Westinghouse Electric Corporation

(Redirected from Westinghouse Electric)

The Westinghouse Electric Corporation (later CBS Corporation) was an American manufacturing company founded in 1886 by George Westinghouse. It was originally named "Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company" and was renamed "Westinghouse Electric Corporation" in 1945. The company acquired the CBS television network in 1995 and was renamed "CBS Corporation" until being acquired by Viacom in 1999, a merger completed in April 2000.[8] The CBS Corporation name was later reused for one of the two companies resulting from the split of Viacom in 2005.

Westinghouse Electric Corporation
Formerly
  • Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company (1886–1945)
  • Westinghouse Electric Corp. (1945–1997)
  • CBS Corp. (1997–2000)
Company typePublic (1916–1997)[1]
NYSE: WX (1916–1997)[1]
FoundedAugust 8, 1886; 137 years ago (1886-08-08)
FounderGeorge Westinghouse
DefunctApril 26, 2000; 23 years ago (2000-04-26)
FateRenamed "CBS Corporation" in 1997, then merged with Viacom in 2000
Successor
Headquarters,
United States
Area served
Worldwide
Divisions
Subsidiaries

The Westinghouse trademarks are owned by Westinghouse Electric Corporation,[9] and were previously part of Westinghouse Licensing Corporation.[9][10] The nuclear power business, Westinghouse Electric Company, was spun off from the Westinghouse Electric Corporation in 1999.

History edit

Beginnings edit

The evolution of Paramount
 
1912Famous Players Film Company is founded
1913Lasky Feature Play Company is founded
1914Paramount Pictures is founded as a film distributor
1916Famous Players and Lasky merge as Famous Players–Lasky and acquire Paramount
1920Westinghouse Broadcasting forms with the launch of KDKA-AM
1927CBS is founded; Famous Players–Lasky assumes Paramount's name
1929Paramount buys 49% of CBS
1932Paramount sells back shares of CBS
1950Desilu is founded and CBS distributes its television programs
1952CBS creates the CBS Television Film Sales division
1958CBS Television Film Sales renamed to CBS Films
1966Gulf+Western buys Paramount
1968Gulf+Western acquires Desilu and renames it Paramount Television; CBS Films becomes CBS Enterprises
1970CBS Enterprises renamed to Viacom
1971Viacom is spun off from CBS as a separate company
1985Viacom buys full ownership of Showtime and MTV Networks
1987National Amusements buys Viacom
1989Gulf+Western renamed to Paramount Communications
1994Viacom acquires Paramount Communications
1995Westinghouse buys CBS
1997Westinghouse renamed to CBS Corporation
2000Viacom buys CBS Corporation
2001Viacom buys BET Networks
2005Viacom splits into second CBS Corporation and Viacom
2019CBS Corporation and Viacom re-merge as ViacomCBS
2022ViacomCBS renamed to Paramount Global
 
George Westinghouse, founder

Westinghouse Electric was founded by George Westinghouse in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, on January 8, 1886. Building on the advancement of AC technology in Europe,[11] the firm became active in developing alternating current (AC) electric infrastructure throughout the United States. The company's largest factories were located in East Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Lester, Pennsylvania[12] and Hamilton, Ontario, where they made turbines, generators, motors, and switch gear for the generation, transmission, and use of electricity.[13] In addition to George Westinghouse, early engineers working for the company included Frank Conrad, Benjamin Garver Lamme, Bertha Lamme (first woman mechanical engineer in the United States), Oliver B. Shallenberger, William Stanley, Nikola Tesla, Stephen Timoshenko, and Vladimir Zworykin.

Early on, Westinghouse was a rival to Thomas Edison's electric company. In 1892, Edison was merged with Westinghouse's chief AC rival, the Thomson-Houston Electric Company, making an even bigger competitor, General Electric. Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company changed its name to Westinghouse Electric Corporation in 1945.[citation needed]

1990s edit

In 1990, Westinghouse experienced a serious setback when the corporation lost over one billion dollars due to bad high-risk, high-fee, high-interest loans made by its Westinghouse Credit Corporation lending arm.[14]

In an attempt to revitalize the corporation, the board of directors appointed outside management in the form of CEO Michael H. Jordan, who brought in numerous consultants to help re-engineer the company in order to realize the potential that they saw in the broadcasting industry. Westinghouse reduced the workforce in many of its traditional industrial operations and made further acquisitions in broadcasting to add to its already substantial Group W network, including Infinity Broadcasting, TNN, CMT, American Radio Systems, and rights to NFL broadcasting. These investments cost the company over fifteen billion dollars. To recoup its costs, Westinghouse sold many other operations, including its defense electronics division, its metering and load control division (which was sold to ABB), its residential security division, the office furniture company Knoll, and Thermo King.[15]

Westinghouse purchased CBS Inc. in 1995 for $5.4 billion.[16] Westinghouse Electric Corporation changed its name to and became the original "CBS Corporation" in 1997.[17] Also in 1997, the Power Generation Business Unit, headquartered in Orlando, Florida, was sold to Siemens AG of Germany.[18] A year later, CBS sold all of its commercial nuclear power businesses to British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL).[19] In connection with that sale, certain rights to use the Westinghouse trademarks were granted to the newly formed BNFL subsidiary, Westinghouse Electric Company.[19] That company was sold to Toshiba in 2006.[20]

Patents edit

During the 20th century, Westinghouse engineers and scientists were granted more than 28,000 U.S. patents, the third most of any company.[21]

Products and sponsorships edit

  • Power generation: The company pioneered the power generation industry[22] and in the fields of long-distance power transmission and high-voltage alternating-current transmission, unveiling the technology for lighting in Great Barrington, Massachusetts.[citation needed]
  • Steam turbine generator: The first commercial Westinghouse steam turbine-driven generator, a 1,500 kW unit, began operation at Hartford Electric Light Co. in 1901. The machine, nicknamed Mary-Ann, was the first steam turbine generator to be installed by an electric utility to generate electricity in the US. George Westinghouse had based his original steam turbine design on designs licensed from the English inventor Charles Parsons. Today a large proportion of steam turbine generators operating around the world, ranging to units as large as 1,500 MW (or 1,000 times the original 1901 unit) were supplied by Westinghouse from its factories in Lester, Pennsylvania, Charlotte, North Carolina, or Hamilton, Ont. or were built overseas under Westinghouse license. Major Westinghouse licensees or joint venture partners included Mitsubishi Heavy Industries of Japan and Harbin Turbine Co. and Shanghai Electric Co. of China.
  • Research: Westinghouse had 50,000 employees by 1900 and established a formal research and development department in 1906. While the company was expanding, it would experience internal financial difficulties. During the Panic of 1907, the Board of Directors forced George Westinghouse to take a six-month leave of absence. Westinghouse officially retired in 1909 and died several years later in 1914.
  • Electrical technology: Under new leadership, Westinghouse Electric diversified its business activities in electrical technology. It acquired the Copeman Electric Stove Company in 1914 and Pittsburgh High Voltage Insulator Company in 1921. Westinghouse also moved into radio broadcasting by establishing Pittsburgh's KDKA, the first commercial radio station, and WBZ in Springfield, Massachusetts in 1921. Westinghouse expanded into the elevator business, establishing the Westinghouse Elevator Company in 1928; it sold its elevator business to Schindler Group (forming the Schindler Elevator Corporation) in 1989. Throughout the decade, diversification engendered considerable growth; sales went from $43 million in 1914 to $216 million in 1929.[23]
  • Aviation: Westinghouse produced the first operational American turbojet for the US Navy program in 1943. After many successes, the ill-fated J40 project, started soon after World War Two, was abandoned in 1955 and led to Westinghouse exiting the aircraft engine business with the closure of the Westinghouse Aviation Gas Turbine Division (Kansas City) in 1960.
  • Gas turbines: During the late 1940s, Westinghouse applied its aviation gas turbine technology and experience to develop its first industrial gas turbine. A 2,000–horsepower model W21 was installed in 1948 at the Mississippi River Fuel Corp gas compression station in Wilmar, Arkansas.[24] This was the starting point for the company to enter in industrial and utility gas turbine business,[25] prior to the sale by Westinghouse of the power generation business to Siemens AG in 1997. Evolving from the Small Steam and Gas Turbine Division formed in the early 1950s, the Westinghouse Combustion Turbine Systems Division was located in Concordville, Pennsylvania, near Philadelphia and the old Lester, Pennsylvania plant, until it was relocated to Power Generation headquarters in Orlando, Florida in 1987.
  • Nuclear power: As a result of its participation in the US government's military program for nuclear energy applications (e.g., The Nuclear Navy) Westinghouse utilized that experience in the development and commercialization of nuclear energy systems for electric power generation. This business currently operates as the Westinghouse Electric Company and is owned by Brookfield Business Partners of Canada. Electricite de France (EDF) a major global player in the nuclear power business, was a long-time licensee of the Westinghouse nuclear technology.
  • Industrial motors: Additional major industrial products in the widespread Westinghouse portfolio included electric motors of all sizes, elevators and escalators, controls, and lighting. The Large Motor Division, once headquartered in Buffalo, NY, entered a joint venture with Taiwan Electric Co. (TECO) in the 1970s and today operates as TECO-Westinghouse.[26] Much of Westinghouse's higher voltage power equipment was sold to ABB in 1989 and renamed the ABB Power T&D Company.[27]
  • Rail transit: The Westinghouse Transportation Division (est. 1894) supplied equipment and controls for many North American interurban and streetcar lines, the San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit, Washington Metro, New York City Subway equipment from the 1890s elevated era to the R68A in 1988, among many other heavy rail and rail transit systems and built locomotives, often in partnership with Baldwin, Lima-Hamilton as well as supplying electrical and traction equipment for Fairbanks-Morse diesel locomotives. The division designed and built Automated People Movers (APMs) at several major U.S. airports, including Sea-Tac. Tampa, Dallas-Ft. Worth and Orlando. The Transportation Division was sold to AEG of Germany (1988), which merged into a joint venture of ABB and Daimler-Benz named AdTranz in 1996. Ultimately, the unit was acquired by Bombardier of Canada in 2001 and is still headquartered in Pittsburgh.[28]
  • Consumer electrics: Westinghouse was also among the initial manufacturers to make household electrical products including radios, televisions, and other audio/video equipment. This also included both small and large electric appliances of all kinds, from hair dryers and electric irons to clothes washers and dryers, refrigerators and air conditioning units. After more than 50 years, and after playing a strong No. 2 to rival General Electric for most of that time, Westinghouse decided to exit the appliance business in the mid-1970s. White-Westinghouse was formed when White Consolidated Industries acquired the Westinghouse appliance unit in 1975.
  • World's Fair time capsules: The company is also known for its time capsule contributions during the 1939 New York World's Fair and 1964 New York World's Fair.[citation needed] They also participated in the St. Louis World's Fair in 1904. They sponsored the Westinghouse Auditorium at the fair, where they showed films documenting Westinghouse products and company plants.[13] Westinghouse was one of the original corporate sponsors and exhibitors at Walt Disney World's EPCOT attraction in Orlando, Florida.

Environmental incidents edit

There have been a number of Westinghouse-related environmental incidents in the US. Below is a short list of these. All of these are chemical pollution incidents; none of them involve nuclear reactors or nuclear pollution.

  • Sharon plant: The Westinghouse Sharon Plant was a 58-acre Westinghouse transformer production facility in Mercer County, Pennsylvania. The EPA's recent Five Year Review Report (2016) of this Superfund site determined that the Shenango River has been polluted due to Westinghouse operations in this area.[29] Because of the findings, the state of Pennsylvania has issued a "Do Not Eat" advisory for fish around the Westinghouse site.[30] This plant was no longer operational after 1984. Westinghouse submitted their final cleanup plan in 1998, and further action beyond their dissolution has been liable to CBS. The transformer business unit was sold to ABB in 1989. This site now houses a product design company.
  • Adams County plant: Westinghouse was fined $5.5 million in 1996 for polluting groundwater in over 100 wells, as well as other water sources, while operating its Westinghouse Elevator Company plant in Adams County, Pennsylvania. Degreasers and other toxic chemicals were released over a five-year period in the 1980s.[31][verification needed] This business unit was sold to Schindler in 1988. Future liability for cleanup has been directed to CBS following the dissolution of Westinghouse Electric Corporation in 1999.
  • Horseheads site: Westinghouse operated a cathode-ray tube plant in Horseheads, New York. They were deemed responsible for pollution at the Kentucky Avenue Wellfield Superfund site in Horseheads, New York. Westinghouse polluted nearby soil, affecting the safety of a nearby aquifer and wells used by residents. One phase of the cleanup effort describes Westinghouse Electric Corporation's facility, designated "Disposal Area F" and the "Former Runoff Basin Area", which are contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and arsenic, will be cleaned up using a combination of soil excavation and soil vapor extraction. At Disposal Area F, the area of contamination is about 0.3 acres. At the Former Runoff Basin Area, the contaminated soils cover approximately 0.7 acres. Disposal of the excavated soils occurred at appropriate off-site facilities. The removal of the PAHs and arsenic contamination will protect site workers and employees at the Westinghouse facility and the cleanup of the VOCs will help restore the quality of the Newtown Creek Aquifer.[32][verification needed] In 1986, Westinghouse entered a joint venture at this plant with Toshiba to produce Cathode-Ray Tubes (CRTs). In 1989, Toshiba became part owner of this plant and the Westinghouse CRT business unit. Future liability has been shifted to CBS.
  • Sunnyvale plant: Westinghouse operated a plant which manufactured electronics for military systems in Sunnyvale, California. Groundwater and soil near this plant are contaminated with PCBs, fuels, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Potential health threats to area residents include accidentally ingesting or coming into direct contact with site contaminants in soil or groundwater. There are municipal drinking water wells within 14-mile from this site, and 300,000 people get their drinking water from within three miles of the site.[33][verification needed] This business unit was sold to Northrop Grumman in 1996. Future liability for this action has been passed on to CBS.

Timeline of company evolution edit

1880s edit

 
1888 Westinghouse brochure advertising their Alternating system
 
Share of the Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company, issued March 31, 1910
  • 1884 – George Westinghouse begins developing a DC electric lighting system
  • 1885 – Westinghouse becomes aware of the new European transformer based alternating current systems when he reads about them in the UK technical journal Engineering[34]
  • 1885 – William Stanley, Jr., working for Westinghouse, develops the first practical AC transformer[35]
  • 1886 – Westinghouse Electric Company founded in East Pittsburgh[36]
  • 1886 – William Stanley, Jr. installs the world's first operational transformer based multiple voltage transmission system, a demonstration lighting system in Great Barrington, Massachusetts
  • 1888 – development of an induction ampere-hour meter for alternating current developed by Oliver B. Shallenberger
  • 1888 – licensing of Nikola Tesla's AC and Induction motor patents (Tesla was hired for one year as a consultant, but he quit after a few months)[37]
  • 1889 – renames itself the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company

1890s edit

1900s to 1920s edit

 
1924 book on protective relays for AC and DC electrical systems by the company

1930s and 1940s edit

1950s to 1970s edit

 
Logo designed by Paul Rand in 1959
  • 1951 – conducts first live network TV in U.S.[40]
  • 1952 – opens Cathode Ray Tube facility in Horseheads, New York; facility housed three divisions: Cathode Ray Tube, Electronic Tube, and Industrial and Government Tube
  • 1954 – enters finance as Westinghouse Credit Corporation
  • 1955 – buys KDKA-TV (then WDTV) in Pittsburgh and KYW-TV (then WNBK, now WKYC) and KYW Radio (originally, and currently WTAM) along with KYW-FM (then WTAM-FM, currently WMJI) in Cleveland; KYW is now licensed to a TV and AM radio station in Philadelphia[40]
  • 1955 – Westinghouse J40 engine failure causes all F3H fighters using the engine to be grounded, and all other jets using it switch to other engines; Westinghouse is forced out of aircraft engine business
  • 1957 – introduces first successful "cobra head" roadway luminaire, the OV-25, integrating both ballast and optics in a more streamlined modern design
  • 1961 – acquires Thermo King (sold in 1997 to Ingersoll Rand)
  • 1964 – begins Skybus project; beginning of automated mass transit
  • 1965 – invention of the first MEMS device, buys Marketeer Electronic Vehicles[40]
  • 1966 – founds Cinema Center Films[40]
  • 1966 – starts housing and real estate development divisions[40]
  • 1966 – buys a toy manufacturer[40]
  • 1967 – lights America's first computer-controlled outdoor electric sign[46]
  • 1967 – makes the lowest bid for the BART project[47]
  • 1969 – buys 7 Up bottling[40]
  • 1973 – develops world's first AMLCD displays
  • 1974 – sells well-known home appliance division to White Consolidated Industries, which becomes White-Westinghouse
  • 1979 – withdraws from all oil related projects in the Middle East after Iranian Revolution

1980s edit

1990s to 2020s edit

Employees edit

CEOs edit

  • George Westinghouse, 1886–1909[56]
  • Edwin Herr, 1911–1929[57]
  • Frank Anderson Merrick, 1929 – February 1938[58]
  • George Bucher, February 1938–1946[59]
  • Gwilym Price, 1946–1957[60][61]
  • Mark Cresap, Jr. 1957–1963[62]
  • Don Burnham, 1963–1975[63]
  • Robert Kirby, 1975–1983[64]
  • Douglas Danforth, December 1983 – December 1987[65][66]
  • John Marous, 1988 – June 29, 1990[67]
  • Paul Lego, June 30, 1990 – January 1993[68]
  • Gary Clark, January–July 1993
  • Michael Jordan, July 1993 – 1997[69]

Other edit

  • Guy Tripp, a former Thomson-Houston employee who joined Westinghouse and became chairman of its board of directors in 1912, and served until his death in 1927.[70]

Overseas subsidiaries edit

Westinghouse established subsidiary companies in several countries including British Westinghouse and Società Italiana Westinghouse in Vado Ligure, Italy. British Westinghouse became a subsidiary of Metropolitan-Vickers in 1919 and the Italian Westinghouse factory was taken over by Tecnomasio in 1921.

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ a b "Archived copy" (PDF). www.djindexes.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 2, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  2. ^ "W.G. Bryant Dies; Bridgeport Banker – Chairman of Electrical Company and Inventor Succumbs at 66 in Colorado Springs – Started Own Firm in 1889 – Business Grew From $5,000 Plant to Manufacture His Devices to $3,000,000 Enterprise". The New York Times. July 6, 1930. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 5, 2022.
  3. ^ Kamen, Robin (November 24, 1997). "To Infinity and Beyond: Mel Takes on CBS". Crain's New York Business: 1.
  4. ^ "Viacom-CBS SEC Report".
  5. ^ "Westinghouse Bids for Role In the Remake: CBS Deal Advances TV's Global Reach". The New York Times. August 2, 1995.
  6. ^ Katz, Michael (February 17, 1997). "CBS makes cable a 'core business;' with purchase of TNN and CMT, network doubles its cable holdings". Broadcasting & Cable.
  7. ^ Fabrikant, Geraldine (February 11, 1997). "Westinghouse To Buy Units From Gaylord For $1.5 Billion". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 5, 2022.
  8. ^ "CBS And Viacom Complete Merger". CBS News. April 26, 2000. Retrieved February 16, 2021.
  9. ^ a b c "Sale of Trademarks". Paramount Global. p. 93. Retrieved August 24, 2023.
  10. ^ "Name Change Filing".
  11. ^ Brusso, Barry; Allerhand, Adam (January 2021). "A Contrarian History of Early Electric Power Distribution". IEEE Industry Applications Magazine. IEEE.org: 12. doi:10.1109/MIAS.2020.3028630. Archived from the original on December 12, 2020. Retrieved January 1, 2023.
  12. ^ a b History of Tinicum Township (PA) 1643–1993 (PDF). Tinicum Township Historical Society. 1993. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 23, 2015.
  13. ^ a b "Steam Hammer, Westinghouse Works, 1904". World Digital Library. 1904. Retrieved April 8, 2018.
  14. ^ Massey, Steve. "Who Killed Westinghouse? – Prologue". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Archived from the original on February 8, 2013. Retrieved October 29, 2020.
  15. ^ "Timeline: Westinghouse Electric Co". Pittsburgh Business Journal. March 29, 2017. Retrieved September 6, 2021.
  16. ^ a b Fabrikant, Geraldine (August 2, 1995). "CBS Accepts Bid by Westinghouse; $5.4 Billion Deal". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 29, 2020.
  17. ^ "Westinghouse Electric to Become CBS Today". Los Angeles Times. December 1, 1997. Retrieved October 29, 2020.
  18. ^ "Westinghouse Agrees to Sell Power Business to Siemens". Wall Street Journal. November 14, 1997. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved October 29, 2020.
  19. ^ a b "CBS Sells Last of Westinghouse For $238 Million Cash, Plus Debt". Wall Street Journal. June 26, 1998. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved October 29, 2020.
  20. ^ Macalister, Terry; Milner, Mark (January 24, 2006). "Toshiba to buy BNFL's Westinghouse". The Guardian. Retrieved October 29, 2020.
  21. ^ 2009 Westinghouse corporate profile
  22. ^ "Westinghouse Power Generation". RICHES of Central Florida. 1993. Archived from the original on April 5, 2016. Retrieved March 21, 2016.
  23. ^ "Westinghouse Electric Corporation". Engineering and Technology History Wiki. September 28, 2015.
  24. ^ "Westinghouse W21, Mississippi River Fuel Corp". RICHES of Central Florida. 1948. Archived from the original on April 10, 2016. Retrieved March 21, 2016.
  25. ^ Scalzo. A; et al. (1994). "Evolution of Heavy-Duty Power Generation and Industrial Combustion Turbines in the United States" (PDF). ASME 1994 International Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Congress and Exposition, Volume 4: Heat Transfer; Electric Power; Industrial and Cogeneration. doi:10.1115/94-GT-488. ISBN 978-0-7918-7886-6. S2CID 110451562. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 10, 2016.
  26. ^ "TECO-Westinghouse Motor Company, a world leader in manufacturing electric motors and generators, supplying motor controls, and providing engineering services, genuine Westinghouse renewal parts and large motor repairs".
  27. ^ "History of ABB in the United States". Archived from the original on November 3, 2017. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
  28. ^ "United States". www.bombardier.com.
  29. ^ "Five-Year Review Report for Westinghouse Electric Corp. (Sharon Plant) Superfund Site – Mercer County, Pennsylvania" (PDF). United States Environmental Protection Agency. September 2016. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 26, 2019.
  30. ^ "Anglers Warned to Not Eat Fish from Shenango River". PA.Gov. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania – Dept. of Environmental Protection. August 21, 2017.
  31. ^ Pittsburgh Post-Gazette – November 12, 1996
  32. ^ "Cleanup of Horseheads Superfund Site". EPA.
  33. ^ "Sunnyvale Superfund Site". EPA. September 4, 2015.
  34. ^ Richard Moran, Executioner's Current: Thomas Edison, George Westinghouse, and the Invention of the Electric Chair, Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group – 2007, page 42
  35. ^ "William Stanley – Engineering Hall of Fame". Edison Tech Center.
  36. ^ "The Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company | The Westinghouse World | Articles and Essays | Inside an American Factory: Films of the Westinghouse Works, 1904 | Digital Collections | Library of Congress". Library of Congress. Retrieved March 3, 2022.
  37. ^ John W. Klooster, Icons of Invention: The Makers of the Modern World from Gutenberg to Gates. ABC-CLIO. July 30, 2009. p. 305. ISBN 9780313347436. Retrieved September 10, 2012.
  38. ^ a b "Bombardier Fact Sheet: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania" (PDF). Bombardier Inc. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 2, 2015.
  39. ^ a b "Westinghouse Electric Corp. – The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History". Case Western Reserve University. May 12, 2018.
  40. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s "Westinghouse: Chronology". Ketupa.net. Archived from the original on April 3, 2013. Retrieved April 20, 2013.
  41. ^ "Westinghouse Company Enters Wireless Field", Electrical Review (October 16, 1920) page 615. Retrieved on 2018-03-04.
  42. ^ "Westinghouse Electric Corporation". ExplorePaHistory.com.
  43. ^ Feurer R (2006). Radical Unionism in the Midwest, 1900–1950. University of Illinois Press.
  44. ^ "Heartland of UE Struggle". UE. September 2002. Retrieved April 20, 2008.
  45. ^ "You can be sure if it's Westinghouse". Time magazine. 1948. Retrieved October 4, 2018.
  46. ^ "Westinghouse Sign". Pittsburgh Press. January 16, 1968. p. 49.
  47. ^ Frank Hawkins (March 7, 1967). "PAT Rapid Transit System Years Away". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved July 29, 2015.
  48. ^ Ray Gustini (March 24, 2011). "Three Decades of Wall Street's Muzak Fixation". The Atlantic Wire. Retrieved April 20, 2013.
  49. ^ "Westinghouse Sells Muzak". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. September 9, 1986. Retrieved July 29, 2015.
  50. ^ Stein, Kenneth J. (July 14, 1986). "Westinghouse/Airships Industries joint venture targets Navy program". Aviation Week & Space Technology: 144, 145, 147, 149.
  51. ^ "Bombardier in the United States, page 3" (PDF). Bombardier Inc. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 12, 2014.
  52. ^ "CBS And Viacom Complete Merger". CBS News. April 26, 2000. Retrieved October 29, 2020.
  53. ^ "Viacom Completes Split Into 2 Companies (Published 2006)". The New York Times. January 2, 2006. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 29, 2020.
  54. ^ Palmeri, Christopher (August 13, 2019). "A CBS-Viacom Timeline: From '06 Split to '19 Reunion". Bloomberg.com.
  55. ^ Berr, Jonathan (November 26, 2019). "Here Is Everything You Need To Know About The Viacom-CBS Merger". Forbes. Retrieved October 29, 2020.
  56. ^ Massey, Steve (March 1, 1998). "Who Killed Westinghouse? – In the beginning". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Archived from the original on April 6, 2023. Retrieved April 20, 2013.
  57. ^ "Edwin Herr Dies in East". The Milwaukee Journal. December 25, 1932. p. 4.
  58. ^ "Herr Quits as Westinghouse Head". The Pittsburgh Press. June 26, 1929. Retrieved July 29, 2015.
  59. ^ "New Westinghouse Head Is Optimistic". The Pittsburgh Press. February 25, 1938. Retrieved July 29, 2015.
  60. ^ "Gwilym Price, Retired Westinghouse Leader, Dies". The Pittsburgh Press. June 2, 1985. Retrieved July 29, 2015.
  61. ^ Gwilym A. Price, 89, a high school dropout who became.... Orlando Sentinel (June 4, 1985). Retrieved on 2013-08-18.
  62. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on December 24, 2012. Retrieved July 26, 2013.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  63. ^ Massey, Steve (March 1, 1998). "Who Killed Westinghouse? – Chapter 1: Doing Well by Doing Good". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved April 20, 2013.
  64. ^ Massey, Steve (March 3, 1998). "Who Killed Westinghouse? – Chapter 2: Sue Me, Sue You Blues". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Archived from the original on April 6, 2023. Retrieved April 20, 2013.
  65. ^ Douglas Danforth: Executive Profile & Biography. BusinessWeek. Retrieved on November 2, 2013.
  66. ^ Massey, Steve (March 4, 1998). "Who Killed Westinghouse? – Chapter 3: Money, It's a Hit". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved April 20, 2013.
  67. ^ Massey, Steve (March 5, 1998). "Who Killed Westinghouse? – Chapter 4: Big Money and Bad Choices". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Archived from the original on April 6, 2023. Retrieved April 20, 2013.
  68. ^ Massey, Steve (March 6, 1998). "Who Killed Westinghouse? – Chapter 5: Coming Apart at the Seams". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Archived from the original on April 6, 2023. Retrieved April 20, 2013.
  69. ^ Massey, Steve (March 7, 1998). "Who Killed Westinghouse? – Chapter 6: Free at Last". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved April 20, 2013.
  70. ^ Eliot, Samuel Atkins, ed. (1914). Biographical History of Massachusetts. Vol. 5. Boston, Massachusetts: Massachusetts Biographical Society. pp. 86–87 – via Google Books.

External links edit