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Montana's at-large congressional district

Montana is represented in the United States House of Representatives by one at-large congressional district, among the 435 in the United States Congress. The district is the largest U.S. congressional district by population with just over 1 million constituents.[4] It is also the second-largest by land area, after Alaska's at-large congressional district, and the largest by land area in the contiguous United States.

Montana's at-large congressional district
MT-Atlarge.gif
Representative
  Greg Gianforte
RBozeman
Distribution
  • 54.0% urban
  • 46.0% rural
Population (2014[1])1,023,579
Median income$53,386[2]
Ethnicity
Cook PVIR+11[3]

Since June 21, 2017, the district has been represented by Republican Greg Gianforte. Gianforte won a special election earlier in 2017 to replace Ryan Zinke, who had resigned to become U.S. Secretary of the Interior.

PoliticsEdit

President George W. Bush won Montana in the 2004 presidential election with 59.1% of the vote, beating John Kerry by 20 percentage points, which indicates that the district leans Republican. However, four years later John McCain won the state by only 2.5% over Barack Obama, and there is a significant Democratic presence in the state: as of 2019 the Governor's office and one U.S. Senate seat are controlled by the Democrats, which suggested at the time that the district could be competitive in future elections. In 2016, Donald Trump won by over 20%, while Ryan Zinke won Montana's single congressional seat by over 16%. The seat was left vacant when Zinke was appointed Secretary of the Interior. In a special election held on May 25, 2017, Republican Greg Gianforte won with a margin of 6%.[5]

Early at-large districtEdit

From statehood in 1889, until the creation of geographic districts in 1919, Montana was represented in the United States House of Representatives by members elected at-large, that is, requiring voting by all the state population. From 1913 to 1919, there were two seats, still elected at-large; the top two finishers were awarded the seats. After that time, two representatives were elected from two geographic districts of roughly equal population, from the east and the west of the state.

In the reapportionment following the 1990 census, Montana lost one of its two seats. Its remaining member was again elected at-large.

Recent voting historyEdit

Election results from presidential races are shown below.

Year Results
2000 Bush 58–33%
2004 Bush 59–38%
2008 McCain 50–47%
2012 Romney 55–41%
2016 Trump 56–35%

List of members representing the districtEdit

1889–1919: One, then two seatsEdit

Years Cong
ress
Seat A Seat B
Member Party Electoral history Member Party Electoral history
March 4, 1889 –
November 8, 1889
51st Seat created upon statehood A second seat was added in 1913.
November 8, 1889 –
March 3, 1891
 
Thomas H. Carter
Republican Elected in 1889.
March 4, 1891 –
March 3, 1893
52nd  
William W. Dixon
Democratic Elected in 1890.
March 4, 1893 –
March 3, 1897
53rd
54th
55th
 
Charles S. Hartman
Republican Elected in 1892.
Re-elected in 1894.
Re-elected in 1896.
March 4, 1897 –
March 3, 1899
Silver
Republican
March 4, 1899 –
March 3, 1901
56th  
Albert J. Campbell
Democratic Elected in 1898.
March 4, 1901 –
March 3, 1903
57th  
Caldwell Edwards
Populist Elected in 1900.
March 4, 1903 –
March 3, 1907
58th
59th
 
Joseph M. Dixon
Republican Elected in 1902.
Re-elected in 1904.
March 4, 1907 –
March 3, 1913
60th
61st
62nd
 
Charles N. Pray
Republican Elected in 1906.
Re-elected in 1908.
Re-elected in 1910.
March 4, 1913 –
March 3, 1915
63rd
64th
 
John M. Evans
Democratic Elected in 1912.
Re-elected in 1914.
Re-elected in 1916.
Redistricted to the 1st district.
 
Tom Stout
Democratic Elected in 1912.
Re-elected in 1914.
Retired.
March 4, 1917 –
March 3, 1919
65th  
Jeannette Rankin[6]
Republican Elected in 1916.
Retired to run for U.S. Senator.

The two at-large seats were moved to district representation in 1919, and remained until 1993, when Montana lost a seat due to redistricting from the 1990 US Census, Re-establishing the single seat at-large district.

1993–present: One seatEdit

Member Party Years Cong
ress
Electoral history
District re-established January 3, 1993
 
Pat Williams
Democratic January 3, 1993 –
January 3, 1997
103rd
104th
Redistricted from the 1st district.
and Re-elected in 1992.
Re-elected in 1994.
Retired.
 
Rick Hill
Republican January 3, 1997 –
January 3, 2001
105th
106th
Elected in 1996.
Re-elected in 1998.
Retired.
 
Denny Rehberg
Republican January 3, 2001 –
January 3, 2013
107th
108th
109th
110th
111th
112th
Elected in 2000.
Re-elected in 2002.
Re-elected in 2004.
Re-elected in 2006.
Re-elected in 2008.
Re-elected in 2010.
Retired to run for U.S. Senator.
 
Steve Daines
Republican January 3, 2013 –
January 3, 2015
113th Elected in 2012.
Elected to the U.S. Senate.
 
Ryan Zinke
Republican January 3, 2015 –
March 1, 2017
114th
115th
Elected in 2014.
Re-elected in 2016.
Resigned to become U.S. Secretary of the Interior.
Vacant March 1, 2017 –
June 21, 2017
115th
 
Greg Gianforte
Republican June 21, 2017 –
present
115th
116th
Elected to finish Zinke's term.
Re-elected in 2018.

Recent election resultsEdit

The following are official results from the general elections.[7]

United States House of Representatives elections, 1998: Montana's at-large district
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Rick Hill 175,748 53.01%
Democratic Dusty Deschamps 147,073 44.36%
Libertarian Mike Fellows 5,652 1.70%
Reform Webb Sullivan 3,078 0.93%
Majority 28,675 8.65%
Turnout 338,733 52.99%
Republican hold Swing
United States House of Representatives elections, 2000: Montana's at-large district
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Denny Rehberg 211,418 51.50% −1.51
Democratic Nancy Keenan 189,971 46.28% +1.92
Libertarian James Tikalsky 9,132 2.22% +0.52
Majority 21,447 5.22% −3.43
Turnout 417,916 59.85% +6.86
Republican hold Swing
United States House of Representatives elections, 2002: Montana's at-large district
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Denny Rehberg 214,100 64.62% +13.12
Democratic Steve Kelly 108,233 32.67% −13.61
Libertarian Mike Fellows 8,988 2.71% +0.49
Majority 105,867 31.95% +26.73
Turnout 340,272 54.48% −5.37
Republican hold Swing
United States House of Representatives elections, 2004: Montana's at-large district
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Denny Rehberg 286,076 64.40% −0.22
Democratic Tracy Velazquez 145,606 32.78% +0.11
Libertarian Mike Fellows 12,548 2.82% +0.11
Majority 140,470 31.62% −0.33
Turnout 456,096 71.44% +16.96
Republican hold Swing
United States House of Representatives elections, 2006: Montana's at-large district
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Denny Rehberg 239,124 58.88% −5.52
Democratic Monica Lindeen 158,916 39.13% +6.35
Libertarian Mike Fellows 8,085 1.99% −0.83
Majority 80,208 19.75% −11.87
Turnout 411,061 63.30% −8.14
Republican hold Swing
United States House of Representatives elections, 2008: Montana's at-large district
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Denny Rehberg 308,470 64.14% +5.26
Democratic John Driscoll 155,930 32.42% −6.71
Libertarian Mike Fellows 16,500 3.43% +1.44
Majority 152,540 31.72% +11.97
Turnout 497,599 74.48% +11.18
Republican hold Swing
United States House of Representatives elections, 2010: Montana's at-large district
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Denny Rehberg 217,696 60.41% −3.73
Democratic Dennis McDonald 121,954 33.84% +1.42
Libertarian Mike Fellows 20,691 5.74% +2.31
Majority 95,742 26.57% −5.15
Turnout 367,096 56.36% −18.12
Republican hold Swing
United States House of Representatives elections, 2012: Montana's at-large district
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Steve Daines 255,468 53.25% −7.16
Democratic Kim Gillan 204,939 42.72% +8.88
Libertarian David Kaiser 19,333 4.03% −1.71
Majority 50,529 10.53% −16.04
Turnout 491,966 72.18% +15.82
Republican hold Swing
United States House of Representatives elections, 2014: Montana's at-large district[8]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Ryan Zinke 201,436 55.47% +2.22
Democratic John Lewis 146,474 40.34% −2.38
Libertarian Mike Fellows 15,105 4.16% +0.13
Majority 54,962 15.13% +4.6
Turnout 369,047 54.73% −17.45
Republican hold Swing
United States House of Representatives elections, 2016: Montana's at-large District[9]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Ryan Zinke 285,358 56.19% +0.78
Democratic Denise Juneau 205,919 40.55% +0.14
Libertarian Rick Breckenridge 16,554 3.26% -0.92
Majority 79,439 15.64% −0.09%
Turnout 507,831 74.44% +19.71%
Republican hold Swing
Montana's at-large congressional district special election, 2017: Montana's at-large District[10]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Greg Gianforte 189,473 50.19% −6.00
Democratic Rob Quist 166,483 44.11% +3.46
Libertarian Mark L Wicks 21,509 5.70% +2.44
Majority 22,990 6.10% −7.54%
Turnout 377,465 54.22% −20.22%
Republican hold Swing
United States House of Representatives elections, 2018: Montana's at-large district[11]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Greg Gianforte 256,661 50.88% +0.93
Democratic Kathleen Williams 233,284 46.25% +1.88
Libertarian Elinor Swanson 14,476 2.87% -2.81
Majority 23,377 4.63% -1.5
Turnout 504,421 71.43% +17.21
Republican hold Swing

Living former MembersEdit

As of April 2018, there are five living former members. The most recent representative to die was Jeannette Rankin (served 1917–1919) on May 18, 1973. The most recently serving representatives to die were Rankin and John M. Evans (served 1913–1919), who died on March 12, 1946.

Representative Term of office Date of birth (and age)
Pat Williams 1993–1997 (1937-10-30) October 30, 1937 (age 81)
Rick Hill 1997–2001 (1946-12-30) December 30, 1946 (age 72)
Denny Rehberg 2001–2013 (1955-10-05) October 5, 1955 (age 63)
Steve Daines 2013–2015 (1962-08-20) August 20, 1962 (age 57)
Ryan Zinke 2015–2017 (1961-11-01) November 1, 1961 (age 57)

NotesEdit

  1. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014". American FactFinder. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved January 30, 2015.
  2. ^ https://www.census.gov/mycd/?st=30
  3. ^ "Partisan Voting Index – Districts of the 115th Congress" (PDF). The Cook Political Report. April 7, 2017. Retrieved April 7, 2017.
  4. ^ "Congressional Apportionment: 2010 Census Briefs" (PDF). census.gov. United States Census Bureau. November 2011. Retrieved February 2, 2014.
  5. ^ "Election Results: Gianforte Wins U.S. House Seat in Montana". New York Times. Retrieved May 26, 2017.
  6. ^ "Montana". Official Congressional Directory: 65th Congress. Washington DC: Government Printing Office. 1917.
  7. ^ "Archived Official Election Results". Montana Secretary of State. State of Montana. Retrieved November 7, 2014.
  8. ^ "Official General Election Results". Montana Secretary of State. State of Montana. Archived from the original on October 21, 2014. Retrieved November 7, 2014.
  9. ^ "2016 General Election". Montana Secretary of State. Retrieved December 9, 2016.
  10. ^ "2017 Special Election (unofficial results)". Montana Secretary of State. Retrieved May 26, 2017.
  11. ^ {{cite web|title=Official General Election Results|url=https://sosmt.gov/wp-content/uploads/2018GeneralReportStateCanvass.pdf%7Cwebsite=Montana Secretary of State|publisher=State of Montana|accessdate=April 6, 2019

ReferencesEdit