party
  20. ^ Hayes resigned, having been elected President of the United States.[96]
  21. ^ Bishop lost the Democratic nomination to Thomas Ewing Jr.[112]
  22. ^ Harmon instead ran unsuccessfully for the Democratic nomination for President of the United States.[143]
  23. ^ Cox instead ran unsuccessfully for President of the United States.[146]
  24. ^ Davey lost the Democratic nomination to Charles W. Sawyer.[165]
  25. ^ Bricker instead ran unsuccessfully for Vice President of the United States.[168]
  26. ^ Lausche resigned, having been elected to the United States Senate.[171]
  27. ^ a b c d Under a 1957 amendment to the constitution, governors are ineligible to hold the office longer than two successive terms.[194]
  28. ^ Represented the Democratic Party
  29. ^ Voinovich resigned, having been elected to the United States Senate.[197]
  30. ^ DeWine's second term began on January 9, 2023 and will expire January 11, 2027; he will be term-limited.

References edit

General
Specific
  1. ^ "Governors' Salaries, 2015" (PDF). The Council of State Governments. September 21, 2015. Retrieved July 21, 2016.
  2. ^ Ohio Constitution article III, § 5.
  3. ^ Ohio Constitution article III, § 10.
  4. ^ Ohio Constitution article II, § 16.
  5. ^ Ohio Constitution article III, § 8.
  6. ^ Ohio Constitution article III § 11.
  7. ^ Ohio Constitution article III, § 15
  8. ^ Ohio Constitution article III, § 17
  9. ^ Ohio Constitution article II, § 12
  10. ^ a b c d Steinglass, Steven H.; Scarselli, Gino J. (2004). The Ohio State Constitution: A Reference Guide. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 7. ISBN 0-313-26765-0. Retrieved May 30, 2008.
  11. ^ Northwest Ordinance Archived March 16, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, July 13, 1787; (National Archives Microfilm Publication M332, roll 9); Miscellaneous Papers of the Continental Congress, 1774–1789; Records of the Continental and Confederation Congresses and the Constitutional Convention, 1774–1789, Record Group 360; National Archives.
  12. ^ Stat. 173
  13. ^ "Evolution of Territories and States from the Old "Northwest Territory"". John Lindquist. Retrieved June 16, 2008.
  14. ^ Smith, William Henry, ed. (1882). The Life and Public Services of Arthur St. Clair. Vol. 1. Robert Clarke and Company. p. 246.
  15. ^ a b c d McMullin 1984, pp. 261–264.
  16. ^ Continental Congress 1787, 33:610
  17. ^ U.S. Congress. Senate Exec. Journal. 1st Cong., 1st sess., 18, accessed May 31, 2023.
  18. ^ U.S. Congress. Senate Exec. Journal. 3rd Cong., 2nd sess., 165, accessed May 31, 2023.
  19. ^ U.S. Congress. Senate Exec. Journal. 5th Cong., 2nd sess., 258, accessed May 31, 2023.
  20. ^ U.S. Congress. Senate Exec. Journal. 6th Cong., 2nd sess., 376, accessed May 31, 2023.
  21. ^ Ohio Constitution article II, § 3
  22. ^ Article XVII (adopted November 1905) of Constitution, section 2: "And the General Assembly shall have power to so extend existing terms of office as to effect the purpose of section 1 of this article." and section 3 : "Every elective officer holding office when this amendment is adopted shall continue to hold such office for the full term for which he was elected and until his successor shall be elected and qualified as provided by law." source: Sandles, A P; Doty, E W, eds. (1898). The biographical annals of Ohio 1906-1907-1908 : A handbook of the Government and Institutions of the State of Ohio. State of Ohio. p. 123.
  23. ^ Ohio Constitution article III, § 2
  24. ^ a b Sobel 1978, p. 1191.
  25. ^ "Edward Tiffin". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 1, 2023.
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l History of Logan County and Ohio. O.L. Baskin. 1880. p. 126.
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Glashan 1979, p. 240.
  28. ^ a b Sobel 1978, p. 1192.
  29. ^ "Thomas Kirker". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 1, 2023.
  30. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 1192–1193.
  31. ^ "Samuel Huntington". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 1, 2023.
  32. ^ a b Sobel 1978, pp. 1193–1194.
  33. ^ a b "Return Jonathan Meigs". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 1, 2023.
  34. ^ a b Sobel 1978, pp. 1194–1195.
  35. ^ "Othneil Looker". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 1, 2023.
  36. ^ Sobel 1978, p. 1195.
  37. ^ "Thomas Worthington". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 1, 2023.
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  186. ^ "DiSalle Sworn In As State's 55th Governor". Telegraph-Forum. United Press International. January 12, 1959. p. 1. Retrieved June 5, 2023.
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