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Maine's 2nd congressional district

Maine's 2nd congressional district is a congressional district in the U.S. state of Maine. Covering 27,326 square miles (70,770 km2), it comprises nearly 80% of the state's total land area. It is the largest district east of the Mississippi River and the 24th-largest overall. It is the second-most rural district in the United States, with 72.11% of its population in rural areas, behind only Kentucky's 5th congressional district.[3]

Maine's 2nd congressional district
Maine US Congressional District 2 (since 2013).tif
Maine's 2nd congressional district – since January 3, 2013.
Representative
  Jared Golden
DLewiston
Distribution
  • 27.89% urban
  • 72.11% rural
Population (2018)652,869
Median income$46,925
Ethnicity
Cook PVIR+2[2]

The district comprises most of the land area north of the Portland and Augusta metropolitan areas. It includes the cities of Lewiston, Bangor, Auburn and Presque Isle. It included the city of Waterville until 2011, when Maine's Congressional redistricting process following the 2010 US Census led to a shift of district boundaries within Kennebec County.

The district is currently represented by Democrat Jared Golden, who took office in 2019.

When Golden defeated two-term Republican incumbent Bruce Poliquin in 2018, it was the first time an incumbent had lost reelection in the district since 1916.[4]

Since 1965, the district has produced three U.S. Senators (William Hathaway, William Cohen and Olympia Snowe), one Governor (John Baldacci) and one nominee for Governor (Mike Michaud).

HistoryEdit

Until the Missouri Compromise was reached in 1820, Maine was a part of Massachusetts as the District of Maine. When it became a state in 1820, Maine had seven congressional districts credited to it (Massachusetts including Maine had been given 20 districts after the 1810 Census). Since Maine became a state, all but two districts have been reallocated to other states.

In 2018 the district became the first in the United States to elect the ranked choice winner over the first-past-the-post winner, after a referendum in 2016 changed Maine's electoral system from the latter system to the former. Incumbent representative Bruce Poliquin won a plurality of the first preference votes. However, the second and third preferences from two independent candidates flowed overwhelmingly to Jared Golden, allowing him to win with 50.6% of the vote once all preferences were distributed.

Election results from presidential racesEdit

In US presidential elections, most states give all the state's electoral votes to the candidate that wins the statewide popular vote. This is a type of winner-takes-all voting. Maine and Nebraska instead use the congressional district method, where the winner in each of the state's congressional districts gets one electoral vote, and the statewide winner gets an additional two electoral votes. Since Maine introduced this system in 1969, Maine's second district voted the same way as the entire state of Maine for every election until 2016.

Year Results
1972 Nixon 62 – 38%
1976 Ford 49 – 48%
1980 Reagan 46 – 43%
1984 Reagan 62 – 38%
1988 Bush 55 – 45%
1992 Clinton 38 – 33%
1996 Clinton 51 – 30%
2000 Gore 47 – 46%
2004 Kerry 52 – 46%
2008 Obama 55 – 43%
2012 Obama 53 – 44%
2016[5] Trump 51 – 41%

CompositionEdit

The boundaries of the District are open for reconsideration in light of population shifts revealed by the decennial US Census. Until 2011, Maine's constitution provided for the state to reapportion the Congressional districts based on census data every ten years beginning in 1983, which would have meant that the state was next due to consider redistricting in 2013. However, a federal lawsuit filed in March 2011 led to a requirement that Maine speed up its redistricting process.[6] Maine state legislators approved new boundaries on September 27, 2011.[7]

2013 – 2023Edit

List of members representing the districtEdit

Member Party Years ↑ Cong
ress
Electoral history District location
 
Ezekiel Whitman
Federalist March 4, 1821 –
June 1, 1822
17th Redistricted from the Massachusetts's 15th district and re-elected in 1820.
Resigned.
1821 – 1823
Cumberland County: Brunswick, Cape Elizabeth, Danville, Durham, Falmouth, Freeport, Gorham, Gray, Harpswell, New Gloucester, North Yarmouth, Portland, Pownal, Scarborough, Westbrook, Windham
Vacant June 1, 1822 –
December 2, 1822
Mark Harris Democratic-Republican December 2, 1822 –
March 3, 1823
17th Elected to finish Whitman's term.
Retired.
Stephen Longfellow Adams-Clay
Federalist
March 4, 1823 –
March 3, 1825
18th Elected in 1823.
Lost re-election.
1823 – 1833
Cumberland County: Brunswick, Cape Elizabeth, Cumberland, Danville, Durham, Falmouth, Freeport, Gorham, Gray, Harpswell, New Gloucester, North Yarmouth, Poland, Portland, Pownal, Raymond, Scarborough, Standish, Westbrook, Windham
John Anderson Jacksonian March 4, 1825 –
March 3, 1833
19th
20th
21st
22nd
Elected in 1824.
Re-elected in 1826.
Re-elected in 1828.
Retired to run for Mayor of Portland.
Francis Smith Jacksonian March 4, 1833 –
March 3, 1837
23rd
24th
25th
[Data unknown/missing.]
Democratic March 4, 1837 –
March 3, 1839
Albert Smith Democratic March 4, 1839 –
March 3, 1841
26th [Data unknown/missing.]
 
William Pitt Fessenden
Whig March 4, 1841 –
March 3, 1843
27th [Data unknown/missing.]
 
Robert P. Dunlap
Democratic March 4, 1843 –
March 3, 1847
28th
29th
[Data unknown/missing.] [Data unknown/missing.]
 
Asa Clapp
Democratic March 4, 1847 –
March 3, 1849
30th [Data unknown/missing.]
 
Nathaniel Littlefield
Democratic March 4, 1849 –
March 3, 1851
31st [Data unknown/missing.]
 
John Appleton
Democratic March 4, 1851 –
March 3, 1853
32nd [Data unknown/missing.]
Samuel Mayall Democratic March 4, 1853 –
March 3, 1855
33rd [Data unknown/missing.] [Data unknown/missing.]
 
John J. Perry
Opposition March 4, 1855 –
March 3, 1857
34th [Data unknown/missing.]
 
Charles J. Gilman
Republican March 4, 1857 –
March 3, 1859
35th [Data unknown/missing.]
 
John J. Perry
Republican March 4, 1859 –
March 3, 1861
36th [Data unknown/missing.]
 
Charles W. Walton
Republican March 4, 1861 –
May 26, 1862
37th [Data unknown/missing.]
Resigned on appointment as associate justice of Maine Supreme Judicial Court.
Vacant May 26, 1862 –
December 1, 1862
Thomas Fessenden Republican December 1, 1862 –
March 3, 1863
37th Elected to finish Walton's term.
[Data unknown/missing.]
 
Sidney Perham
Republican March 4, 1863 –
March 3, 1869
38th
39th
40th
[Data unknown/missing.] [Data unknown/missing.]
 
Samuel P. Morrill
Republican March 4, 1869 –
March 3, 1871
41st [Data unknown/missing.]
Lost renomination.
 
William P. Frye
Republican March 4, 1871 –
March 17, 1881
42nd
43rd
44th
45th
46th
47th
[Data unknown/missing.]
Resigned when elected U.S. senator.
Vacant March 17, 1881 –
September 12, 1881
 
Nelson Dingley Jr.
Republican September 12, 1881 –
March 3, 1883
47th Elected to finish Frye's term.
Redistricted to the At-large district.
At-large districts used March 3, 1883 –
March 3, 1885
 
Nelson Dingley Jr.
Republican March 3, 1885 –
January 13, 1899
49th
50th
51st
52nd
53rd
54th
55th
Redistricted from the At-large district.
Died.
Vacant January 13, 1899 –
June 19, 1899
 
Charles E. Littlefield
Republican June 19, 1899 –
September 30, 1908
56th
57th
58th
59th
60th
Elected to finish Dingley's term.
Resigned.
Vacant September 30, 1908 –
November 3, 1908
 
John P. Swasey
Republican November 3, 1908 –
March 3, 1911
60th
61st
Elected to finish Littlefield's term.
[Data unknown/missing.]
 
Daniel J. McGillicuddy
Democratic March 4, 1911 –
March 3, 1917
62nd
63rd
64th
[Data unknown/missing.]
Lost re-election.
 
Wallace H. White Jr.
Republican March 4, 1917 –
March 3, 1931
65th
66th
67th
68th
69th
70th
71st
[Data unknown/missing.]
Retired to run for U.S. Senator.
Donald B. Partridge Republican March 4, 1931 –
March 3, 1933
72nd [Data unknown/missing.]
Retired.
Edward C. Moran Jr. Democratic March 4, 1933 –
January 3, 1937
73rd
74th
[Data unknown/missing.]
Retired.
 
Clyde H. Smith
Republican January 3, 1937 –
April 8, 1940
75th
76th
[Data unknown/missing.]
Died in office.
Vacant April 8, 1940 –
June 3, 1940
 
Margaret Chase Smith
Republican June 3, 1940 –
January 3, 1949
76th
77th
78th
79th
80th
Elected to finish her husband's term.
Retired to run for U.S. Senator.
 
Charles P. Nelson
Republican January 3, 1949 –
January 3, 1957
81st
82nd
83rd
84th
[Data unknown/missing.]
Retired.
 
Frank M. Coffin
Democratic January 3, 1957 –
January 3, 1961
85th
86th
[Data unknown/missing.]
Retired to run for Governor of Maine.
 
Stanley R. Tupper
Republican January 3, 1961 –
January 3, 1963
87th Redistricted from the 1st district.
[Data unknown/missing.]
 
Clifford G. McIntire
Republican January 3, 1963 –
January 3, 1965
88th Redistricted from the 3rd district. Retired to run for U.S. Senator. [Data unknown/missing.]
 
William Hathaway
Democratic January 3, 1965 –
January 3, 1973
89th
90th
91st
92nd
[Data unknown/missing.]
Retired to run for U.S. Senator.
 
William Cohen
Republican January 3, 1973 –
January 3, 1979
93rd
94th
95th
[Data unknown/missing.]
Retired to run for U.S. Senator.
 
Olympia Snowe
Republican January 3, 1979 –
January 3, 1995
96th
97th
98th
99th
100th
101st
102nd
103rd
[Data unknown/missing.]
Retired to run for U.S. Senator.
 
John Baldacci
Democratic January 3, 1995 –
January 3, 2003
104th
105th
106th
107th
[Data unknown/missing.]
Retired to run for Governor of Maine.
 
Mike Michaud
Democratic January 3, 2003 –
January 3, 2015
108th
109th
110th
111th
112th
113th
[Data unknown/missing.]
Retired to run for Governor of Maine.
2003 – 2013
 
Androscoggin County; Aroostook County; Franklin County; Hancock County; Oxford County; Penobscot County; Piscataquis County; Somerset County; Waldo County; Washington County; and part of Kennebec County: Benton, Clinton, Fayette, Litchfield, Oakland, Waterville, Wayne, and Winslow
2013 – Present
 
 
Bruce Poliquin
Republican January 3, 2015 –
January 3, 2019
114th
115th
[Data unknown/missing.]
Lost re-election.
 
Jared Golden
Democratic January 3, 2019 –
Present
116th Elected in 2018.

Recent election resultsEdit

1978 United States House of Representatives elections in Maine:
Maine's 2nd congressional district
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Olympia Snowe 87,939 50.82
Democratic Markham L. Gartley 70,691 40.85
Independent Frederick W. Whittaker 8,035 4.64
Independent Eddie Shurtleff 1,923 1.11
Independent Robert H. Burmeister 1,653 0.96
Independent Margaret E. Cousins 1,573 0.91
Independent Robert L. Cousins 1,223 0.71
Majority 17,248 9.97
Turnout 173,037
Republican hold
1980 United States House of Representatives elections in Maine:
Maine's 2nd congressional district
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Olympia Snowe (Incumbent) 186,406 78.51
Democratic Harold L. Silverman 51,026 21.49
Majority 135,380 57.02
Turnout 237,612
Republican hold
1982 United States House of Representatives elections in Maine:
Maine's 2nd congressional district
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Olympia Snowe (Incumbent) 136,075 66.65
Democratic James P. Dunleavy 68,086 33.35
Majority 67,989 33.30
Turnout 204,161
Republican hold
1984 United States House of Representatives elections in Maine:
Maine's 2nd congressional district
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Olympia Snowe (Incumbent) 192,166 75.73
Democratic Chipman C. Bull 57,347 22.60
Constitution Kenneth E. Stoddard 4,242 1.67
Majority 134,819 53.13
Turnout 253,755
Republican hold
1986 United States House of Representatives elections in Maine:
Maine's 2nd congressional district
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Olympia Snowe (Incumbent) 148,770 77.33
Democratic Kenneth P. Hayes 43,614 22.67
Majority 105,156 54.66
Turnout 192,384
Republican hold
1988 United States House of Representatives elections in Maine:
Maine's 2nd congressional district
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Olympia Snowe (Incumbent) 167,226 66.21
Democratic Kenneth P. Hayes 85,346 33.79
Majority 81,880 32.42
Turnout 252,572
Republican hold
1990 United States House of Representatives elections in Maine:
Maine's 2nd congressional district
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Olympia Snowe (Incumbent) 121,704 51.02
Democratic Patrick K. McGowan 116,798 48.97
write-ins 20 0.01
Majority 4,906 2.06
Turnout 238,522
Republican hold
1992 United States House of Representatives elections in Maine:
Maine's 2nd congressional district
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Olympia Snowe (Incumbent) 153,022 49.13
Democratic Patrick K. McGowan 130,824 42.01
Green Jonathan Carter 27,526 8.84
write-ins 61 0.02
Majority 22,198 7.13
Turnout 311,433
Republican hold
1994 United States House of Representatives elections in Maine:
Maine's 2nd congressional district
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic John Baldacci 109,615 45.69
Republican Richard A. Bennett 97,754 40.75
Independent John M. Michael 21,117 8.80
Green Charles Fitzgerald 11,353 4.73
write-ins 55 0.02
Majority 11,861 4.94
Turnout 239,894
Democratic gain from Republican
1996 United States House of Representatives elections in Maine:
Maine's 2nd congressional district
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic John Baldacci (Incumbent) 205,439 71.92
Republican Paul R. Young 70,856 24.81
Independent Aldric Saucier 9,294 3.25
write-ins 47 0.02
Majority 134,583 47.12
Turnout 285,636
Democratic hold
1998 United States House of Representatives elections in Maine:
Maine's 2nd congressional district
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic John Baldacci (Incumbent) 146,202 76.20
Republican Jonathan Reisman 45,674 23.80
Majority 100,528 52.39
Turnout 191,876
Democratic hold
2000 United States House of Representatives elections in Maine:
Maine's 2nd congressional district
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic John Baldacci (Incumbent) 219,783 73.43
Republican Richard H. Campbell 79,522 26.57
Majority 140,261 46.86
Turnout 299,305
Democratic hold
2002 United States House of Representatives elections in Maine:
Maine's 2nd congressional district:
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Mike Michaud 116,868 52.01
Republican Kevin Raye 107,849 47.99
Total votes 224,717 100.00
Turnout  
Democratic hold
2004 United States House of Representatives elections in Maine:
Maine's 2nd congressional district
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Mike Michaud (incumbent) 199,303 58.03
Republican Brian Hamel 135,547 39.47
Socialist Equality Carl Cooley 8,586 2.50
Total votes 343,436 100.00
Turnout  
Democratic hold
2006 United States House of Representatives elections in Maine:
Maine's 2nd congressional district
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Mike Michaud (incumbent) 179,732 70.52
Republican L. Scott D'Amboise 75,146 29.48
Total votes 254,878 100.00
Turnout  
Democratic hold
2008 United States House of Representatives elections in Maine:
Maine's 2nd congressional district
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Mike Michaud (incumbent) 226,274 67.44
Republican John Frary 109,268 32.57
Total votes 335,542 100.00
Turnout  
Democratic hold
2010 United States House of Representatives elections in Maine:
Maine's 2nd congressional district
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Mike Michaud (incumbent) 147,042 55.13
Republican Jason J. Levesque 119,669 44.87
Total votes 266,711 100.00
Turnout  
Democratic hold
2012 United States House of Representatives elections in Maine:
Maine's 2nd congressional district
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Mike Michaud (incumbent) 191,456 58.2
Republican Kevin Raye 137,542 41.8
Total votes 328,998 100.0
Turnout  
Democratic hold
2014 United States House of Representatives elections in Maine:
Maine's 2nd congressional district
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Bruce Poliquin 133,320 47.03
Democratic Emily Ann Cain 118,568 41.83
Independent Blaine Richardson 31,337 11.05
Others 248 0.09
Total votes 283,473 100
Turnout  
Republican gain from Democratic
2016 United States House of Representatives elections in Maine:
Maine's 2nd congressional district
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Bruce Poliquin 192,878 54.77
Democratic Emily Cain 159,081 45.17
Libertarian Jay Parker Dresser (Declared Write-In) 224 0.06
Blank ballots 12,703 N/A
Total votes 364,886 100
Republican hold
2018 United States House of Representatives elections in Maine:
Maine's 2nd congressional district (RCV)
The 2018 election was the first to use ranked-choice voting as opposed to plurality voting since the district's creation.
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Bruce Poliquin 134,184 46.33
Democratic Jared Golden 132,013 45.58
Independent Tiffany L. Bond 16,552 5.71
Independent William R.S. Hoar 6,875 2.37
Exhausted ballots
(not included in total)
6,453 N/A
Total votes 289,624 100
Two-candidate-preferred result
Democratic Jared Golden 142,440 50.62
Republican Bruce Poliquin 138,931 49.38
Democratic gain from Republican

Living former MembersEdit

As of January 2019, there are five living former members . The most recent representative to die was William Hathaway (served 1965–1973) on June 24, 2013.

Representative Term of office Date of birth (and age)
William Cohen 1973–1979 (1940-08-28) August 28, 1940 (age 79)
Olympia Snowe 1979–1995 (1947-02-21) February 21, 1947 (age 72)
John Baldacci 1995–2003 (1955-01-30) January 30, 1955 (age 64)
Mike Michaud 2003–2015 (1955-01-18) January 18, 1955 (age 64)
Bruce Poliquin 2015–2019 (1953-11-01) November 1, 1953 (age 66)

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ https://censusreporter.org/profiles/50000US2302-congressional-district-2-me/
  2. ^ "Partisan Voting Index – Districts of the 115th Congress" (PDF). The Cook Political Report. April 7, 2017. Retrieved April 7, 2017.
  3. ^ "Congressional Districts – 113th Congress Demographics – Urban Rural Patterns". proximityone.com. Retrieved September 12, 2015.
  4. ^ Kate Taylor; Liam Stack (November 15, 2018). "Maine's Bruce Poliquin, Lone Republican in House From New England, Loses Re-election". The New York Times.
  5. ^ https://uselectionatlas.org/RESULTS/data.php?year=2016&fips=23&f=0&off=0&elect=0&datatype=cd&def=1
  6. ^ Associated Press (2011). "Lawsuit aims to speed Maine redistricting". Bangor Daily News. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
  7. ^ Russell, Eric (2011). "After long partisan fight, redistricting deal keeps boundaries much the same". Bangor Daily News. Retrieved December 17, 2012.

External linksEdit

Coordinates: 45°29′06″N 69°03′21″W / 45.48500°N 69.05583°W / 45.48500; -69.05583