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1944 United States presidential election

The 1944 United States presidential election was the 40th quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 7, 1944. The election took place during World War II. Incumbent Democratic President Franklin D. Roosevelt defeated Republican Thomas E. Dewey to win an unprecedented fourth term.

1944 United States presidential election

← 1940 November 7, 1944 1948 →

All 531 electoral votes of the Electoral College
266 electoral votes needed to win
Turnout55.9%[1] Decrease 6.6 pp
  1944 portrait of FDR (1)(small).jpg ThomasDewey.jpg
Nominee Franklin D. Roosevelt Thomas E. Dewey
Party Democratic Republican
Home state New York New York
Running mate Harry S. Truman John W. Bricker
Electoral vote 432 99
States carried 36 12
Popular vote 25,612,916 22,017,929
Percentage 53.39% 45.89%

1944 United States presidential election in California1944 United States presidential election in Oregon1944 United States presidential election in Washington (state)1944 United States presidential election in Idaho1944 United States presidential election in Nevada1944 United States presidential election in Utah1944 United States presidential election in Arizona1944 United States presidential election in Montana1944 United States presidential election in Wyoming1944 United States presidential election in Colorado1944 United States presidential election in New Mexico1944 United States presidential election in North Dakota1944 United States presidential election in South Dakota1944 United States presidential election in Nebraska1944 United States presidential election in Kansas1944 United States presidential election in Oklahoma1944 United States presidential election in Texas1944 United States presidential election in Minnesota1944 United States presidential election in Iowa1944 United States presidential election in Missouri1944 United States presidential election in Arkansas1944 United States presidential election in Louisiana1944 United States presidential election in Wisconsin1944 United States presidential election in Illinois1944 United States presidential election in Michigan1944 United States presidential election in Indiana1944 United States presidential election in Ohio1944 United States presidential election in Kentucky1944 United States presidential election in Tennessee1944 United States presidential election in Mississippi1944 United States presidential election in Alabama1944 United States presidential election in Georgia1944 United States presidential election in Florida1944 United States presidential election in South Carolina1944 United States presidential election in North Carolina1944 United States presidential election in Virginia1944 United States presidential election in West Virginia1944 United States presidential election in Maryland1944 United States presidential election in Delaware1944 United States presidential election in Pennsylvania1944 United States presidential election in New Jersey1944 United States presidential election in New York1944 United States presidential election in Connecticut1944 United States presidential election in Rhode Island1944 United States presidential election in Vermont1944 United States presidential election in New Hampshire1944 United States presidential election in Maine1944 United States presidential election in Massachusetts1944 United States presidential election in Maryland1944 United States presidential election in Delaware1944 United States presidential election in New Jersey1944 United States presidential election in Connecticut1944 United States presidential election in Rhode Island1944 United States presidential election in Massachusetts1944 United States presidential election in Vermont1944 United States presidential election in New HampshireElectoralCollege1944.svg
About this image
Presidential election results map. Blue denotes those won by Roosevelt/Truman, red denotes states won by Dewey/Bricker. Numbers indicate the number of electoral votes allotted to each state.

President before election

Franklin D. Roosevelt
Democratic

Elected President

Franklin D. Roosevelt
Democratic

Roosevelt had become the first president to win a third term with his victory in the 1940 presidential election, and there was little doubt that he would seek a fourth term. Unlike in 1940, Roosevelt faced little opposition within his own party, and he easily won the presidential nomination of the 1944 Democratic National Convention. However, that convention dropped Vice President Henry A. Wallace as Roosevelt's running mate in favor of Senator Harry S. Truman of Missouri. Governor Dewey of New York emerged as the front-runner for the Republican nomination after his victory in the Wisconsin primary, and he defeated conservative Governor John W. Bricker at the 1944 Republican National Convention.

As World War II was going well for the United States and its Allies, Roosevelt remained popular despite his long tenure. Dewey campaigned against the New Deal and for a smaller government, but was ultimately unsuccessful in convincing the country to change course. The election was closer than Roosevelt's other presidential campaigns, but Roosevelt still won by a comfortable margin in the popular vote and by a wide margin in the Electoral College. Rumors of Roosevelt's ill health, though somewhat dispelled by his vigorous campaigning, proved to be prescient; Roosevelt died less than three months into his fourth term and was succeeded by Truman.

NominationsEdit

Democratic Party nominationEdit

Democratic Party Ticket, 1944
Franklin D. Roosevelt Harry S. Truman
for President for Vice President
32nd
President of the United States
(1933–1945)
U.S. Senator from Missouri
(1935–1945)
Campaign
 
Roosevelt/Truman poster

President Roosevelt was the popular, wartime incumbent and faced little formal opposition. Although many Southern Democrats mistrusted Roosevelt's racial policies, he brought enormous war activities to the region and the end of its marginal status was in sight. No major figure opposed Roosevelt publicly, and he was re-nominated easily when the Democratic Convention met in Chicago. Some pro-segregationist delegates tried to unite behind Virginia senator Harry F. Byrd, but he refused to campaign actively against Roosevelt, and did not get enough delegates to seriously threaten the President's chances.

The obvious physical decline in the president's appearance, as well as rumors of secret health problems, led many delegates and party leaders to oppose Vice President Henry A. Wallace for a second term strongly. Opposition to Wallace came especially from Catholic leaders in big cities and labor unions. Wallace, who had been Roosevelt's vice president since January 1941, was regarded by most conservatives as being too left-wing and personally eccentric to be next in line for the presidency. He had performed so poorly as economic coordinator that Roosevelt had to remove him from that post. Numerous party leaders privately sent word to Roosevelt that they would fight Wallace's re-nomination as vice president and proposed instead Senator Harry S. Truman, a moderate from Missouri. Truman was highly visible as the chairman of a Senate wartime committee investigating fraud and inefficiency in the war program. Roosevelt, who personally liked Wallace and knew little about Truman, agreed reluctantly to accept Truman as his running mate to preserve party unity.[2] Even so, many delegates on the left refused to abandon Wallace, and they voted for him on the first ballot. However, enough large Northern, Midwestern, and Southern states supported Truman to give him victory on the second ballot. The fight over the vice-presidential nomination proved to be consequential; Roosevelt died in April 1945, and Truman instead of Wallace became the nation's thirty-third President.[3]

Republican PartyEdit

Republican Party Ticket, 1944
Thomas E. Dewey John W. Bricker
for President for Vice President
47th
Governor of New York
(1943–1954)
54th
Governor of Ohio
(1939–1945)
Campaign
Republican candidates:

As 1944 began, the frontrunners for the Republican nomination appeared to be Wendell Willkie, the party's 1940 nominee, Senator Robert A. Taft from Ohio, the leader of the party's conservatives, New York Governor Thomas E. Dewey, the leader of the party's moderate eastern establishment, General Douglas MacArthur, then serving as an Allied commander in the Pacific theater of the war, and former Minnesota Governor Harold Stassen, then serving as a U.S. naval officer in the Pacific. Taft surprised many by declining to run for president as he wanted to remain in the Senate; instead, he voiced his support for a fellow Ohio conservative, Governor John W. Bricker.[4]

With Taft out of the race some Republican conservatives favored General MacArthur. However, MacArthur's chances were limited by the fact that he was leading Allied forces against Japan, and thus could not campaign for the nomination. His supporters entered his name in the Wisconsin primary nonetheless. The Wisconsin primary proved to be the key contest, as Dewey won by a surprisingly wide margin. He took fourteen delegates to four for Harold Stassen, while MacArthur won the three remaining delegates. Willkie was shut out in the Wisconsin primary; he did not win a single delegate. His unexpectedly poor showing in Wisconsin forced him to withdraw as a candidate for the nomination. However, at the time of his sudden death in early October 1944, Willkie had endorsed neither Dewey nor Roosevelt. At the 1944 Republican National Convention in Chicago, Dewey easily overcame Bricker and was nominated for president on the first ballot. Dewey, a moderate to liberal Republican, chose the conservative Bricker as his running mate. Dewey originally preferred fellow liberal California Governor Earl Warren, but agreed on Bricker to preserve party unity (Warren would go on to run with Dewey in the 1948 election). Bricker was nominated for vice president by acclamation.

General electionEdit

The fall campaignEdit

 
Results by county explicitly indicating the percentage for the winning candidate. Shades of blue are for Roosevelt (Democratic), shades of red are for Dewey (Republican), and shades of green are for "No Candidate" (Texas Regulars).

The Republicans campaigned against the New Deal,[5] seeking a smaller government and less-regulated economy as the end of the war seemed in sight. Nonetheless, Roosevelt's continuing popularity was the main theme of the campaign. To quiet rumors of his poor health, Roosevelt insisted on making a vigorous campaign swing in October and rode in an open car through city streets.

A high point of the campaign occurred when Roosevelt, speaking to a meeting of labor union leaders, gave a speech carried on national radio in which he ridiculed Republican claims that his administration was corrupt and wasteful with tax money.[6] He particularly derided a Republican claim that he had sent a US Navy warship to pick up his Scottish Terrier Fala in Alaska, noting that "Fala was furious" at such rumors.[7] The speech was met with loud laughter and applause from the labor leaders. In response, Governor Dewey gave a blistering partisan speech in Oklahoma City a few days later on national radio, in which he accused Roosevelt of being "indispensable" to corrupt big-city Democratic organizations and American Communists;[8] he also referred to members of Roosevelt's cabinet as a "motley crew". However, American battlefield successes in Europe and the Pacific during the campaign, such as the liberation of Paris in August 1944 and the successful Battle of Leyte Gulf in the Philippines in October 1944, made President Roosevelt unbeatable.

ResultsEdit

Throughout the campaign, Roosevelt led Dewey in all the polls by varying margins. On election day, the Democratic incumbent scored a fairly comfortable victory over his Republican challenger. Roosevelt took 36 states for 432 electoral votes (266 were needed to win), while Dewey won twelve states and 99 electoral votes. In the popular vote, Roosevelt won 25,612,916 (53.4%) votes to Dewey's 22,017,929 (45.9%).

The important question had been which leader,[9] Roosevelt or Dewey, should be chosen for the critical days of peacemaking and reconstruction following the war's conclusion. Most American voters concluded that they should retain the governing party, and particularly the president who represented it. They also felt it unsafe to do so in "wartime", in view of ever-increasing domestic disagreements.

Dewey did better against Roosevelt than any of Roosevelt's previous three Republican opponents: Roosevelt's percentage and margin of the total vote were both less than in 1940. Dewey also gained the personal satisfaction of finishing ahead of Roosevelt in his hometown of Hyde Park, New York, and ahead of Truman in his hometown of Independence, Missouri.[10] Dewey would again become the Republican presidential nominee in 1948, challenging President Truman (who had assumed that office on FDR's death), and would again lose, though by somewhat smaller popular- and electoral-vote margins.

Of the 3,095 counties/independent cities making returns, Roosevelt won the most popular votes in 1,751 (56.58%) while Dewey carried 1,343 (43.39%). The Texas Regular ticket carried one county (0.03%).

In New York, only the combined support of the American Labor and Liberal parties (pledged to Roosevelt but otherwise independent of the Democrats to maintain their identities) enabled Roosevelt to win the electoral votes of his home state.

In 1944, the constantly growing Southern protest against Roosevelt's leadership became clearest in Texas, where 135,553 people voted against Roosevelt but not for the Republican ticket. The Texas Regular ticket resulted from a split in the Democratic Party in its two state conventions, May 23 and September 12, 1944. This ticket, which represented the Democratic element opposing the re-election of President Roosevelt, called for the "restoration of states' rights which have been destroyed by the Communist New Deal" and "restoration of the supremacy of the white race".[11] Its electors were uninstructed.

As he had in 1940, Roosevelt won re-election with a lower percentage of both the electoral vote and the popular vote than he had received in the prior elections—the second of only three American presidents to do so, preceded by James Madison in 1812 and followed by Barack Obama in 2012. Andrew Jackson in 1832 and Grover Cleveland in 1892 had received more electoral votes but fewer popular votes, while Woodrow Wilson in 1916 had received more popular votes but fewer electoral votes.

Electoral Results
Presidential candidate Party Home state Popular vote Electoral
vote
Running mate
Count Percentage Vice-presidential candidate Home state Electoral vote
Franklin D. Roosevelt (Incumbent) Democratic New York 25,612,916 53.39% 432 Harry S. Truman Missouri 432
Thomas E. Dewey Republican New York 22,017,929 45.89% 99 John W. Bricker Ohio 99
(none) Texas Regulars (n/a) 143,238 0.30% 0 (none) (n/a) 0
Norman Thomas Socialist New York 79,017 0.16% 0 Darlington Hoopes Pennsylvania 0
Claude A. Watson Prohibition California 74,758 0.16% 0 Andrew N. Johnson Kentucky 0
Edward A. Teichert Socialist Labor Pennsylvania 45,188 0.09% 0 Arla Arbaugh Ohio 0
Other 11,816 0.02% Other
Total 47,977,063 100% 531 531
Needed to win 266 266

Source (Popular Vote): Leip, David. "1944 Presidential Election Results". Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Retrieved August 1, 2005.Source (Electoral Vote): "Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996". National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved August 1, 2005.

Popular vote
Roosevelt
53.39%
Dewey
45.89%
No Candidate
0.28%
Thomas
0.16%
Others
0.28%
Electoral vote
Roosevelt
81.36%
Dewey
18.64%

Geography of resultsEdit

Gallery of mapsEdit

Results by stateEdit

[12]

States won by Roosevelt/Truman
States won by Dewey/Bricker
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Democratic
Thomas E. Dewey
Republican
No Candidate
Southern Democrat/
Texas Regulars
Norman Thomas
Socialist
Other Margin State total
State electoral
votes
# % electoral
votes
# % electoral
votes
# % electoral
votes
# % electoral
votes
# % electoral
votes
# % #
Alabama 11 198,918 81.28 11 44,540 18.20 - - - - 190 0.08 - 1,095 0.45 - 154,378 63.08 244,743 AL
Arizona 4 80,926 58.80 4 56,287 40.90 - - - - - - - 421 0.31 - 24,639 17.90 137,634 AZ
Arkansas 9 148,965 69.95 9 63,551 29.84 - - - - 438 0.21 - - - - 85,414 40.11 212,954 AR
California 25 1,988,564 56.48 25 1,512,965 42.97 - - - - 2,515 0.07 - 16,831 0.48 - 475,599 13.51 3,520,875 CA
Colorado 6 234,331 46.40 - 268,731 53.21 6 - - - 1,977 0.39 - - - - -34,400 -6.81 505,039 CO
Connecticut 8 435,146 52.30 8 390,527 46.94 - - - - 5,097 0.61 - 1,220 0.15 - 44,619 5.36 831,990 CT
Delaware 3 68,166 54.38 3 56,747 45.27 - - - - 154 0.12 - 294 0.23 - 11,419 9.11 125,361 DE
Florida 8 339,377 70.32 8 143,215 29.68 - - - - - - - - - - 196,162 40.65 482,592 FL
Georgia 12 268,187 81.74 12 59,880 18.25 - - - - 6 0.00 - 36 0.01 - 208,307 63.49 328,109 GA
Idaho 4 107,399 51.55 4 100,137 48.07 - - - - 282 0.14 - 503 0.24 - 7,262 3.49 208,321 ID
Illinois 28 2,079,479 51.52 28 1,939,314 48.05 - - - - 180 0.00 - 17,088 0.42 - 140,165 3.47 4,036,061 IL
Indiana 13 781,403 46.73 - 875,891 52.38 13 - - - 2,223 0.13 - 12,574 0.75 - -94,488 -5.65 1,672,091 IN
Iowa 10 499,876 47.49 - 547,267 51.99 10 - - - 1,511 0.14 - 3,945 0.37 - -47,391 -4.50 1,052,599 IA
Kansas 8 287,458 39.18 - 442,096 60.25 8 - - - 1,613 0.22 - 2,609 0.36 - -154,638 -21.07 733,776 KS
Kentucky 11 472,589 54.45 11 392,448 45.22 - - - - 535 0.06 - 2,349 0.27 - 80,141 9.23 867,921 KY
Louisiana 10 281,564 80.59 10 67,750 19.39 - - - - - - - 69 0.02 - 213,814 61.20 349,383 LA
Maine 5 140,631 47.45 - 155,434 52.44 5 - - - - - - 335 0.11 - -14,803 -4.99 296,400 ME
Maryland 8 315,490 51.85 8 292,949 48.15 - - - - - - - - - - 22,541 3.70 608,439 MD
Massachusetts 16 1,035,296 52.80 16 921,350 46.99 - - - - - - - 4,019 0.21 - 113,946 5.81 1,960,665 MA
Michigan 19 1,106,899 50.19 19 1,084,423 49.18 - - - - 4,598 0.21 - 9,303 0.42 - 22,476 1.02 2,205,223 MI
Minnesota 11 589,864 52.41 11 527,416 46.86 - - - - 5,073 0.45 - 3,176 0.28 - 62,448 5.55 1,125,529 MN
Mississippi 9 168,479 93.56 9 11,601 6.44 - - - - - - - - - - 156,878 87.12 180,080 MS
Missouri 15 807,804 51.37 15 761,524 48.43 - - - - 1,751 0.11 - 1,395 0.09 - 46,280 2.94 1,572,474 MO
Montana 4 112,556 54.28 4 93,163 44.93 - - - - 1,296 0.63 - 340 0.16 - 19,393 9.35 207,355 MT
Nebraska 6 233,246 41.42 - 329,880 58.58 6 - - - - - - - - - -96,634 -17.16 563,126 NE
Nevada 3 29,623 54.62 3 24,611 45.38 - - - - - - - - - - 5,012 9.24 54,234 NV
New Hampshire 4 119,663 52.11 4 109,916 47.87 - - - - 46 0.02 - - - - 9,747 4.24 229,625 NH
New Jersey 16 987,874 50.31 16 961,335 48.95 - - - - 3,358 0.17 - 11,194 0.57 - 26,539 1.35 1,963,761 NJ
New Mexico 4 81,389 53.47 4 70,688 46.44 - - - - - - - 148 0.10 - 10,701 7.03 152,225 NM
New York 47 3,304,238 52.31 47 2,987,647 47.30 - - - - 10,553 0.17 - 14,352 0.23 - 316,591 5.01 6,316,790 NY
North Carolina 14 527,399 66.71 14 263,155 33.29 - - - - - - - - - - 264,244 33.43 790,554 NC
North Dakota 4 100,144 45.48 - 118,535 53.84 4 - - - 943 0.43 - 549 0.25 - -18,391 -8.35 220,171 ND
Ohio 25 1,570,763 49.82 - 1,582,293 50.18 25 - - - - - - - - - -11,530 -0.37 3,153,056 OH
Oklahoma 10 401,549 55.57 10 319,424 44.20 - - - - - - - 1,663 0.23 - 82,125 11.36 722,636 OK
Oregon 6 248,635 51.78 6 225,365 46.94 - - - - 3,785 0.79 - 2,362 0.49 - 23,270 4.85 480,147 OR
Pennsylvania 35 1,940,479 51.14 35 1,835,054 48.36 - - - - 11,721 0.31 - 7,539 0.20 - 105,425 2.78 3,794,793 PA
Rhode Island 4 175,356 58.59 4 123,487 41.26 - - - - - - - 433 0.14 - 51,869 17.33 299,276 RI
South Carolina 8 90,601 87.64 8 4,610 4.46 - 7,799 7.54 - - - - 365 0.35 - 82,802 80.10 103,375 SC
South Dakota 4 96,711 41.67 - 135,365 58.33 4 - - - - - - - - - -38,654 -16.66 232,076 SD
Tennessee 12 308,707 60.45 12 200,311 39.22 - - - - 792 0.16 - 882 0.17 - 108,396 21.23 510,692 TN
Texas 23 821,605 71.42 23 191,425 16.64 - 135,439 11.77 - 594 0.05 - 1,268 0.11 - 630,180 54.78 1,150,331 TX
Utah 4 150,088 60.44 4 97,891 39.42 - - - - 340 0.14 - - - - 52,197 21.02 248,319 UT
Vermont 3 53,820 42.93 - 71,527 57.06 3 - - - - - - 14 0.01 - -17,707 -14.12 125,361 VT
Virginia 11 242,276 62.36 11 145,243 37.39 - - - - 417 0.11 - 549 0.14 - 97,033 24.98 388,485 VA
Washington 8 486,774 56.84 8 361,689 42.24 - - - - 3,824 0.45 - 4,041 0.47 - 125,085 14.61 856,328 WA
West Virginia 8 392,777 54.89 8 322,819 45.11 - - - - - - - - - - 69,958 9.78 715,596 WV
Wisconsin 12 650,413 48.57 - 674,532 50.37 12 - - - 13,205 0.99 - 1,002 0.07 - -24,119 -1.80 1,339,152 WI
Wyoming 3 49,419 48.77 - 51,921 51.23 3 - - - - - - - - - -2,502 -2.47 101,340 WY
Totals: 531 25,612,916 53.39 432 22,017,929 45.89 99 143,238 0.30 - 79,017 0.16 - 123,963 0.26 - 3,594,987 7.49 47,977,063 US

Close statesEdit

Margin of victory less than 1% (25 electoral votes):

  1. Ohio, 0.37%

Margin of victory less than 5% (165 electoral votes):

  1. Michigan, 1.02%
  2. New Jersey, 1.35%
  3. Wisconsin, 1.80%
  4. Wyoming, 2.47%
  5. Pennsylvania, 2.78%
  6. Missouri, 2.94%
  7. Illinois, 3.47%
  8. Idaho, 3.49%
  9. Maryland, 3.70%
  10. New Hampshire, 4.24%
  11. Iowa, 4.50%
  12. Oregon, 4.85%
  13. Maine, 4.99%

Margin of victory between 5% and 10% (138 electoral votes):

  1. New York, 5.01% (tipping point state)
  2. Connecticut, 5.36%
  3. Minnesota, 5.55%
  4. Indiana, 5.65%
  5. Massachusetts, 5.81%
  6. Colorado, 6.81%
  7. New Mexico, 7.03%
  8. North Dakota, 8.35%
  9. Delaware, 9.11%
  10. Kentucky, 9.23%
  11. Nevada, 9.24%
  12. Montana, 9.35%
  13. West Virginia, 9.78%

MiscellaneaEdit

  • The passing of the 22nd Amendment of the United States Constitution in 1951 renders this election the only occasion in United States history in which a president has been allowed to run for a fourth term.
  • The 1944 election was the first one where one of the candidates (Dewey) was born in the 20th century.
  • Until 2016, 1944 was the most recent presidential election in which both major party candidates hailed from the same state, as Roosevelt and Dewey were from New York. Both major candidates in the 2016 presidential election, Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump, coincidentally also identified New York as their home state. Also, Roosevelt had been Governor of New York when he first ran for president in 1932 as Dewey was in this election, making this presidential election a rare contest between two people who had previously held the same office. However, this remains the only election to date in which both candidates haled from the same county, Roosevelt being from Hyde Park, and Dewey from Pawling, both in Dutchess County, New York.
  • Except Lyndon B. Johnson's landslide reelection in 1964, no post-1944 Democratic candidate has equaled or surpassed Roosevelt's margin in popular or electoral votes in this election, which was the closest of all his four campaigns.
  • The 1944 election was the last election in which any candidate received over ninety percent of the vote in any state (FDR won 94 percent of votes cast in Mississippi). The Democratic candidate did receive more than ninety percent of the vote in The District of Columbia in 2008, 2012 and 2016.
  • The 1944 election was the first since Grover Cleveland's re-election in 1892 in which the bellwether state of Ohio backed a losing candidate, and the first since Cleveland's first election in 1884 that Ohio gave all its electoral votes to a losing candidate.
  • The 1944 election is the most recent in which Ohio and Florida have voted for candidates from different parties.
  • This was the first election since 1900 when Idaho and Wyoming voted for different presidential nominees, and the last to date.
  • The 1944 presidential election was the last election in which the Democratic candidate won every state that constituted the former Confederacy.
  • This was the last time that the Democrats won New Hampshire and Oregon until 1964 and the last time that the Democrats won Connecticut, Delaware, Maryland, Michigan, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania until 1960.
  • 1944 is the last occasion the Democratic Party has carried Cache, Washington and Box Elder Counties in Utah, Indian River, Lake, Sarasota and Manatee Counties in Florida, or Augusta and Orange Counties in Virginia.[13]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Voter Turnout in Presidential Elections". The American Presidency Project. UC Santa Barbara.
  2. ^ Alonzo L. Hamby, Man of the People: A Life of Harry S. Truman (1995) ch 17
  3. ^ Weintraub, Stanley. Final Victory: FDR's Extraordinary World War II Presidential Campaign, pp. 29-59 ISBN 0306821133
  4. ^ Taft, Robert Alphonso and Wunderlin, Clarence E.; The Papers of Robert A. Taft: 1939-1944, p. 397 ISBN 0873386795
  5. ^ Jordan, David M.; FDR, Dewey, and the Election of 1944, pp. 119 ISBN 0253356830
  6. ^ Nash, Gerald D.; Franklin Delano Roosevelt, p. 66 ISBN 0133305147
  7. ^ Weintraub; Final Victory, pp. 144-149 ISBN 0306821133
  8. ^ Jordan; FDR, Dewey and the Election of 1944, p. 266
  9. ^ Jordan; FDR, Dewey and the Election of 1944; pp. 111, 214
  10. ^ https://millercenter.org/president/fdroosevelt/campaigns-and-elections
  11. ^ Cunningham, Sean; Cowboy Conservatism and the Rise of the Modern Right; p. 26 ISBN 081317371X
  12. ^ "1944 Presidential General Election Data - National". Retrieved April 14, 2013.
  13. ^ Sullivan, Robert David; ‘How the Red and Blue Map Evolved Over the Past Century’; America Magazine in The National Catholic Review; June 29, 2016

Further readingEdit

  • Cantril, Hadley and Mildred Strunk, eds.; Public Opinion, 1935–1946 (1951), massive compilation of many public opinion polls from USA
  • Divine, Robert A. Foreign policy and U.S. presidential elections, 1940-1948 (1974) online free to borrow pp 91 to 166 on 1944.
  • Gallup, George Horace, ed. The Gallup Poll; Public Opinion, 1935–1971 3 vol (1972) esp vol 1; summarizes results of each poll as reported to newspapers
  • Hamby, Alonzo L. Man of the People: A Life of Harry S. Truman (1995) ch 17
  • Jordan, David M. (2011). FDR, Dewey, and the Election of 1944. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press.
  • Savage, Sean J. "The 1936-1944 Campaigns," in William D. Pederson, ed. A Companion to Franklin D. Roosevelt (2011) pp 96–113 online
  • Smith, Richard Norton. Thomas E. Dewey and His Times (1984), the standard scholarly biography

External linksEdit