1912 United States presidential election

The 1912 United States presidential election was the 32nd quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 5, 1912. Democratic Governor Woodrow Wilson of New Jersey unseated incumbent Republican President William Howard Taft and defeated former President Theodore Roosevelt, who ran as the Progressive Party ("Bull Moose") nominee. This was the last presidential election in which one of the top-two finishers did not come from either the Democratic or Republican parties, signifying the primacy of these two parties in modern American politics.

1912 United States presidential election

← 1908 November 5, 1912 1916 →

531 members of the Electoral College
266 electoral votes needed to win
Turnout58.8%[1] Decrease 6.6 pp
  Woodrow Wilson-H&E.jpg Theodore Roosevelt-Pach.jpg
Nominee Woodrow Wilson Theodore Roosevelt
Party Democratic Progressive
Home state New Jersey New York
Running mate Thomas R. Marshall Hiram Johnson
Electoral vote 435 88
States carried 40 6
Popular vote 6,296,284 4,122,721
Percentage 41.8% 27.4%

  William Howard Taft - Harris and Ewing.jpg EugeneVictorDebs.jpg
Nominee William Howard Taft Eugene V. Debs
Party Republican Socialist
Home state Ohio Indiana
Running mate Nicholas M. Butler
(replaced James S. Sherman)
Emil Seidel
Electoral vote 8 0
States carried 2 0
Popular vote 3,486,242 901,551
Percentage 23.2% 6.0%

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About this image
Presidential election results map. Blue denotes those won by Wilson/Marshall, light green denotes those won by Roosevelt/Johnson, red denotes states won by Taft/Butler. Numbers indicate the number of electoral votes allotted to each state.

President before election

William Howard Taft
Republican

Elected President

Woodrow Wilson
Democratic

Roosevelt had served as president from 1901 to 1909 as a Republican, and Taft had won the 1908 Republican presidential nomination with his support. However, following Taft's election, his actions as president displeased Roosevelt, who challenged him for the nomination at the 1912 Republican National Convention. After Taft and his conservative allies narrowly prevailed at the convention, Roosevelt rallied his progressive supporters and launched a third party bid. Roosevelt's Progressive Party was nicknamed the Bull Moose Party after journalists quoted Roosevelt saying that he was "feeling like a bull moose" on the campaign trail shortly after the new party was formed.[2] On the Democratic side, Wilson won the presidential nomination on the 46th ballot, defeating Speaker of the House Champ Clark and several other candidates with the support of William Jennings Bryan and other progressive Democrats. Meanwhile, the Socialist Party renominated its perennial standard-bearer, Eugene V. Debs.

The 1912 election was bitterly contested by three individuals, Wilson, Roosevelt, and Taft, who all had or would serve as president. Roosevelt's "New Nationalism" platform called for social insurance programs, an eight-hour workday, and a strong federal role in regulating the economy. Wilson's "New Freedom" platform called for tariff reform, banking reform, and a new antitrust law. Knowing that he had little chance of victory, Taft conducted a subdued campaign based on his own platform of "progressive conservatism." Debs claimed that the other three candidates were largely financed by trusts and tried to galvanize support behind his socialist policies.

Wilson carried 40 states and won a large majority (435 out of 531) of the electoral vote, taking advantage of the split in the Republican Party. He was the first Democrat to win a presidential election since 1892, and would be one of just two Democratic presidents to serve between the American Civil War and the onset of the First World War. Roosevelt won 88 electoral votes, while Taft carried only Vermont and Utah, taking 8 electoral votes. Wilson won 41.8% of the national popular vote, while Roosevelt won 27%, Taft 23%, and Debs 6%. This was the first election with a former president running for a third term.

BackgroundEdit

Republican President Theodore Roosevelt had declined to run for re-election in 1908 in fulfillment of a pledge to the American people not to seek a third term. Though he had acceded to the role of president upon the assassination of incumbent William McKinley, rendering his first term incomplete, only eight months had elapsed; thus, in effect, Roosevelt had served nearly a full eight years. Roosevelt had tapped his Secretary of War, William Howard Taft, to become his successor, and Taft defeated Democrat William Jennings Bryan in the general election.

During Taft's administration, a rift developed between Roosevelt and Taft, as they became the leaders of the Republican Party's two wings: the progressives (led by Roosevelt) and the conservatives (led by Taft). The progressive Republicans favored restrictions on the employment of women and children, promoted ecological conservation, and were more sympathetic toward labor unions. They also favored the popular election of federal and state judges and opposed the appointing of judges by the President or state governors. The conservative Republicans supported high tariffs on imported goods to encourage consumers to buy American-made products (as were most progressive Republicans), but favored business leaders over labor unions and were generally opposed to the popular election of judges.

By 1910 the split between the two wings of the party was deep, and this in turn caused Roosevelt and Taft to turn against one another, despite their personal friendship. The 1910 midterm elections proved to be rather rough for the Republicans, seeming to further cement the growing divide within the party. Taft's popularity among progressives collapsed when he supported the Payne–Aldrich Tariff Act in 1909,[3] abandoned Roosevelt's antitrust policy,[4] and fired popular conservationist Gifford Pinchot as head of the Bureau of Forestry in 1910.[5]

NominationsEdit

Democratic Party nominationEdit

Democratic Party Ticket, 1912
Woodrow Wilson Thomas R. Marshall
for President for Vice President
34th
Governor of New Jersey
(1911–1913)
27th
Governor of Indiana
(1909–1913)

Democratic candidates:

Candidates galleryEdit

The Democratic Convention was held in Baltimore, Maryland, from June 25 to July 2. It proved to be one of the more memorable presidential conventions of the twentieth century. Initially, the front-runner appeared to be House Speaker Champ Clark of Missouri, and Clark did receive the largest number of delegate votes early in the balloting. However, he was unable to get the two-thirds majority required to win the nomination. Clark's chances were hurt when Tammany Hall, the powerful and corrupt Democratic political machine in New York City, threw its support behind him, causing William Jennings Bryan, the former three-time Democratic presidential candidate and leader of the party's progressives, to turn against Clark as the candidate of "Wall Street." Bryan shifted his support to New Jersey Governor Woodrow Wilson, who had consistently finished second to Clark on each ballot and was regarded as a moderate reformer. Wilson had nearly given up hope, and was on the verge of having a concession speech read for him at the convention that would free his delegates to vote for someone else. Instead, Bryan's defection from Clark to Wilson led many other delegates to do the same, and Wilson gradually gained strength while Clark's support dwindled. Wilson finally received the nomination on the 46th ballot.

Thomas R. Marshall, the Governor of Indiana, who had swung the Indiana delegates' votes to Wilson in later ballots, was named as Wilson's running mate.

Vice Presidential Ballot
1st 2nd Unanimous
Thomas R. Marshall 389 644.5 1,088
John Burke 304.67 386.33
George E. Chamberlain 157 12.5
Elmore W. Hurst 78 0
James H. Preston 58 0
Martin J. Wade 26 0
William F. McCombs 18 0
John E. Osborne 8 0
William Sulzer 3 0
Blank 46.33 44.67

Republican Party nominationEdit

Republican Party Ticket, 1912
William Howard Taft James S. Sherman
for President for Vice President
27th
President of the United States
(1909–1913)
27th
Vice President of the United States
(1909–1912)

Republican candidates:

Candidates galleryEdit

 
A Punch cartoon by Leonard Raven-Hill, depicting the perceived aggression between Taft and Roosevelt.

For the first time, significant numbers of delegates to the national conventions were elected in presidential preference primaries. Progressive Republicans advocated primary elections as a way of breaking the control of political parties by bosses. Altogether, twelve states held Republican primaries. Senator Robert M. La Follette won two of the first four primaries (in North Dakota and Wisconsin), but beginning with his runaway victory in Illinois on April 9, Roosevelt won nine of the last ten presidential primaries (in order, Illinois, Pennsylvania, Nebraska, Oregon, Maryland, California, Ohio, New Jersey, and South Dakota), losing only Massachusetts to Taft.[6] As a sign of his great popularity, Roosevelt even carried Taft's home state of Ohio.

The Republican Convention convened in Chicago from June 18 to 22. Taft, however, had begun to gather delegates earlier, and the delegates chosen in the primaries were a minority. He had the support of the bulk of the party organizations in the Southern states; these states had voted solidly Democratic in every presidential election since 1880, and Roosevelt objected that they were given one-quarter of the delegates when they would contribute nothing to a Republican victory (as it turned out, delegates from the former Confederate states supported Taft by a 5 to 1 margin). When the convention gathered, Roosevelt challenged the credentials of nearly half of the delegates.[citation needed] By that time, however, it was too late. The delegates chose Elihu Root — once Roosevelt's top ally — to serve as chairman of the convention. Afterwards, the delegates seated Taft delegations in Alabama, Arizona, and California on tight votes of 597–472, 564–497, and 542–529, respectively. After losing California, where Roosevelt had won the primary, the progressive delegates gave up hope. They voted "present" on most succeeding roll calls. Not since the 1884 election had there been a major schism in the Republican Party, and on that occasion, the dispute caused when the faction known as the Mugwumps repudiated candidate James G. Blaine and broke with the party was seen as a major factor in Blaine's unexpected loss to Democratic candidate Grover Cleveland. Now, with the Democrats holding about 45% of the national vote, any schism would be fatal. Roosevelt's only hope at the convention was to form a "stop-Taft" alliance with La Follette, but Roosevelt had alienated La Follette, and the alliance could not form.

Unable to tolerate the personal humiliation he suffered at the hands of Taft and the Old Guard, and refusing to entertain the possibility of a compromise candidate, Roosevelt struck back hard. On the evening of June 22, 1912, Roosevelt asked his supporters to leave the convention, maintaining that Taft had allowed fraudulent seating of delegates to capture the presidential nomination from progressive forces within the party. Thus, with the support of convention chairman Root, Taft's supporters outvoted Roosevelt's men, and the convention renominated the incumbent ticket of Taft and James S. Sherman. Sherman became the first sitting vice president to be nominated for re-election since John C. Calhoun in 1828.

Presidential Ballot[7][8][9]
William Taft 561
Theodore Roosevelt 107
Robert La Follette 41
Albert B. Cummins 17
Charles Evans Hughes 2
Present, not voting 344
Absent 6
Vice Presidential Ballot
James S. Sherman 596
William Borah 21
Charles Edward Merriam 20
Herbert S. Hadley 14
Albert J. Beveridge 2

Progressive Party nominationEdit

Progressive Party Ticket, 1912
Theodore Roosevelt Hiram Johnson
for President for Vice President
26th
President of the United States
(1901–1909)
23rd
Governor of California
(1911–1917)

Progressive candidate:

 
Progressive convention, 1912

Republican progressives reconvened in Chicago and endorsed the formation of a national progressive party. When formally launched later that summer, the new Progressive Party chose Roosevelt as its presidential nominee and Governor Hiram Johnson from California as his vice presidential running mate. Questioned by reporters, Roosevelt said he felt as strong as a "bull moose". Henceforth known as the "Bull Moose Party," the Progressives promised to increase federal regulation and protect the welfare of ordinary people.

The party was funded by publisher Frank Munsey and its executive secretary George Walbridge Perkins, an employee of banker J. P. Morgan and International Harvester. Perkins blocked an antitrust plank, shocking reformers who thought of Roosevelt as a true trust-buster. The delegates to the convention sang the hymn "Onward, Christian Soldiers" as their anthem. In a famous acceptance speech, Roosevelt compared the coming presidential campaign to the Battle of Armageddon and stated that the Progressives were going to "battle for the LORD." However, many of the nation's newspapers, which tended to be pro-Republican, harshly depicted Roosevelt as an egotist who was only running for president to spoil Taft's chances and feed his vanity.

Socialist Party nominationEdit

Socialist Party Ticket, 1912
Eugene V. Debs Emil Seidel
for President for Vice President
Former Indiana State Senator
(1885–1887)
36th
Mayor of Milwaukee
(1910–1912)

Socialist candidates:

 
Eugene V. Debs's 6% was an all-time high for the Socialist Party

The Socialist Party of America was a highly factionalized coalition of local parties based in industrial cities and usually was rooted in ethnic communities, especially German and Finnish. It also had some support in old Populist rural and mining areas in the West, especially Oklahoma. By 1912, the party claimed more than a thousand locally elected officials in 33 states and 160 cities, especially the Midwest. Eugene V. Debs had run for president in 1900, 1904, and 1908, primarily to encourage the local effort, and he did so again in 1912 and from prison in 1920.[10]

The conservatives, led by Victor L. Berger from Milwaukee, promoted progressive causes of efficiency and an end to corruption, nicknamed "gas and water socialism." Their opponents were the radicals who wanted to overthrow capitalism, tried to infiltrate labor unions, and sought to cooperate with the Industrial Workers of the World ("the Wobblies"). With few exceptions, the party had weak or nonexistent links to local labor unions. Immigration was an issue—the radicals saw immigrants as allies for the war with capitalism, while conservatives complained that they lowered wage rates and absorbed too many city resources. Many of these issues had been debated at the First National Congress of the Socialist Party in 1910, and they were debated again at the national convention in Indianapolis in 1912. At the latter, the radicals won an early test by seating Bill Haywood on the Executive Committee, sending encouragement to western "Wobblies", and passed a resolution seeming to favor industrial unionism. The conservatives counterattacked by amending the party constitution to expel any socialists who favored industrial sabotage or syndicalism (that is, the IWW), and who refused to participate in American elections. They adopted a conservative platform calling for cooperative organization of prisons, a national bureau of health, abolition of the Senate and the presidential veto. Debs did not attend; he saw his mission as keeping the disparate units together in the hope that someday a common goal would be found.

Presidential Ballot
Eugene V. Debs 165
Emil Seidel 56
Charles Edward Russell 54
Vice Presidential Ballot
Emil Seidel 159
Dan Hogan 73
John W. Slayton 24

General electionEdit

CampaignEdit

The 1912 presidential campaign was bitterly contested. Vice President James S. Sherman died in office on October 30, 1912, less than a week before the election, leaving President Taft without a running mate. (Nicholas M. Butler was designated to receive electoral votes that would have been cast for Sherman.) With the Republican Party divided, Wilson captured the presidency handily on November 5.[citation needed]

 
Republican campaign postcard charging a Democratic administration would remove pensioners from the rolls

While Roosevelt was campaigning in Milwaukee on October 14, 1912, a saloonkeeper from New York, John Flammang Schrank, shot him, penetrated both his steel eyeglass case and a 50-page single-folded copy of his speech titled "Progressive Cause Greater Than Any Individual", that he was carrying in his jacket pocket and was about to deliver, got lodged in his chest. Schrank was immediately disarmed, captured and might have been lynched had Roosevelt not shouted for Schrank to remain unharmed.[11] Roosevelt assured the crowd he was all right, then ordered police to take charge of Schrank and to make sure no violence was done to him.[12] Roosevelt, as an experienced hunter and anatomist, correctly concluded that since he was not coughing blood, the bullet had not reached his lung, and he declined suggestions to go to the hospital immediately. Instead, he delivered his scheduled speech with blood seeping into his shirt.[13] He spoke for 90 minutes before completing his speech and accepting medical attention. His opening comments to the gathered crowd were, "Ladies and gentlemen, I don't know whether you fully understand that I have just been shot, but it takes more than that to kill a Bull Moose."[14][15] Afterwards, probes and an x-ray showed that the bullet had lodged in Roosevelt's chest muscle, but did not penetrate the pleura. Doctors concluded that it would be less dangerous to leave it in place than to attempt to remove it, and Roosevelt carried the bullet with him for the rest of his life.[16][17] In later years, when asked about the bullet inside him, Roosevelt would say, "I do not mind it any more than if it were in my waistcoat pocket."[18]

Both Taft and Democratic nominee Woodrow Wilson suspended their own campaigning until Roosevelt recovered and resumed his. When asked if the shooting would affect his election campaign, he said to the reporter "I'm fit as a bull moose", which inspired the party's emblem.[19] He spent two weeks recuperating before returning to the campaign trail.

The election of 1912 is considered the high tide of progressive politics. Had either Roosevelt or Taft stayed out of the race, a Republican victory would have been assured.[citation needed]

The Socialists had little money; Debs' campaign cost only $66,000, mostly for 3.5 million leaflets and travel to rallies organized by local groups. His biggest event was a speech to 15,000 supporters in New York City. The crowd sang "La Marseillaise" and "The Internationale" as Emil Seidel, the vice- presidential candidate, boasted, "Only a year ago workingmen were throwing decayed vegetables and rotten eggs at us but now all is changed... Eggs are too high. There is a great giant growing up in this country that will someday take over the affairs of this nation. He is a little giant now but he is growing fast. The name of this little giant is socialism." Debs said that only the socialists represented labor. He condemned "Injunction Bill Taft" and ridiculed Roosevelt as "a charlatan, mountebank, and fraud, and his Progressive promises and pledges as the mouthings of a low and utterly unprincipled self seeker and demagogue." Debs insisted that the Democrats, Progressives, and Republicans alike were financed by the trusts. Party newspapers spread the word—there were five English-language and eight foreign-language dailies along with 262 English and 36 foreign-language weeklies. The labor union movement, however, largely rejected Debs and supported Wilson.[citation needed]

 
Roosevelt mixing "radical" ingredients in his speeches in this 1912 editorial cartoon by Karl K. Knecht (1883–1972) in the Republican Evansville Courier newspaper

Roosevelt conducted a vigorous national campaign for the Progressive Party, denouncing the way the Republican nomination had been "stolen". He bundled together his reforms under the rubric of "The New Nationalism" and stumped the country for a strong federal role in regulating the economy and chastising bad corporations. Wilson supported a policy called "The New Freedom". This policy was based mostly on individualism instead of a strong government. Taft campaigned quietly, and spoke of the need for judges to be more powerful than elected officials. The departure of the more progressive Republicans left the conservative Republicans even more firmly in control of their party until 1916, when many progressives returned. Much of the Republican effort was designed to discredit Roosevelt as a dangerous radical, but this had little effect.[citation needed]

Tariffs and Republican Party splitEdit

Before the ratification of the income tax amendment in 1913, the funding of the United States government heavily relied upon tariffs. Tariffs are a direct taxation of imported raw materials and manufactured goods. This issue was key in fracturing the Republican Party. Early in his term, President Taft had promised to stand for a lower tariff bill. Protectionism was major policy of the business oriented Republican Party.[20]

After intense debate the Payne-Aldrich Act (1909) passed Congress and was praised and signed by President Taft. The Payne-Aldrich Act favored the industrial Northeast. It angered the Northwest and South, where demand was strong for tariff reductions.[21] The new tariff policy would increase duties thus going against Taft's promises. It deeply alienated the progressive wing of the Republican Party. President Taft's inability to satisfy both wings of his party created a political opening for his predecessor, Theodore Roosevelt, to again run for the presidency. He lost the 1912 convention and bolted to form a third party. Most of the progressive Republican politicians remained in the GOP. Roosevelt rallied progressives with speeches denouncing the political establishment. He promised "an expert tariff commission, wholly removed from the possibility of political pressure or of improper business influence.".[22]

ResultsEdit

 
Results by county explicitly indicating the percentage for the winning candidate. Shades of blue are for Wilson (Democratic), shades of green are for Roosevelt (Progressive), shades of red are for Taft (Republican), shades of yellow are for Debs (Socialist), light grey indicates zero recorded votes and dark grey indicates territories not elevated to statehood

The impact of the third-party vote is indicated by the fact that few states were carried by a majority of the popular vote. Taft carried two states (Utah and Vermont), Roosevelt six, and Wilson forty. Taft carried no state with a popular majority, Roosevelt one (South Dakota, where there was no Republican ticket), and Wilson eleven, all of them states of the former Confederacy. More than two-thirds of Wilson's total vote was cast in the 37 states that he did not carry by majority vote.[23]

Wilson's vote, 6,296,919, was less than William Jennings Bryan totaled in any one of his campaigns, and over 100,000 less than Bryan received in 1908, when Bryan won only 162 electoral votes.[23] Wilson fell behind Bryan's results in most of the country, and notably so in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Nebraska, Kansas, South Carolina, Kentucky, and Arkansas. In only two sections was Wilson's vote greater than the greatest Bryan vote: New England and the Pacific.[24] Wilson led the poll in 1,969 counties, but he received a majority of the vote in only 1,237 counties, less than Bryan had had in any of his campaigns.[24] Taft had a majority in only 35, and "Other(s)" in only 305. These small figures clearly reveal the result of the division of the normal Republican vote, as does the fact that in a plurality of counties (1,396) no candidate obtained a majority.[25] Taft had a lead over the field in only 232 counties. In addition to South Dakota and California, where there was no Taft ticket, and seven "Solid South" states in which he carried no county, Taft also carried no counties in Maine, New Jersey, Minnesota, Nevada and Arizona.[24] Nine counties did not record any votes due to either black disenfranchisement or being inhabited only by Native Americans who would not gain full citizenship for twelve more years.

The 772 counties not carried by Wilson or by Taft were distributed in 38 states, most of them in Pennsylvania (48), Illinois (33), Michigan (68), Minnesota (75), Iowa (49), South Dakota (54), Nebraska (32), Kansas (51), Washington (38), and California (44), and almost without exception were carried by Roosevelt. Debs carried four counties in Minnesota (Lake and Beltrami), North Dakota (Burke County), and Kansas (Crawford County), the only counties ever to vote socialist in a presidential election.

This was the first time in 60 years (since 1852) that Iowa, Maine, New Hampshire, Ohio, and Rhode Island voted for a Democrat, and the first time in history that Massachusetts voted for a Democratic candidate. This was the last election in which the Democrats won Maine until 1964, the last in which the Democrats won Connecticut and Delaware until 1936, the last in which the Democrats won Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, New Jersey, New York, Oregon, West Virginia, and Wisconsin until 1932, and the last in which the Democrats won Massachusetts and Rhode Island until 1928. After the 2016 presidential election, 1912 remains the last election in which the key Indiana counties of Hamilton and Hendricks, along with Walworth County, Wisconsin, Pulaski and Laurel Counties in Kentucky and Hawkins County, Tennessee have given a plurality to the Democratic candidate.[26] In post-Civil War America, this is the only presidential election in which a third party candidate outperformed one of the candidates from the two-major parties in the general election.

The 1912 election was the first to include all 48 of the current contiguous United States.

Taft's 1912 result was the worst performance for any incumbent president seeking re-election, both in terms of electoral votes (8) and share of popular votes (23.17%). His electoral votes also represented the fewest electoral votes by either major parties, matched with Alf Landon's 1936 result. He was also remained the only major party nominee not finished in top two.

Electoral results
Presidential candidate Party Home state Popular vote Electoral
vote
Running mate
Count Percentage Vice-presidential candidate Home state Electoral vote
Woodrow Wilson Democratic New Jersey 6,296,284 41.84% 435 Thomas R. Marshall Indiana 435
Theodore Roosevelt Progressive New York 4,122,721 27.40% 88 Hiram W. Johnson California 88
William Howard Taft (Incumbent) Republican Ohio 3,486,242 23.17% 8 Nicholas Murray Butler New York 8
Eugene V. Debs Socialist Indiana 901,551 5.99% 0 Emil Seidel Wisconsin 0
Eugene W. Chafin Prohibition Arizona 208,156 1.38% 0 Aaron S. Watkins Ohio 0
Arthur E. Reimer Socialist Labor Massachusetts 29,324 0.19% 0 August Gillhaus New York 0
Other 4,556 0.03% Other
Total 15,048,834 100% 531 531
Needed to win 266 266

Source (Popular Vote): Leip, David. "1912 Presidential Election Results". Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Retrieved July 28, 2005.

Source (Electoral Vote): "Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996". National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved July 31, 2005.

Popular vote
Wilson
41.84%
Roosevelt
27.40%
Taft
23.17%
Debs
5.99%
Others
1.60%
Electoral vote
Wilson
81.92%
Roosevelt
16.57%
Taft
1.51%

Geography of resultsEdit

Cartographic galleryEdit

Results by stateEdit

[27]

States won by Wilson/Marshall
States won by Roosevelt/Johnson
States won by Taft/Butler
Woodrow Wilson
Democratic
Theodore Roosevelt
Progressive
William H. Taft
Republican
Eugene V. Debs
Socialist
Eugene Chafin
Prohibition
Arthur Reimer
Socialist Labor
Margin State Total
State electoral
votes
# % electoral
votes
# % electoral
votes
# % electoral
votes
# % electoral
votes
# % electoral
votes
# % electoral
votes
# % #
Alabama 12 82,438 69.89 12 22,680 19.23 - 9,807 8.31 - 3,029 2.57 - - - - - - - 59,758 50.66 117,959 AL
Arizona 3 10,324 43.52 3 6,949 29.29 - 3,021 12.74 - 3,163 13.33 - 265 1.12 - - - - 3,375 14.23 23,722 AZ
Arkansas 9 68,814 55.01 9 21,644 17.30 - 25,585 20.45 - 8,153 6.52 - 908 0.73 - - - - 43,229 34.55 125,104 AR
California 13 283,436 41.81 2 283,610 41.83 11 3,914 0.58 - 79,201 11.68 - 23,366 3.45 - - - - -174 -0.03 673,527 CA
Colorado 6 114,232 42.80 6 72,306 27.09 - 58,386 21.88 - 16,418 6.15 - 5,063 1.90 - 475 0.18 - 41,926 15.71 266,880 CO
Connecticut 7 74,561 39.16 7 34,129 17.92 - 68,324 35.88 - 10,056 5.28 - 2,068 1.09 - 1,260 0.66 - 6,237 3.28 190,398 CT
Delaware 3 22,631 46.48 3 8,886 18.25 - 15,998 32.85 - 556 1.14 - 623 1.28 - - - - 6,633 13.62 48,694 DE
Florida 6 35,343 69.52 6 4,555 8.96 - 4,279 8.42 - 4,806 9.45 - 1,854 3.65 - - - - 30,537 60.07 50,837 FL
Georgia 14 93,087 76.63 14 21,985 18.10 - 5,191 4.27 - 1,058 0.87 - 149 0.12 - - - - 71,102 58.53 121,470 GA
Idaho 4 33,921 32.08 4 25,527 24.14 - 32,810 31.02 - 11,960 11.31 - 1,536 1.45 - - - - 1,111 1.05 105,754 ID
Illinois 29 405,048 35.34 29 386,478 33.72 - 253,593 22.13 - 81,278 7.09 - 15,710 1.37 - 4,066 0.35 - 18,570 1.62 1,146,173 IL
Indiana 15 281,890 43.07 15 162,007 24.75 - 151,267 23.11 - 36,931 5.64 - 19,249 2.94 - 3,130 0.48 - 119,883 18.32 654,474 IN
Iowa 13 185,325 37.64 13 161,819 32.87 - 119,805 24.33 - 16,967 3.45 - 8,440 1.71 - - - - 23,506 4.77 492,356 IA
Kansas 10 143,663 39.30 10 120,210 32.88 - 74,845 20.47 - 26,779 7.33 - - - - - - - 23,453 6.42 365,497 KS
Kentucky 13 219,484 48.48 13 101,766 22.48 - 115,510 25.52 - 11,646 2.57 - 3,253 0.72 - 1,055 0.23 - 103,974 22.97 452,714 KY
Louisiana 10 60,871 76.81 10 9,283 11.71 - 3,833 4.84 - 5,261 6.64 - - - - - - - 51,588 65.10 79,248 LA
Maine 6 51,113 39.43 6 48,495 37.41 - 26,545 20.48 - 2,541 1.96 - 946 0.73 - - - - 2,618 2.02 129,640 ME
Maryland 8 112,674 48.57 8 57,789 24.91 - 54,956 23.69 - 3,996 1.72 - 2,244 0.97 - 322 0.14 - 54,885 23.66 231,981 MD
Massachusetts 18 173,408 35.53 18 142,228 29.14 - 155,948 31.95 - 12,616 2.58 - 2,754 0.56 - 1,102 0.23 - 17,460 3.58 488,056 MA
Michigan 15 150,751 27.36 - 214,584 38.95 15 152,244 27.63 - 23,211 4.21 - 8,934 1.62 - 1,252 0.23 - -62,340 -11.31 550,976 MI
Minnesota 12 106,426 31.84 - 125,856 37.66 12 64,334 19.25 - 27,505 8.23 - 7,886 2.36 - 2,212 0.66 - -19,430 -5.81 334,219 MN
Mississippi 10 57,324 88.90 10 3,549 5.50 - 1,560 2.42 - 2,050 3.18 - - - - - - - 53,775 83.39 64,483 MS
Missouri 18 330,746 47.35 18 124,375 17.80 - 207,821 29.75 - 28,466 4.07 - 5,380 0.77 - 1,778 0.25 - 122,925 17.60 698,566 MO
Montana 4 27,941 35.00 4 22,456 28.13 - 18,512 23.19 - 10,885 13.64 - 32 0.04 - - - - 5,485 6.87 79,826 MT
Nebraska 8 109,008 43.69 8 72,681 29.13 - 54,226 21.74 - 10,185 4.08 - 3,383 1.36 - - - - 36,327 14.56 249,483 NE
Nevada 3 7,986 39.70 3 5,620 27.94 - 3,196 15.89 - 3,313 16.47 - - - - - - - 2,366 11.76 20,115 NV
New Hampshire 4 34,724 39.48 4 17,794 20.23 - 32,927 37.43 - 1,981 2.25 - 535 0.61 - - - - 1,797 2.04 87,961 NH
New Jersey 14 178,289 41.20 14 145,410 33.60 - 88,835 20.53 - 15,948 3.69 - 2,936 0.68 - 1,321 0.31 - 32,879 7.60 432,739 NJ
New Mexico 3 20,437 41.39 3 8,347 16.90 - 17,733 35.91 - 2,859 5.79 - - - - - - - 2,704 5.48 49,376 NM
New York 45 655,573 41.27 45 390,093 24.56 - 455,487 28.68 - 63,434 3.99 - 19,455 1.22 - 4,273 0.27 - 200,086 12.60 1,588,315 NY
North Carolina 12 144,407 59.24 12 69,135 28.36 - 29,129 11.95 - 987 0.40 - 118 0.05 - - - - 75,272 30.88 243,776 NC
North Dakota 5 29,555 34.14 5 25,726 29.71 - 23,090 26.67 - 6,966 8.05 - 1,243 1.44 - - - - 3,829 4.42 86,580 ND
Ohio 24 424,834 40.96 24 229,807 22.16 - 278,168 26.82 - 90,144 8.69 - 11,511 1.11 - 2,630 0.25 - 146,666 14.14 1,037,094 OH
Oklahoma 10 119,156 46.95 10 - - - 90,786 35.77 - 41,674 16.42 - 2,185 0.86 - - - - 28,370 11.18 253,801 OK
Oregon 5 47,064 34.34 5 37,600 27.44 - 34,673 25.30 - 13,343 9.74 - 4,360 3.18 - - - - 9,464 6.91 137,040 OR
Pennsylvania 38 395,637 32.49 - 444,894 36.53 38 273,360 22.45 - 83,614 6.87 - 19,525 1.60 - 706 0.06 - -49,257 -4.04 1,217,736 PA
Rhode Island 5 30,412 39.04 5 16,878 21.67 - 27,703 35.56 - 2,049 2.63 - 616 0.79 - 236 0.30 - 2,709 3.48 77,894 RI
South Carolina 9 48,357 95.94 9 1,293 2.57 - 536 1.06 - 164 0.33 - - - - - - - 47,064 93.37 50,350 SC
South Dakota 5 48,942 42.07 - 58,811 50.56 5 - - - 4,662 4.01 - 3,910 3.36 - - - - -9,869 -8.48 116,325 SD
Tennessee 12 133,021 52.80 12 54,041 21.45 - 60,475 24.00 - 3,564 1.41 - 832 0.33 - - - - 72,546 28.80 251,933 TN
Texas 20 221,589 72.62 20 28,853 9.46 - 26,755 8.77 - 25,743 8.44 - 1,738 0.57 - 442 0.14 - 192,736 63.17 305,120 TX
Utah 4 36,579 32.55 - 24,174 21.51 - 42,100 37.46 4 9,023 8.03 - - - - 510 0.45 - -5,521 -4.91 112,386 UT
Vermont 4 15,354 24.43 - 22,132 35.22 - 23,332 37.13 4 928 1.48 - 1,095 1.74 - - - - -1,200 -1.91 62,841 VT
Virginia 12 90,332 65.95 12 21,776 15.90 - 23,288 17.00 - 820 0.60 - 709 0.52 - 50 0.04 - 67,044 48.95 136,975 VA
Washington 7 86,840 26.90 - 113,698 35.22 7 70,445 21.82 - 40,134 12.43 - 9,810 3.04 - 1,872 0.58 - -26,858 -8.32 322,799 WA
West Virginia 8 113,197 42.11 8 79,112 29.43 - 56,754 21.11 - 15,248 5.67 - 4,517 1.68 - - - - 34,085 12.68 268,828 WV
Wisconsin 13 164,230 41.06 13 62,448 15.61 - 130,596 32.65 - 33,476 8.37 - 8,584 2.15 - 632 0.16 - 33,634 8.41 399,966 WI
Wyoming 3 15,310 36.20 3 9,232 21.83 - 14,560 34.42 - 2,760 6.53 - 434 1.03 - - - - 750 1.77 42,296 WY
TOTALS: 531 6,296,284 41.84 435 4,122,721 27.40 88 3,486,242 23.17 8 901,551 5.99 - 208,156 1.38 - 29,324 0.19 - 2,173,563 14.44 15,044,278 US

Results in Major Cities (by the Top 100 Cities of the 1910 Census)Edit

City ST Wilson Taft Roosevelt Debs Others Totals
San Francisco CA 48,953 65 38,610 12,354 1,166 101,148
Denver CO 26,690 8,155 25,154 2,750 764 63,513
Bridgeport CT 5,870 4,625 3,654 1,511 284 15,944
Hartford CT 7,481 6,396 2,467 849 258 17,451
New Haven CT 8,946 7,291 3,252 1,696 442 21,627
Waterbury CT 4,440 3,261 1,675 787 212 10,375
Des Moines IA 6,005 3,669 6,432
Chicago IL 124,297 71,030 150,290 53,743 2,806 402,166
Ft. Wayne IN 4,892 1,896 2,793
Indianapolis IN 18,306 8,722 9,693
New Orleans LA 26,433 904 5,692
Boston MA 43,065 21,427 21,533 1,818 428 88,271
Cambridge MA 6,667 3,362 3,403 192 68 13,692
Fall River MA 5,160 4,224 3,453 219 256 13,312
Lowell MA 5,459 3,034 3,783 170 82 12,528
Lynn MA 4,595 4,144 4,764 583 178 14,264
New Bedford MA 3,290 4,177 1,905 626 98 10,096
Somerville MA 4,062 3,757 4,072 176 78 12,145
Springfield MA 4,375 5,167 3,161 555 58 13,316
Worcester MA 6,049 10,532 4,818 230 140 21,769
Baltimore MD 48,030 15,597 33,679 1,763 253 99,322
Kansas City MO 26,954 4,646 20,894 1,470 465 54,429
St. Louis MO 58,845 46,509 24,746 9,159 1,068 140,327
Bayonne NJ 3,717 1,184 2,552
Camden NJ 6,895 5,517 4,707
Elizabeth NJ 5,139 1,900 3,953
Jersey City NJ 21,069 4,070 11,986
Newark NJ 14,031 10,780 19,721
Paterson NJ 7,437 3,007 7,223
Trenton NJ 5,146 3,898 4,753
Buffalo NY 26,192 14,433 20,769
New York City NY 312,426 126,582 188,896 33,239 2,730 663,873
Rochester NY 13,430 12,230 11,102 2,593 636 39,991
Cincinnati OH 31,221 30,588 9,970 6,520 401 78,700
Allentown PA 4,627 1,224 3,475 686 59 10,071
Erie PA 3,407 2,378 1,898 1,464 140 9,287
Philadelphia PA 66,308 91,944 82,963 9,784 691 251,690
Pittsburgh PA 17,352 14,658 25,394 8,498 534 66,436
Reading PA 6,130 1,657 6,719 2,800 83 17,389
Scranton PA 6,193 1,817 7,971 564 214 16,759
Wilkes-Barre PA 2,905 1,178 3,951 219 47 8,300
Salt Lake City UT 7,488 8,964 6,587 2,498
Norfolk VA 3,539 195 451 33 10 4,228
Richmond VA 5,636 405 483 91 12 6,627
Milwaukee WI 24,501 15,092 5,127 17,708 511 62,939

Close statesEdit

Margin of victory less than 1% (13 electoral votes):

  1. California, 0.03%

Margin of victory less than 5% (142 electoral votes):

  1. Idaho, 1.05%
  2. Illinois, 1.62%
  3. Wyoming, 1.77%
  4. Vermont, 1.91%
  5. Maine, 2.02%
  6. New Hampshire, 2.04%
  7. Connecticut, 3.28%
  8. Rhode Island, 3.48%
  9. Massachusetts, 3.58%
  10. Pennsylvania, 4.04%
  11. North Dakota, 4.42%
  12. Iowa, 4.77%
  13. Utah, 4.91%

Margin of victory between 5% and 10% (73 electoral votes):

  1. New Mexico, 5.48%
  2. Minnesota, 5.81%
  3. Kansas, 6.42%
  4. Montana, 6.87%
  5. Oregon, 6.91%
  6. New Jersey, 7.60%
  7. Washington, 8.32%
  8. Wisconsin, 8.41%
  9. South Dakota, 8.48%

StatisticsEdit

Counties with Highest Percent of Vote (Democratic)

  1. Greenville County, South Carolina 100.00%
  2. Marlboro County, South Carolina 100.00%
  3. Hampton County, South Carolina 100.00%
  4. Jasper County, South Carolina 100.00%
  5. Reagan County, Texas 100.00%

Counties with Highest Percent of Vote (Other)

  1. Scott County, Tennessee 82.80%
  2. Campbell County, South Dakota 80.42%
  3. Clearwater County, Minnesota 77.35%
  4. Avery County, North Carolina 72.84%
  5. Cook County, Minnesota 72.70%

Counties with Highest Percent of Vote (Republican)

  1. Zapata County, Texas 80.89%
  2. Valencia County, New Mexico 77.25%
  3. Kane County, Utah 75.40%
  4. Clinton County, Kentucky 64.79%
  5. Huerfano County, Colorado 63.36%
 
Inauguration platform being constructed in front of the Capitol

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Voter Turnout in Presidential Elections". The American Presidency Project. UC Santa Barbara.
  2. ^ Morris, Edmund. Colonel Roosevelt. New York: Random House Trade Paperbacks. p. 215.
  3. ^ Coletta, Presidency of William Howard Taft ch 3
  4. ^ Anderson (1973), p.79
  5. ^ Schweikart and Allen, p. 491.
  6. ^ "History, Travel, Arts, Science, People, Places | Smithsonian". Smithsonianmag.com. Retrieved August 18, 2016.
  7. ^ "Taft Is Nominated On First Ballot". Santa Cruz News. Santa Cruz, CA. June 22, 1912. Retrieved January 7, 2018.
  8. ^ "Taft Wins With 561". The Courier. Harrisburg, PA. June 23, 1912. Retrieved January 7, 2018.
  9. ^ Pietrusza, David (2007). 1920: The Year of the Six Presidents. New York: Carroll & Graf. ISBN 0-7867-1622-3.
  10. ^ Ira Kipnis, The American Socialist Movement, 1897–1912 1952.
  11. ^ "The Bull Moose and related media". Archived from the original on March 8, 2010. Retrieved March 8, 2010. to make sure that no violence was done
  12. ^ Remey, Oliver E.; Cochems, Henry F.; Bloodgood, Wheeler P. (1912). The Attempted Assassination of Ex-President Theodore Roosevelt. Milwaukee, Wisconsin: The Progressive Publishing Company. p. 192.
  13. ^ "Medical History of American Presidents". Doctor Zebra. Retrieved September 14, 2010.
  14. ^ "Excerpt", Detroit Free Press, History buff.
  15. ^ "It Takes More Than That to Kill a Bull Moose: The Leader and The Cause". Theodore Roosevelt Association. Retrieved October 14, 2015.
  16. ^ "Roosevelt Timeline". Theodore Roosevelt. Retrieved September 14, 2010.
  17. ^ Timeline of Theodore Roosevelt's Life by the Theodore Roosevelt Association at www.theodoreroosevelt.org
  18. ^ Donavan, p. 119
  19. ^ "Daily TWiP - Theodore Roosevelt delivers campaign speech after being shot today in 1912". Archived from the original on September 19, 2015. Retrieved November 9, 2010.
  20. ^ Stanley D. Solvick, "William Howard Taft and the Payne-Aldrich Tariff." Mississippi Valley Historical Review 50.3 (1963): 424-442 online.
  21. ^ G. M. Fisk, "The Payne-Aldrich Tariff" Political Science Quarterly, (1910). 25(1), 35-39. doi:10.2307/2141008
  22. ^ Theodore Roosevelt Association. "The New Nationalism." The New Nationalism - Theodore Roosevelt Association. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Apr. 2017.
  23. ^ a b The Presidential Vote, 1896–1932, Edgar E. Robinson, pg. 14
  24. ^ a b c The Presidential Vote, 1896–1932, Edgar E. Robinson, pg. 15
  25. ^ The Presidential Vote, 1896–1932, Edgar E. Robinson, pg. 17
  26. ^ Sullivan, Robert David; ‘How the Red and Blue Map Evolved Over the Past Century’; America Magazine in The National Catholic Review; June 29, 2016
  27. ^ "1912 Presidential General Election Data – National". Uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved May 4, 2013.

Further readingEdit

  • Anders, O. Fritiof. "The Swedish-American Press in the Election of 1912" Swedish Pioneer Historical Quarterly (1963) 14#3 pp 103-126
  • Broderick, Francis L. Progressivism at risk: Electing a president in 1912 (Praeger, 1989).
  • Chace, James (2004). 1912: Wilson, Roosevelt, Taft, and Debs—The Election That Changed the Country. New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-0394-1.
  • Cooper, John Milton, Jr. (1983). The Warrior and the Priest: Woodrow Wilson and Theodore Roosevelt. Cambridge: Belknap Press. ISBN 0-674-94751-7.
  • Cowan, Geoffrey. Let the People Rule: Theodore Roosevelt and the Birth of the Presidential Primary (2016).
  • Delahaye, Claire. "The New Nationalism and Progressive Issues: The Break with Taft and the 1912 Campaign," in Serge Ricard, ed., A Companion to Theodore Roosevelt (2011) pp 452–67. online
  • DeWitt, Benjamin P. The Progressive Movement: A Non-Partisan, Comprehensive Discussion of Current Tendencies in American Politics. (1915).
  • Flehinger, Brett. The 1912 Election and the Power of Progressivism: A Brief History with Documents (Bedford/St. Martin's, 2003).
  • Gable, John A. The Bullmoose Years: Theodore Roosevelt and the Progressive Party. (Kennikat Press, 1978).
  • Gould, Lewis L. Four hats in the ring: The 1912 election and the birth of modern American politics (UP of Kansas, 2008).
  • Hahn, Harlan. "The Republican Party Convention of 1912 and the Role of Herbert S. Hadley in National Politics." Missouri Historical Review 59.4 (1965): 407-423. Taft was willing to compromise with Missouri Governor Herbert S. Hadley as presidential nominee; TR said no.
  • Jensen, Richard. "Theodore Roosevelt" in Encyclopedia of Third Parties. (ME Sharpe, 2000). pp 702–707.
  • Kipnis, Ira (1952). The American Socialist Movement, 1897–1912. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Kraig, Robert Alexander. "The 1912 Election and the Rhetorical Foundations of the Liberal State." Rhetoric and Public Affairs (2000): 363–395. in JSTOR
  • Link, Arthur S. (1956). Wilson: Volume 1, The Road to the White House.
  • Milkis, Sidney M., and Daniel J. Tichenor. "'Direct Democracy' and Social Justice: The Progressive Party Campaign of 1912." Studies in American Political Development 8#2 (1994): 282-340. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0898588X00001267
  • Milkis, Sidney M. Theodore Roosevelt, the Progressive Party, and the Transformation of American Democracy. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 2009.
  • Morgan, H. Wayne (1962). Eugene V. Debs: Socialist for President. Syracuse University Press.
  • Mowry, George E. (1946). Theodore Roosevelt and the Progressive Movement. Madison: Wisconsin University Press. online
  • Mowry, George E. "The Election of 1912" in Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., and Fred L Israel, eds., History of American Presidential Elections: 1789-1968 (1971) 3: 2135-2427. online
  • Mowry, George E. The Era of Theodore Roosevelt and the Birth of Modern America. (Harper and Row, 1962) online.
  • O'Mara, Margaret. Pivotal Tuesdays: Four Elections That Shaped the Twentieth Century (2015), compares 1912, 1932, 1968, 1992 in terms of social, economic, and political history
  • Painter, Carl, "The Progressive Party In Indiana," Indiana Magazine of History, 16#3 (1920), pp. 173–283. In JSTOR
  • Pinchot, Amos. History of the Progressive Party, 1912–1916. Introduction by Helene Maxwell Hooker. (New York University Press, 1958).
  • Sarasohn, David. The Party of Reform: Democrats in the Progressive Era (UP of Mississippi, 1989), pp 119–154.
  • Schambra, William. "The Election of 1912 and the Origins of Constitutional Conservatism." in Toward an American Conservatism (Palgrave Macmillan, 2013). 95-119.
  • Selmi, Patrick. "Jane Addams and the Progressive Party Campaign for President in 1912." Journal of Progressive Human Services 22.2 (2011): 160–190. https://doi.org/10.1080/10428232.2010.540705
  • Startt, James D. "Wilson’s Election Campaign of 1912 and the Press." in Woodrow Wilson and the Press: Prelude to the Presidency (Palgrave Macmillan, 2004) pp. 197-228.
  • Warner, Robert M. "Chase S. Osborn and the Presidential Campaign of 1912." Mississippi Valley Historical Review 46.1 (1959): 19-45. online
  • Wilensky, Norman N. (1965). Conservatives in the Progressive Era: The Taft Republicans of 1912. Gainesville: University of Florida Press.

Primary sourcesEdit

  • Bryan, William Jennings. A Tale of Two Conventions: Being an Account of the Republican and Democratic National Conventions of June, 1912, with an Outline of the Progressive National Convention of August in the Same Year (Funk & Wagnalls Company, 1912). online
  • Chester, Edward W A guide to political platforms (1977) online
  • Pinchot, Amos. What's the Matter with America: The Meaning of the Progressive Movement and the Rise of the New Party. (Amos Pinchot, 1912).
  • Roosevelt, Theodore. Theodore Roosevelt's Confession of Faith Before the Progressive National Convention, August 6, 1912 (Progressive Party, 1912) online.
  • Roosevelt, Theodore. Bull Moose on the Stump: The 1912 Campaign Speeches of Theodore Roosevelt Ed. Lewis L. Gould. (UP of Kansas, 2008).
  • Wilson, Woodrow (1956). John Wells Davidson (ed.). A Crossroads of Freedom, the 1912 Campaign Speeches.
  • Porter, Kirk H. and Donald Bruce Johnson, eds. National party platforms, 1840-1964 (1965) online 1840-1956

External linksEdit