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Maryland's 3rd congressional district

Maryland's 3rd congressional district is a congressional district in the state of Maryland. It comprises portions of Baltimore, Howard, Montgomery and Anne Arundel counties, as well as a significant part of the independent city of Baltimore. The seat is currently represented by John Sarbanes, a Democrat. Landmarks in the district include Fort McHenry and the state capital, Annapolis.[citation needed]

Maryland's 3rd congressional district
Maryland US Congressional District 3 (since 2013).tif
Maryland's 3rd congressional district – since January 3, 2013.
Representative
  John Sarbanes
DBaltimore
Area292.74 sq mi (758.2 km2)
Distribution
  • 98.4% urban
  • 1.3% rural
Population (2000)662,062
Median income$87,732[1]
Ethnicity
Occupation
Cook PVID+13[2]

Three people who represented Maryland in the United States Senate were also former representatives of the 3rd district, including Ben Cardin, Barbara Mikulski, and Paul Sarbanes.[citation needed]

The district's odd shape is attributed to gerrymandering to favor Democratic candidates following the 2000[3] and 2010[4] censuses. In 2012 the district was found to be the third least compact congressional district in the United States[5] and in 2014 The Washington Post called it the nation's second-most gerrymandered district.[6] John Sarbanes, the current Democratic Representative for the district, has put forth the For the People Act of 2019 to address electoral reform, voting rights and gerrymandering in the United States.[7][8]

Contents

Recent elections in statewide racesEdit

Year Results
2000 Gore 55% – 41%
2004 Kerry 54% – 45%
2008 Obama 59% – 39%
2012 Obama 60.6% – 37.2%
2016 Clinton 62.9% – 32.1%

Recent electionsEdit

Maryland's 3rd Congressional District election, 2000
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Benjamin Cardin (Incumbent) 169,347 75.66
Republican Scott Conwell 53,827 24.05
Libertarian Joe Pomykala 238 0.11
Write-ins 406 0.18
Total votes 223,818 100.00
Democratic hold
Maryland's 3rd Congressional District election, 2002
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Benjamin Cardin (Incumbent) 145,589 65.79
Republican Scott Conwell 75,721 34.21
Total votes 221,310 100.00
Democratic hold
Maryland's 3rd Congressional District election, 2004
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Benjamin Cardin (Incumbent) 182,066 63.44% -2.35
Republican Robert P. Duckworth 97,008 33.80% -0.41
Green Patsy Allen 7,895 2.75% +2.75
Total votes 286,969 100.00
Democratic hold
Marylands's 3rd Congressional District election, 2006
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic John Sarbanes 150,142 64.03% +0.59
Republican John White 79,174 33.76% -0.04
Libertarian Charles Curtis McPeek, Sr. 4,941 2.11% +2.11
Write-ins 229 0.10% +0.10
Total votes 234,486 100.00
Democratic hold
Maryland's 3rd Congressional District election, 2008
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic John Sarbanes (Incumbent) 203,711 69.66% +5.63
Republican Thomas E. Harris 87,971 30.08% -3.68
No party Write-ins 766 0.26%
Total votes 292,448 100.00
Democratic hold Swing
Maryland's 3rd Congressional District election, 2010
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic John Sarbanes (Incumbent) 147,448 61.07% -8.59
Republican Jim Wilhelm 86,947 36.01% +5.93
Libertarian Jerry McKinley 5,212 2.16% +2.16
Constitution Alain Lareau 1,634 0.68% +0.68
No party Write-ins 188 0.1%
Total votes 241,429 100.00
Democratic hold
Maryland's 3rd Congressional District election, 2012[9]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic John Sarbanes (Incumbent) 213,747 66.8
Republican Eric Delano Knowles 94,549 29.6
Libertarian Paul R. Drgos, Jr. 11,028 3.4
N/A Others (write-in) 535 0.2
Total votes 319,859 100
Maryland's 3rd congressional district, 2014
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic John Sarbanes (incumbent) 128,594 59.6
Republican Charles A. Long 87,029 40.3
n/a Write-ins 323 0.1
Total votes 215,946 100.0
Democratic hold
Maryland's 3rd congressional district, 2016[10]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic John Sarbanes (incumbent) 214,640 63.2
Republican Mark Plaster 115,048 33.9
Green Nnabu Eze 9,461 2.8
n/a Write-ins 526 0.1
Total votes 339,675 100.0
Democratic hold
Maryland's 3rd congressional district, 2018
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic John Sarbanes (incumbent) 202,407 69.1
Republican Charles Anthony 82,774 28.3
Libertarian J. David Lashar 7,476 2.6
n/a Write-ins 223 0.1
Total votes 292,880 100.0
Democratic hold

Historical boundaries and compositionEdit

 
The district, from 2003 to 2013

Maryland's 3rd district was one of the 61 districts that elected a representative to the 1st United States Congress. It also has the distinction of being one of the few congressional districts that once included areas not currently in the state they are in. The 3rd congressional district originally was composed of Prince George's County, Maryland and Anne Arundel County, Maryland.[11] At that point what is now Howard County, Maryland was in Anne Arundel County, and Prince George's County included the eastern half of the District of Columbia.

In 1792 the Maryland 3rd Congressional District was moved to include Montgomery County, Maryland and the eastern half of Frederick County, Maryland. The population was about 33,000.[12] However, the western portion of what is today Carroll County, Maryland was at this point in Frederick County, and the western half of the District of Columbia was in Montgomery County. This latter fact explains why the district lost population even though it in theory did not experience redistricting after the 1800 census. With the population of Georgetown, D. C. no longer in the district, its 1800 population was about 31,000.[13] At this point the 3rd was Maryland's least populous district, barely having half the population of the Baltimore City and County 5th district, which in 1800 had just above 59,000 inhabitants.[14]

The boundaries remained the same after the 1810, 1820 and 1830 censuses. While in 1820 the district had about 36,000 inhabitants its population had risen to 53,622 in 1830.[15] With the formation of Carroll County in the 1830s as well as Maryland falling from 8 to 6 congressional seats, the boundaries of the 3rd Congressional District were drastically redrawn. The only area that remained in the 3rd Congressional District was the part of Carroll County that had been in Frederick County. The 3rd also included Baltimore County and the western half of the city of Baltimore. Its new population was 69,923, 24.5% of whom were black.[16]

In 1853 the 3rd district was redrawn again. The new district consisted of Baltimore County except for the northern and western parts of the county and about the eastern third of the City of Baltimore. The district now had a population of 95,729.[17] In the redistricting following the 1860 census, Maryland was reduced to five congressional districts. The 3rd was moved so that it contained the part of Baltimore that had not been in the 3rd before 1863. It now had a population of 130,040.[18] In 1873 the 3rd district was moved again, to be the east side of Baltimore. It now had a population of 120,978.[19]

List of members representing the districtEdit

Member Party Years Electoral history
1  
Benjamin Contee
Anti-Administration March 4, 1789 –
March 3, 1791
Elected in 1789.
Lost re-election.
2  
William Pinkney
Pro-Administration March 4, 1791 –
November 1791
Elected in 1790.
Resigned due to questions of ineligibility.
Vacant November 1791 –
February 5, 1792
3  
John Francis Mercer
Anti-Administration February 5, 1792 –
March 3, 1793
Elected October 26–29, 1791 to finish Pinkney's term.
Redistricted to the 2nd district.
4  
Uriah Forrest
Pro-Administration March 4, 1793 –
November 8, 1794
Elected in 1792.
Resigned.
Vacant November 8, 1794 –
January 2, 1795
5 Benjamin Edwards Pro-Administration January 2, 1795 –
March 3, 1795
Elected December 8, 1794 to finish Forrest's term.
Retired.
6 Jeremiah Crabb Federalist March 4, 1795 –
June 1, 1796
Elected in 1794.
Resigned.
Vacant June 1, 1796 –
December 5, 1796
7 William Craik Federalist December 5, 1796 –
March 3, 1799
Elected October 3, 1796 to finish Crabb's term.
Also elected the same day to the next term.
Re-elected in 1798.
Retired.
8 Thomas Plater Federalist March 4, 1799 –
March 3, 1805
Elected in 1801.
Re-elected in 1803.
Lost re-election.
9  
Patrick Magruder
Democratic-Republican March 4, 1805 –
March 3, 1807
Elected in 1804.
Lost re-election.
10  
Philip Barton Key
Federalist March 4, 1807 –
March 3, 1813
Elected in 1806.
Re-elected in 1808.
Re-elected in 1810.
Retired.
11  
Alexander Contee Hanson
Federalist March 4, 1813 –
1816
Elected in 1812.
Re-elected in 1814.
Resigned when elected U.S. Senator.
Vacant 1816 –
October 7, 1816
12  
George Peter
Federalist October 7, 1816 –
March 3, 1819
Elected to finish Hanson's term.
Also elected to the next term in 1816.
Lost re-election.
13 Henry Ridgely Warfield Federalist March 4, 1819 –
March 3, 1823
Elected in 1818.
Re-elected in 1820.
Retired.
Adams Federalist March 4, 1823 –
March 3, 1825
14  
George Peter
Jacksonian March 4, 1825 –
March 3, 1827
Elected in 1824.
Lost re-election.
15 George Corbin Washington Anti-Jacksonian March 4, 1827 –
March 3, 1833
Elected in 1826.
Re-elected in 1829.
[Data unknown/missing.]
16 James Turner Jacksonian March 4, 1833 –
March 3, 1837
[Data unknown/missing.]
17 John Tolley Hood Worthington Democratic March 4, 1837 –
March 3, 1841
[Data unknown/missing.]
18 James Wray Williams Democratic March 4, 1841 –
December 2, 1842
[Data unknown/missing.]
Died.
Vacant December 2, 1842 –
January 2, 1843
19 Charles S. Sewall Democratic January 2, 1843 –
March 3, 1843
[Data unknown/missing.]
20 John Wethered Whig March 4, 1843 –
March 3, 1845
[Data unknown/missing.]
21  
Thomas Watkins Ligon
Democratic March 4, 1845 –
March 3, 1849
[Data unknown/missing.]
22 Edward Hammond Democratic March 4, 1849 –
March 3, 1853
[Data unknown/missing.]
23 Joshua Van Sant Democratic March 4, 1853 –
March 3, 1855
[Data unknown/missing.]
24  
James Morrison Harris
Know Nothing March 4, 1855 –
March 3, 1861
[Data unknown/missing.]
25 Cornelius Leary Unionist March 4, 1861 –
March 3, 1863
[Data unknown/missing.]
26  
Henry Winter Davis
Unconditional Unionist March 4, 1863 –
March 3, 1865
[Data unknown/missing.]
27  
Charles Edward Phelps
Unconditional Unionist March 4, 1865 –
March 3, 1867
[Data unknown/missing.]
Conservative March 4, 1867 –
March 3, 1869
28  
Thomas Swann
Democratic March 4, 1869 –
March 3, 1873
[Data unknown/missing.]
Redistricted to the 4th district.
29  
William James O'Brien
Democratic March 4, 1873 –
March 3, 1877
[Data unknown/missing.]
30  
William Kimmel
Democratic March 4, 1877 –
March 3, 1881
[Data unknown/missing.]
31  
Fetter Schrier Hoblitzell
Democratic March 4, 1881 –
March 3, 1885
[Data unknown/missing.]
32  
William Hinson Cole
Democratic March 4, 1885 –
July 8, 1886
[Data unknown/missing.]
Died.
Vacant July 8, 1886 –
November 2, 1886
33  
Harry Welles Rusk
Democratic November 2, 1886 –
March 3, 1897
[Data unknown/missing.]
34 William Samuel Booze Republican March 4, 1897 –
March 3, 1899
[Data unknown/missing.]
35 Frank Charles Wachter Democratic March 4, 1899 –
March 3, 1907
[Data unknown/missing.]
36 Harry Benjamin Wolf Democratic March 4, 1907 –
March 3, 1909
[Data unknown/missing.]
37  
John Kronmiller
Republican March 4, 1909 –
March 3, 1911
[Data unknown/missing.]
38  
George Konig
Democratic March 4, 1911 –
May 31, 1913
[Data unknown/missing.]
Died.
Vacant May 31, 1913 –
November 4, 1913
39  
Charles Pearce Coady
Democratic November 4, 1913 –
March 3, 1921
[Data unknown/missing.]
40  
John B.P.C. Hill
Republican March 4, 1921 –
March 3, 1927
[Data unknown/missing.]
41  
Vincent Palmisano
Democratic March 4, 1927 –
January 3, 1939
[Data unknown/missing.]
42  
Thomas D'Alesandro Jr.
Democratic January 3, 1939 –
May 16, 1947
[Data unknown/missing.]
Resigned to become Mayor of Baltimore.
Vacant May 16, 1947 –
July 15, 1947
43  
Edward Garmatz
Democratic July 15, 1947 –
January 3, 1973
[Data unknown/missing.]
44  
Paul Sarbanes
Democratic January 3, 1973 –
January 3, 1977
Redistricted from the 4th district.
Retired to run for U.S. Senator.
45  
Barbara Mikulski
Democratic January 3, 1977 –
January 3, 1987
Elected in 1976.
Retired to run for U.S. Senator.
46  
Benjamin Cardin
Democratic January 3, 1987 –
January 3, 2007
Elected in 1986.
Retired to run for U.S. Senator.
47  
John Sarbanes
January 3, 2007 –
Present
Democratic Elected in 2006.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ https://www.census.gov/mycd/?st=24&cd=03
  2. ^ "Partisan Voting Index – Districts of the 115th Congress" (PDF). The Cook Political Report. April 7, 2017. Retrieved April 7, 2017.
  3. ^ "Politics Makes Strange Bedfellows, Even Stranger Congressional Boundaries". Maryland Newsline, University of Maryland. February 20, 2004. Retrieved May 6, 2007.
  4. ^ "Maryland Redistricting Plan Advances". The Washington Post. October 17, 2011.
  5. ^ Lazarick, Len (October 3, 2012). "Maryland has least compact congressional districts in nation". MarylandReporter.com. Retrieved October 7, 2012.
  6. ^ Ingraham, Christopher (May 15, 2014). "America's most gerrymandered congressional districts". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 7, 2016.
  7. ^ Sarbanes, John (January 3, 2019). "H.R.1 - 116th Congress (2019-2020): To expand Americans' access to the ballot box, reduce the influence of big money in politics, and strengthen ethics rules for public servants, and for other purposes". www.congress.gov. Archived from the original on January 7, 2019. Retrieved January 6, 2019.
  8. ^ 116th Congress (2019) (January 3, 2019). "H.R. 1 (116th)". Legislation. GovTrack.us. Retrieved March 7, 2019. For the People Act of 2019
  9. ^ "Unofficial 2012 Presidential General Election results for Representative in Congress". Maryland State Board of Elections. Retrieved November 12, 2012.
  10. ^ "Official 2016 Presidential General Election results for Representative in Congress". Maryland Secretary of State. Retrieved December 9, 2016.
  11. ^ Parson, Stanley B., William W. Beach and Dan Hermann. United States Congressional Districts, 1788–1841 (Westport: Greenwood Press, 1978) p. 8-9
  12. ^ Parsons. Congressional Districts. p. 42-43
  13. ^ Parsons. Congressional Districts. p. 93-94
  14. ^ Parsons. Congressional Districts. p. 94
  15. ^ Parsons. Congressional Districts p. 234, 318
  16. ^ Parson, Stanley B., William W. Beach and Michael J. Durbin. United States Congressional Districts, 1843–1883 (Westport: Greenwood Press, 1986) p. 16
  17. ^ Parsons. Con. Dis. 1843–1883 p. 64
  18. ^ Parsons. Con. Dis. 1843–1883 p. 115
  19. ^ Parsons. Con. Dis. 1843–1883 p. 177

Coordinates: 39°09′N 76°36′W / 39.15°N 76.6°W / 39.15; -76.6