1888 United States House of Representatives elections
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All 332[Note 2] seats to the United States House of Representatives
167 seats needed for a majority
Map of U.S. House elections results from 1888 elections for 51st Congress
Harrison's Republican Party gained a majority in the House at the expense of the Democratic Party, even though incumbent President Grover Cleveland actually received more votes counted than Harrison. However, as in other elections in the period, widespread vote suppression and fraud was common on behalf of Democrats and against black Republicans in the South. The Republican House majority in uncontested elections unseated a number of initially reported as victorious Democratic candidates in favor of Republican candidates who contested their election loss. The issue of tariffs played a key role in this election. The Democrats, with the support of farmers and laborers, wanted to lower tariffs in order to promote free trade, while the Republicans, backed by industry and big business, believed that higher tariffs were necessary to protect American manufacturing. Especially in industrializing regions, voters chose the Republican view on tariffs, as they gave the party a slim majority in the House.
Seven seats were added, for the six new states of, in order of admission (number of House seats for each new state listed in parentheses): North Dakota (1), South Dakota (2), Montana (1), Washington (1), Idaho (1), and Wyoming (1).
|North Carolina||District||9[Note 8]||3||2||6||2|
|1889 elections (New States)|
|1890 elections (New States)|
In 1888, three states, with 7 seats among them, held elections early:
The States admitted in 1889 all held their first election on October 1.
Wyoming's first election was held on September 11, 1890, for both the 51st Congress and the 52nd Congress. Idaho held two elections simultaneously on October 1, 1890, one for the 51st Congress and the other for the 52nd Congress.
|Arkansas 1||Poindexter Dunn||Democratic||1878||Retired
|William H. Cate (D) 51.9%|
Lewis P. Featherstone (L) 47.4%
|Arkansas 2||Clifton R. Breckinridge||Democratic||1882||Re-elected||Clifton R. Breckinridge (D) 51.2%|
John M. Clayton (R) 48.8%
|Arkansas 3||Thomas C. McRae||Democratic||1884||Re-elected||Thomas C. McRae (D) 59.7%|
John Ansley (L) 40.3%
|Arkansas 4||John H. Rogers||Democratic||1884||Re-elected||John H. Rogers (D) 57.8%|
Isaac McCacken (I) 42.2%
|Arkansas 5||Samuel W. Peel||Democratic||1884||Re-elected||Samuel W. Peel (D) 68.9%|
Edward P. Watson (I) 22.0%
John Gates (R) 9.1%
In the 2nd district, Clifton R. Breckinridge (D) was initially declared re-elected. John M. Clayton successfully contested the election, but was assassinated before the contest was complete, so the House declared the seat vacant. Breckinridge was then re-elected November 4, 1890 to finish the term.
|California 1||Thomas Larkin Thompson||Democratic||1886||Lost re-election
|John J. De Haven (R) 49.9%|
Thomas L. Thompson (D) 49%
W. D. Reynolds (I) 1.1%
|California 2||Marion Biggs||Democratic||1886||Re-elected||Marion Biggs (D) 50.6%|
John A. Eagon (R) 46.6%
S. M. McLean (Pr) 2.4%
J. F. McSwain (I) 0.4%
|California 3||Joseph McKenna||Republican||1884||Re-elected||Joseph McKenna (R) 56.0%|
Ben Morgan (D) 41.2%
W. W. Smith (Pr) 1.9%
S. Solon Holl (I) 1.0%
|California 4||William W. Morrow||Republican||1884||Re-elected||William W. Morrow (R) 50.8%|
Robert Ferral (D) 48.6%
Frank M. Pixley (S) 0.6%
|California 5||Charles N. Felton||Republican||1884||Retired
|Thomas J. Clunie (D) 49.3%|
Timothy G. Phelps (R) 49.2%
Henry French (I)
|California 6||William Vandever||Republican||1886||Retired
|William Vandever (R) 52.5%|
Reel B. Terry (D) 43.7%
J. G. Miller (Pr) 3.5%
Alfred Daggett (KN) 0.2%
|Florida 1||Robert H. M. Davidson||Democratic||1876||Re-elected||Robert H. M. Davidson (D) 67.1%|
H. R. Benjamin (R) 32.9%
|Florida 2||Charles Dougherty||Democratic||1884||Retired
|Robert Bullock (D) 53.5%|
Frederick S. Goodrich (R) 46.5%
|Ohio 1||Benjamin Butterworth||Republican||1884||Re-elected||Benjamin Butterworth (R) 52.6%|
Otway Cosgrove (D) 47.4%
|Ohio 2||Charles Elwood Brown||Republican||1884||Retired
|John A. Caldwell (R) 51.9%|
Clinton W. Gerard (D) 48.1%
|Ohio 3||Elihu S. Williams||Republican||1886||Re-elected||Elihu S. Williams (R) 50.5%|
George W. Houk (D) 49.5%
|Ohio 4||Samuel S. Yoder||Democratic||1886||Re-elected||Samuel S. Yoder (D) 60.6%|
Robert L. Mattingly (R) 39.4%
|Ohio 5||George E. Seney||Democratic||1886||Re-elected||George E. Seney (D) 57.9%|
Wilson Vance (R) 42.1%
|Ohio 6||Melvin M. Boothman||Republican||1886||Re-elected||Melvin M. Boothman (R) 50.1%|
Gaylord M. Saltzgaber (D) 49.9%
|Ohio 7||James E. Campbell||Democratic||1886||Retired
|Henry Lee Morey (R) 51.2%|
John M. Pattison (D) 48.8%
|Ohio 8||Robert P. Kennedy||Republican||1886||Re-elected||Robert P. Kennedy (R) 54.2%|
Andrew R. Bohn (D) 45.8%
|Ohio 9||William C. Cooper||Republican||1884||Re-elected||William C. Cooper (R) 53.0%|
John S. Braddock (R) 47.0%
|Ohio 10||Jacob Romeis||Republican||1884||Lost Re-election
|William E. Haynes (D) 51.5%|
Jacob Romeis (R) 48.5%
|Ohio 11||Albert C. Thompson||Republican||1886||Re-elected||Albert C. Thompson (R) 56.8%|
Joseph W. Shinn (D) 43.2%
|Ohio 12||Jacob J. Pugsley||Republican||1886||Re-elected||Jacob J. Pugsley (R) 50.9%|
Lawrence T. Neal (D) 49.1%
|Ohio 13||Joseph H. Outhwaite||Democratic||1884||Re-elected||Joseph H. Outhwaite (D) 52.7%|
John B. Neil (R) 47.3%
|Ohio 14||Charles P. Wickham||Republican||1886||Re-elected||Charles P. Wickham (R) 51.5%|
David L. Wadsworth (D) 48.5%
|Ohio 15||Charles H. Grosvenor||Republican||1886||Re-elected||Charles H. Grosvenor (R) 53.5%|
John P. Spriggs (D) 46.5%
|Ohio 16||Beriah Wilkins||Democratic||1886||Retired
|James W. Owens (D) 55.2%|
Edwin L. Lybarger (R) 44.8%
|Ohio 17||Joseph D. Taylor||Republican||1886||Re-elected||Joseph D. Taylor (R) 56.9%|
William Lawrence (D) 43.1%
|Ohio 18||William McKinley||Republican||1886||Re-elected||William McKinley (R) 54.4%|
George P. Ikirt (D) 45.6%
|Ohio 19||Ezra B. Taylor||Republican||1880 (s)||Re-elected||Ezra B. Taylor (R) 67.5%|
Henry Apthorp (D) 32.5%
|Ohio 20||George W. Crouse||Republican||1886||Retired
|Martin L. Smyser (R) 52.9%|
Calvin P. Humphrey (D) 47.1%
|Ohio 21||Martin A. Foran||Democratic||1882||Retired
|Theodore E. Burton (R) 50.8%|
Tom L. Johnson (D) 49.2%
|South Carolina 1||Samuel Dibble||Democratic||1882||Re-elected||Samuel Dibble (D) 86.7%|
S. W. McKinlay (R) 13.1%
|South Carolina 2||George D. Tillman||Democratic||1878||Re-elected||George D. Tillman (D) 86.8%|
Seymour E. Smith (R) 11.4%
|South Carolina 3||James S. Cothran||Democratic||1886||Re-elected||James S. Cothran (D) 99.8%|
|South Carolina 4||William H. Perry||Democratic||1884||Re-elected||William H. Perry (D) 99.9%|
|South Carolina 5||John J. Hemphill||Democratic||1882||Re-elected||John J. Hemphill (D) 99.7%|
|South Carolina 6||George W. Dargan||Democratic||1882||Re-elected||George W. Dargan (D) 95.7%|
|South Carolina 7||William Elliott||Democratic||1884||Re-elected||William Elliott (D) 54.1%|
Thomas E. Miller (R) 45.4%
In the 7th district, Elliott was initially declared re-elected, but Miller successfully challenged the election and was seated in his place in September, 1890.
- Three states held early elections. Six new states were admitted during this Congress, holding their elections in 1889 and 1890.
- Includes late elections.
- Included 2 Independent Republicans.
- There are significant discrepancies between the party counts provided by Martis (pp. 142–43) and Dubin (p. 285) in regards to the 51st Congress, mainly due to the fact that Martis counts the results of many later contested elections (which were generally decided in favor of the challenging Republican candidate, resulting in the unseating of a number of Democratic members). Dubin records 169 Republicans and 161 Democrats on the first day of the 1st session of the 51st Congress; Dubin reports 177 Republicans, 154 Democrats, and one Labor Party member at the start of the 2nd session of the 51st Congress, figures that nearly match Martis' numbers.
- After a contested election, Lewis P. Featherstone of the Labor Party was declared the winner of AR-01.
- Previous election had 1 Greenback Party Representative.
- Elections held early.
- Previous election had 1 Independent.
- At-large seat eliminated in redistricting.
- Previous election had 1 Labor Party representative.
- Martis, pp. 142–143.
- Smith, Joseph P, ed. (1898). History of the Republican Party in Ohio. I. Chicago: the Lewis Publishing Company. pp. 567, 568.
- Dubin, Michael J. (March 1, 1998). United States Congressional Elections, 1788-1997: The Official Results of the Elections of the 1st Through 105th Congresses. McFarland and Company. ISBN 978-0786402830.
- Martis, Kenneth C. (January 1, 1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress, 1789-1989. Macmillan Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0029201701.
- Moore, John L., ed. (1994). Congressional Quarterly's Guide to U.S. Elections (Third ed.). Congressional Quarterly Inc. ISBN 978-0871879967.
- "Party Divisions of the House of Representatives* 1789–Present". Office of the Historian, House of United States House of Representatives. Retrieved January 21, 2015.
- Office of the Historian (Office of Art & Archives, Office of the Clerk, U.S. House of Representatives)