List of presidents of the United States

The president of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States,[1] indirectly elected to a four-year term via the Electoral College.[2] The officeholder leads the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces.[3] Since the office was established in 1789, 45 men have served in 46 presidencies. The first president, George Washington, won a unanimous vote of the Electoral College;[4] one, Grover Cleveland, served two non-consecutive terms and is therefore counted as the 22nd and 24th president of the United States, giving rise to the discrepancy between the number of presidencies and the number of persons who have served as president.[5] The incumbent president is Joe Biden.[6]

White House, official residence of the president of the United States, May 2006

The presidency of William Henry Harrison, who died 31 days after taking office in 1841, was the shortest in American history.[7] Franklin D. Roosevelt served the longest, over twelve years, before dying early in his fourth term in 1945. He is the only U.S. president to have served more than two terms.[8] Since the ratification of the Twenty-second Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1951, no person may be elected president more than twice, and no one who has served more than two years of a term to which someone else was elected may be elected more than once.[9]

Four presidents died in office of natural causes (William Henry Harrison, Zachary Taylor, Warren G. Harding, and Franklin D. Roosevelt), four were assassinated (Abraham Lincoln, James A. Garfield, William McKinley and John F. Kennedy), and one resigned (Richard Nixon, facing impeachment).[10] John Tyler was the first vice president to assume the presidency during a presidential term, and set the precedent that a vice president who does so becomes the fully functioning president with his presidency.[11]

Throughout most of its history, American politics has been dominated by political parties. The Constitution is silent on the issue of political parties, and at the time it came into force in 1789, no organized parties existed. Soon after the 1st Congress convened, political factions began rallying around dominant Washington administration officials, such as Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson.[12] Concerned about the capacity of political parties to destroy the fragile unity holding the nation together, Washington remained unaffiliated with any political faction or party throughout his eight-year presidency. He was, and remains, the only U.S. president never affiliated with a political party.[13]

Presidents

List of presidents of the United States from 1789 – till date.
No.[a] Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term[14] Party[b][15] Election Vice President[16]
1   George Washington
(1732–1799)
[17]
April 30, 1789

March 4, 1797
Unaffiliated 1788–89

1792

John Adams[c]
2   John Adams
(1735–1826)
[19]
March 4, 1797

March 4, 1801
Federalist 1796 Thomas Jefferson[d]
3   Thomas Jefferson
(1743–1826)
[21]
March 4, 1801

March 4, 1809
Democratic-
Republican
1800

1804

Aaron Burr

George Clinton

4   James Madison
(1751–1836)
[22]
March 4, 1809

March 4, 1817
Democratic-
Republican
1808

1812

George Clinton[e]

Vacant after
April 20, 1812


Elbridge Gerry[e]


Vacant after
November 23, 1814

5   James Monroe
(1758–1831)
[24]
March 4, 1817

March 4, 1825
Democratic-
Republican
1816

1820

Daniel D. Tompkins
6   John Quincy Adams
(1767–1848)
[25]
March 4, 1825

March 4, 1829
Democratic-
Republican
[f]

National Republican

1824 John C. Calhoun[g]
7   Andrew Jackson
(1767–1845)
[28]
March 4, 1829

March 4, 1837
Democratic 1828

1832

John C. Calhoun[h]

Vacant after
December 28, 1832


Martin Van Buren

8   Martin Van Buren
(1782–1862)
[29]
March 4, 1837

March 4, 1841
Democratic 1836 Richard Mentor Johnson
9   William Henry Harrison
(1773–1841)
[30]
March 4, 1841

April 4, 1841[e]
Whig 1840 John Tyler
10   John Tyler
(1790–1862)
[31]
April 4, 1841[i]

March 4, 1845
Whig[j]

Unaffiliated

Vacant throughout
presidency
11   James K. Polk
(1795–1849)
[34]
March 4, 1845

March 4, 1849
Democratic 1844 George M. Dallas
12   Zachary Taylor
(1784–1850)
[35]
March 4, 1849

July 9, 1850[e]
Whig 1848 Millard Fillmore
13   Millard Fillmore
(1800–1874)
[36]
July 9, 1850[k]

March 4, 1853
Whig Vacant throughout
presidency
14   Franklin Pierce
(1804–1869)
[38]
March 4, 1853

March 4, 1857
Democratic 1852 William R. King[e]

Vacant after
April 18, 1853

15   James Buchanan
(1791–1868)
[39]
March 4, 1857

March 4, 1861
Democratic 1856 John C. Breckinridge
16   Abraham Lincoln
(1809–1865)
[40]
March 4, 1861

April 15, 1865[e]
Republican

National Union[l]

1860

1864

Hannibal Hamlin

Andrew Johnson

17   Andrew Johnson
(1808–1875)
[42]
April 15, 1865[m]

March 4, 1869
National Union[n]

Democratic

Vacant throughout
presidency
18   Ulysses S. Grant
(1822–1885)
[43]
March 4, 1869

March 4, 1877
Republican 1868

1872

Schuyler Colfax

Henry Wilson[e]


Vacant after
November 22, 1875

19   Rutherford B. Hayes
(1822–1893)
[44]
March 4, 1877

March 4, 1881
Republican 1876 William A. Wheeler
20   James A. Garfield
(1831–1881)
[45]
March 4, 1881

September 19, 1881[e]
Republican 1880 Chester A. Arthur
21   Chester A. Arthur
(1829–1886)
[46]
September 19, 1881[o]

March 4, 1885
Republican Vacant throughout
presidency
22   Grover Cleveland
(1837–1908)
[48]
March 4, 1885

March 4, 1889
Democratic 1884 Thomas A. Hendricks[e]

Vacant after
November 25, 1885

23   Benjamin Harrison
(1833–1901)
[49]
March 4, 1889

March 4, 1893
Republican 1888 Levi P. Morton
24   Grover Cleveland
(1837–1908)
[48]
March 4, 1893

March 4, 1897
Democratic 1892 Adlai Stevenson I
25   William McKinley
(1843–1901)
[50]
March 4, 1897

September 14, 1901[e]
Republican 1896

1900

Garret Hobart[e]

Vacant after
November 21, 1899


Theodore Roosevelt

26   Theodore Roosevelt
(1858–1919)
[51]
September 14, 1901[p]

March 4, 1909
Republican

1904

Vacant through
March 4, 1905

Charles W. Fairbanks

27   William Howard Taft
(1857–1930)
[52]
March 4, 1909

March 4, 1913
Republican 1908 James S. Sherman[e]

Vacant after
October 30, 1912

28   Woodrow Wilson
(1856–1924)
[53]
March 4, 1913

March 4, 1921
Democratic 1912

1916

Thomas R. Marshall
29   Warren G. Harding
(1865–1923)
[54]
March 4, 1921

August 2, 1923[e]
Republican 1920 Calvin Coolidge
30   Calvin Coolidge
(1872–1933)
[55]
August 2, 1923[q]

March 4, 1929
Republican

1924

Vacant through
March 4, 1925

Charles G. Dawes

31   Herbert Hoover
(1874–1964)
[57]
March 4, 1929

March 4, 1933
Republican 1928 Charles Curtis
32   Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1882–1945)
[58]
March 4, 1933

April 12, 1945[e]
Democratic 1932

1936


1940


1944

John Nance Garner

Henry A. Wallace


Harry S. Truman

33   Harry S. Truman
(1884–1972)
[59]
April 12, 1945[r]

January 20, 1953
Democratic

1948

Vacant through
January 20, 1949

Alben W. Barkley

34   Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1890–1969)
[60]
January 20, 1953

January 20, 1961
Republican 1952

1956

Richard Nixon
35   John F. Kennedy
(1917–1963)
[61]
January 20, 1961

November 22, 1963[e]
Democratic 1960 Lyndon B. Johnson
36   Lyndon B. Johnson
(1908–1973)
[62]
November 22, 1963[s]

January 20, 1969
Democratic

1964

Vacant through
January 20, 1965

Hubert Humphrey

37   Richard Nixon
(1913–1994)
[63]
January 20, 1969

August 9, 1974[h]
Republican 1968

1972

Spiro Agnew[h]

Vacant:
October 10 – December 6, 1973


Gerald Ford[t]

38   Gerald Ford
(1913–2006)
[64]
August 9, 1974[u]

January 20, 1977
Republican Vacant through
December 19, 1974

Nelson Rockefeller[t]

39   Jimmy Carter
(b. 1924)
[65]
January 20, 1977

January 20, 1981
Democratic 1976 Walter Mondale
40   Ronald Reagan
(1911–2004)
[66]
January 20, 1981

January 20, 1989
Republican 1980

1984

George H. W. Bush
41   George H. W. Bush
(1924–2018)
[67]
January 20, 1989

January 20, 1993
Republican 1988 Dan Quayle
42   Bill Clinton
(b. 1946)
[68]
January 20, 1993

January 20, 2001
Democratic 1992

1996

Al Gore
43   George W. Bush
(b. 1946)
[69]
January 20, 2001

January 20, 2009
Republican 2000

2004

Dick Cheney
44   Barack Obama
(b. 1961)
[70]
January 20, 2009

January 20, 2017
Democratic 2008

2012

Joe Biden
45   Donald Trump
(b. 1946)
[71]
January 20, 2017

January 20, 2021
Republican 2016 Mike Pence
46   Joe Biden
(b. 1942)
[6]
January 20, 2021

Incumbent
Democratic 2020 Kamala Harris

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Presidents are numbered according to uninterrupted periods served by the same person. For example, George Washington served two consecutive terms and is counted as the first president (not the first and second). Upon the resignation of 37th president, Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford became the 38th president even though he simply served out the remainder of Nixon's second term and was never elected to the presidency in his own right. Grover Cleveland was both the 22nd president and the 24th president because his two terms were not consecutive. A vice president who temporarily becomes acting president under the Twenty-fifth Amendment to the Constitution is not counted, because the president remains in office during such a period.
  2. ^ Reflects the president's political party at the start of their presidency. Changes during their time in office are noted. Also reflects the vice president's political party unless otherwise noted beside the individual's name.
  3. ^ Political parties had not been anticipated when the Constitution was drafted, nor did they exist at the time of the first presidential election in 1788–89. When they did develop, during Washington's first term, Adams joined the faction that became the Federalist Party. The elections of 1792 were the first ones in the United States that were contested on anything resembling a partisan basis.[18]
  4. ^ The 1796 presidential election was the first contested American presidential election and the only one in which a president and vice president were elected from opposing political parties. Federalist John Adams was elected president, and Jefferson of the Democratic-Republicans was elected vice president.[20]
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Died in office[23]
  6. ^ Early during John Quincy Adams' term the Democratic-Republican Party dissolved; his allies in Congress and at the state-level were referred to as "Adams' Men" during the Adams presidency. When Andrew Jackson became president in 1829, this group became the "Anti-Jackson" opposition, and organized themselves as the National Republican Party.[26]
  7. ^ John Calhoun, formerly a Democratic-Republican, founded the Nullifier Party in 1828 to oppose the Tariff of 1828 and advance the cause of states' rights, but was brought on as Andrew Jackson's running mate in the 1828 presidential election in an effort to broaden the democratic coalition led by Jackson.[27]
  8. ^ a b c Resigned from office[23]
  9. ^ John Tyler succeeded to the presidency upon the death of William Henry Harrison.[32]
  10. ^ John Tyler was elected vice president on the Whig Party ticket in 1840. His policy priorities as president soon proved to be opposed to most of the Whig agenda, and he was expelled from the party five months in office.[33]
  11. ^ Millard Fillmore succeeded to the presidency upon the death of Zachary Taylor.[37]
  12. ^ When he ran for reelection in 1864, Republican Abraham Lincoln formed a bipartisan electoral alliance with War Democrats by selecting Democrat Andrew Johnson as his running mate, and running on the National Union Party ticket.[41]
  13. ^ Andrew Johnson succeeded to the presidency upon the death of Abraham Lincoln.
  14. ^ While president, Andrew Johnson tried and failed to build a party of loyalists under the National Union banner. Near the end of his presidency, Johnson rejoined the Democratic Party.[42]
  15. ^ Chester A. Arthur succeeded to the presidency upon the death of James A. Garfield.[47]
  16. ^ Theodore Roosevelt succeeded to the presidency upon the death of William McKinley.
  17. ^ Calvin Coolidge succeeded to the presidency upon the death of Warren G. Harding.[56]
  18. ^ Harry S. Truman succeeded to the presidency upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
  19. ^ Lyndon B. Johnson succeeded to the presidency upon the death of John F. Kennedy.
  20. ^ a b Appointed as vice president under terms of the Twenty-fifth Amendment, Section 2[23]
  21. ^ Gerald Ford succeeded to the presidency upon the resignation of Richard Nixon.

References

  1. ^ Rossiter (1962), p. 86.
  2. ^ Shugart (2004), pp. 633–636.
  3. ^ Epstein (2005), p. 318.
  4. ^ Matuz (2001), p. xxii.
  5. ^ Schaller & Williams (2003), p. 192.
  6. ^ a b whitehouse.gov (h).
  7. ^ McHugh & Mackowiak (2014), pp. 990–995.
  8. ^ Skau (1974), pp. 246–275.
  9. ^ Peabody & Gant (1999), p. 565.
  10. ^ Abbott (2005), pp. 627–644.
  11. ^ Dinnerstein (1962), pp. 447–451.
  12. ^ Guide to U.S. Elections (2010), p. 197; Nardulli (1992), p. 179.
  13. ^ LOC (2); Jamison (2014).
  14. ^ LOC; whitehouse.gov.
  15. ^ Guide to U.S. Elections (2010), pp. 257–258.
  16. ^ LOC.
  17. ^ McDonald (2000).
  18. ^ Guide to U.S. Elections (2010), pp. 197, 272; Nardulli (1992), p. 179.
  19. ^ Pencak (2000).
  20. ^ Guide to U.S. Elections (2010), p. 274.
  21. ^ Peterson (2000).
  22. ^ Banning (2000).
  23. ^ a b c Neale (2004), p. 22.
  24. ^ Ammon (2000).
  25. ^ Hargreaves (2000).
  26. ^ Guide to U.S. Elections (2010), p. 228; Goldman (1951), p. 159.
  27. ^ Guide to U.S. Elections (2010), p. 892; Houpt (2010), pp. 26, 280.
  28. ^ Remini (2000).
  29. ^ Cole (2000).
  30. ^ Gutzman (2000).
  31. ^ Shade (2000).
  32. ^ Abbott (2013), p. 23.
  33. ^ Cash (2018), pp. 34–36.
  34. ^ Rawley (2000).
  35. ^ Smith (2000).
  36. ^ Anbinder (2000).
  37. ^ Abbott (2005), p. 639.
  38. ^ Gara (2000).
  39. ^ Gienapp (2000).
  40. ^ McPherson (b) (2000).
  41. ^ McSeveney (1986), p. 139.
  42. ^ a b Trefousse (2000).
  43. ^ McPherson (a) (2000).
  44. ^ Hoogenboom (2000).
  45. ^ Peskin (2000).
  46. ^ Reeves (2000).
  47. ^ Greenberger (2017), pp. 174–175.
  48. ^ a b Campbell (2000).
  49. ^ Spetter (2000).
  50. ^ Gould (a) (2000).
  51. ^ Harbaugh (2000).
  52. ^ Gould (b) (2000).
  53. ^ Ambrosius (2000).
  54. ^ Hawley (2000).
  55. ^ McCoy (2000).
  56. ^ Senate.
  57. ^ Hoff (a) (2000).
  58. ^ Brinkley (2000).
  59. ^ Hamby (2000).
  60. ^ Ambrose (2000).
  61. ^ Parmet (2000).
  62. ^ Gardner (2000).
  63. ^ Hoff (b) (2000).
  64. ^ Greene (2013).
  65. ^ whitehouse.gov (b).
  66. ^ Schaller (2004).
  67. ^ whitehouse.gov (c).
  68. ^ whitehouse.gov (d).
  69. ^ whitehouse.gov (e).
  70. ^ whitehouse.gov (f).
  71. ^ whitehouse.gov (g).

Works cited

General

  • Guide to U.S. Elections. SAGE Publications. 2010. ISBN 978-1-60426-536-1.
  • "Chronological List of Presidents, First Ladies, and Vice Presidents of the United States". Library of Congress. Retrieved February 20, 2020.
  • "Presidents". whitehouse.gov. Retrieved May 14, 2022.

Expert studies

Presidential biographies

Online sources

External links