1876 and 1877 United States House of Representatives elections

Elections to the United States House of Representatives were held in 1876 (with one state in 1877) for Representatives to the 45th Congress. These elections coincided with the (heavily contested) election of President Rutherford B. Hayes and the United States Centennial.

1876 and 1877 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1874 / 1875 November 7, 1876[a] 1878 / 1879 →

All 293 seats to the United States House of Representatives
147 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  Samuel J. Randall - Brady-Handy.jpg James Abram Garfield, photo portrait seated.jpg
Leader Samuel J. Randall James A. Garfield
Party Democratic Republican
Leader's seat Pennsylvania-3rd Ohio-19th
Last election 180 seats 103 seats
Seats won 155[b][c] 136[c]
Seat change Decrease 25 Increase 33
Popular vote 4,220,480 3,825,311
Percentage 51.27% 46.47%
Swing Increase 2.15% Increase 2.09%

  Third party
 
Party Independent
Last election 4 seats[d][e]
Seats won 2[f]
Seat change Decrease 2
Popular vote 96,318
Percentage 1.17%
Swing Decrease 3.27%

House045ElectionMap.png
Map of U.S. House elections results from 1876 elections for 45th Congress

Speaker before election

Vacancy
Democratic

Elected Speaker

Samuel Randall
Democratic

Hayes' Republican Party was able to recover from the Democratic Party many of the seats it had lost two years before as the economy improved slightly. However, the Democrats retained a majority and were able to use the disinterest of the people in Republican Reconstruction-led projects to help keep crucial seats. Republican Congressional leadership had a difficult time distancing itself from the corruption of the Grant administration or the legislature's impact on the economy downturn.

Election summariesEdit

157 136
Democratic Republican
State Type Total
seats
Democratic Republican
Seats Change Seats Change
Alabama District[g] 8 8   2 0   2
Arkansas District 4 4[h]   0  
California District 4 2   1 2   1
Colorado At-large 1 1   1 0   1
Connecticut District 4 3   1  
Delaware At-large 1 1   0  
Florida District 2 2   1 0   1
Georgia[i] District 9 9[h]   0  
Illinois District 19 8   2 11   4
Indiana[i] District 13 4   4 9   4
Iowa[i] District 9 0   1 9   1
Kansas District 3 0   1 3   1
Kentucky District 10 10   1 0   1
Louisiana District 6 5   1 1   1
Maine[i] District 5 0   5  
Maryland District 6 6   0  
Massachusetts District 11 2   1 9   4
Michigan District 9 1   2 8   2
Minnesota District 3 0   3  
Mississippi District 6 6   2 0   2
Missouri District 13 9   4 4   4
Nebraska At-large 1 0   1  
Nevada At-large 1 0   1  
New Hampshire[j] District 3 1   1 2   1
New Jersey District 7 4   1 3   1
New York District 33 16   1 17   1
North Carolina District 8 7   1  
Ohio[i] District 20 8   5 12   5
Oregon[i] At-large 1 0   1 1   1
Pennsylvania District 27 10   7 17   7
Rhode Island District 2 0   2  
South Carolina District 5 2   2 3   2
Tennessee District 10 8   1 2   1
Texas District 6 6   0  
Vermont[i] District 3 0   3  
Virginia District 9 8   1  
West Virginia[i] District 3 3   0  
Wisconsin District 8 3   5  
Total 293 157[b][f]
53.6%
  27 136[b]
46.4%
  31
House seats
Democratic
53.58%
Republican
46.42%

The previous election included 4 Independents, in Illinois and Massachusetts.

 
House seats by party holding plurality in state
  80.1-100% Democratic
  80.1-100% Republican
  60.1-80% Democratic
  60.1-80% Republican
  Up to 60% Democratic
  Up to 60% Republican
 
Net gain in party representation
  6+ Democratic gain
  6+ Republican gain
  3-5 Democratic gain
  3-5 Republican gain
  1-2 Democratic gain
  1-2 Republican gain
  no net change

Election datesEdit

In 1845, Congress passed a law providing for a uniform nationwide date for choosing Presidential electors.[1] This law did not affect election dates for Congress, which remained within the jurisdiction of State governments, but over time, the States moved their Congressional elections to this date as well. In 1876–77, there were still 8 states with earlier election dates, and 1 state with a later election date.

Special electionsEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Connecticut 4 William Henry Barnum Democratic 1867 Incumbent resigned May 18, 1876 when elected U.S. senator.
New member elected November 7, 1876.
Democratic hold.
Winner also elected to the next term, see below.

CaliforniaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
California 1 William Adam Piper Democratic 1875 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
  •  Y Horace Davis (Republican) 53.3%
  • William A. Piper (Democratic) 46.7%
California 2 Horace F. Page Republican 1872 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Horace F. Page (Republican) 56.7%
  • G. J. Carpenter (Democratic) 43.3%
California 3 John K. Luttrell Democratic 1872 Incumbent re-elected.
California 4 Peter D. Wigginton Democratic 1875 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.

FloridaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Florida 1 William J. Purman Republican 1872 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Florida 2 Jesse J. Finley Democratic 1874[k] Incumbent lost re-election. New member elected.[l] Republican gain.

South CarolinaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
South Carolina 1 Joseph Rainey Republican 1870 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 2 Edmund W. M. Mackey Independent Republican 1874 Seat declared vacant July 19, 1876 due to contested election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
South Carolina 3 Solomon L. Hoge Republican 1874 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
South Carolina 4 Alexander S. Wallace Republican 1868 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
South Carolina 5 Robert Smalls Republican 1874 Incumbent re-elected.

WisconsinEdit

Wisconsin elected eight members of congress on Election Day, November 7, 1876.[3][4]

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates[citation needed]
Wisconsin 1 Charles G. Williams Republican 1872 Incumbent re-elected.
Wisconsin 2 Lucien B. Caswell Republican 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
Wisconsin 3 Henry S. Magoon Republican 1870 Incumbent lost renomination.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Wisconsin 4 William Pitt Lynde Democratic 1874 Incumbent re-elected.
Wisconsin 5 Samuel D. Burchard Democratic 1874 Incumbent lost renomination.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Wisconsin 6 Alanson M. Kimball Republican 1874 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Wisconsin 7 Jeremiah McLain Rusk Republican 1870 Incumbent lost renomination.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Wisconsin 8 George W. Cate Democratic 1874 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.


See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ The majority of states held their elections on this date. Nine states held elections on different dates between June 5, 1876 and March 13, 1877.
  2. ^ a b c Martis, pp. 130–131.
  3. ^ a b There is a significant discrepancy for the party totals in the U.S House resulting from the 1874 elections between Dubin (p. 241, who records 150 Democrats, 2 Independent Democrats, and 141 Republicans), and Martis (pp. 130–131). The discrepancy seems to be accounted for by the fact that Dubin's party figures represent the party totals on the first day of the 45th United States Congress, while Martis' figures take into account the results of later contested elections (all of which were decided in favor of the Democratic candidates who challenged the election results).
  4. ^ Included 1 Independent Democrat.
  5. ^ Included 3 Independent Republicans.
  6. ^ a b Includes 2 Independent Democrats, Jordan E. Cravens of Arkansas's 3rd congressional district, and Alexander H. Stephens of Georgia's 7th congressional district.
  7. ^ At-large seats eliminated in redistricting.
  8. ^ a b Includes 1 Independent Democrat.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h Elections held early
  10. ^ Elections held late
  11. ^ After disputed election
  12. ^ The election in the 2nd district was extremely close, with initial returns showing a difference between the two candidates of only 3 votes. Finley challenged Bisbee's election and was eventually seated on February 20, 1879.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Statutes at Large, 28th Congress, 2nd Session, p. 721.
  2. ^ https://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=720711
  3. ^ "Wisconsin U.S. House Election Results" (PDF). Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 5, 2012. Retrieved May 24, 2020.
  4. ^ Bashford, R. M., ed. (1878). "Official Directory: Members of Congress". The legislative manual of the state of Wisconsin (Report). Madison, Wisconsin: State of Wisconsin. pp. 449–452. Retrieved July 18, 2020.

BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit