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William Brockman Bankhead (April 12, 1874 – September 15, 1940) was an American politician who served as the 42nd Speaker of the United States House of Representatives from 1936 to 1940, representing Alabama's 10th and later 7th congressional districts as a Democrat from 1917 to 1940. Bankhead was a prominent supporter of President Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal of pro-labor union legislation, thus clashing with most other Southern Democrats in Congress at the time.[1] Bankhead described himself as proud to be a politician, by which he meant that he did not neglect matters that concerned his district or reelection.[2] He was the father of actress Tallulah Bankhead.

William Bankhead
William Brockman Bankhead (Young).jpg
42nd Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives
In office
June 4, 1936 – September 15, 1940
Preceded by Jo Byrns
Succeeded by Sam Rayburn
House Majority Leader
In office
March 4, 1935 – June 4, 1936
Deputy Patrick J. Boland
Preceded by Jo Byrns
Succeeded by Sam Rayburn
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Alabama's 7th district
In office
March 4, 1933 – September 15, 1940
Preceded by Miles C. Allgood
Succeeded by Zadoc L. Weatherford
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Alabama's 10th district
In office
March 4, 1917 – March 4, 1933
Preceded by Constituency established
Succeeded by Constituency abolished
Personal details
Born William Brockman Bankhead
(1874-04-12)April 12, 1874
Sulligent, Alabama, U.S.
Died September 15, 1940(1940-09-15) (aged 66)
Washington, D.C., U.S.
Political party Democratic
Relatives John H. Bankhead (Father)
John H. Bankhead II (Brother)
Education University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa (BA)
Georgetown University (LLB)

Contents

Early lifeEdit

 
William Bankhead (#9) with the 1892 Alabama football team

Bankhead was born at the Bankhead plantation in Lamar County, Alabama. His father, John H. Bankhead, was an active politician who had served in the Alabama legislature, and later as US Representative and Senator. His mother was Tallulah James Brockman, granddaughter of South Carolina state Senator Thomas Patterson Brockman, and he was raised as a Methodist. Bankhead's brother, John H. Bankhead II, also served in the Senate.

William Bankhead attended the University of Alabama, where he was a member of Phi Delta Theta fraternity, and played on the university's first football team, organized in 1892. He studied law at Georgetown University Law Center in Washington, DC, graduating in 1895.

He was immediately admitted to the bar in Alabama, and practiced law in Huntsville.

Political careerEdit

In 1898, he became city attorney of Huntsville, serving until 1902. In 1900, he was elected to the Alabama House of Representatives for one term, serving through 1901.

In 1905, he moved to Jasper, Alabama. In 1910 he was appointed solicitor of the fourteenth judicial circuit of Alabama, serving until 1914.

 
Bankhead's former residence in Washington, D.C.

In 1914, he sought the Democratic nomination for US Representative, but failed. In 1916 he was elected Representative from the newly created 10th Congressional District. (Alabama was apportioned a tenth Congressional seat after the 1910 Census, but the seat was filled by at-large election in 1912 and 1914.) Bankhead held the 10th District until it was abolished after the 1930 Census, when Alabama lost a seat. He was the only person ever elected from the 10th District.

After reapportionment and redistricting following the 1930 Census, Bankhead was re-elected Representative from the 7th District in 1932, and was re-elected three times, serving until his death in 1940. In 1934, he was chosen House Majority Leader by his fellow Democrats. On June 4, 1936, he was chosen Speaker of the House to succeed Jo Byrns, who had died that morning. Bankhead served as Speaker until his death on September 15, 1940.[3]

As Speaker, Bankhead held the highest political office of any Alabamian save Vice President William R. King.

At the 1940 Democratic National Convention (three months before his death), he finished 2nd to Henry A. Wallace on the Vice Presidential ticket, losing the delegate count 626-329.

Bankhead familyEdit

Bankhead's father, John H. Bankhead, was a U.S. Representative and Senator. His elder brother John H. Bankhead II was also a U.S. Senator, and his nephew Walter Will Bankhead was a U.S. Representative. His daughter, Tallulah Bankhead, was an acclaimed theatrical and motion picture actress.[4]

The William B. Bankhead National Forest and sections of old US Highway 78 in northern Alabama are named in his honor. His home in Jasper has been renovated to house the Walker Area Community Foundation's "Bankhead House and Heritage Center", a history museum and arts venue.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

Grossman, Mark, "Speakers of the House of Representatives 1789-2009" (New York: Grey House Publishing, 2009).

  1. ^ Robert E. Dewhirst, John David Rausch, Encyclopedia of the United States Congress (2007), p. 35.
  2. ^ Walter J. Heacock, "William B. Bankhead and the New Deal", The Journal of Southern History, Vol. 21, No. 3 (Aug., 1955), pp. 347–359.
  3. ^ http://www.greyhouse.com/speakers.htm
  4. ^ Tallulah Bankhead - A passionate life, on Hiwaay.net

External linksEdit

U.S. House of Representatives
New constituency Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Alabama's 10th congressional district

1917–1933
Constituency established
Preceded by
Miles C. Allgood
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Alabama's 7th congressional district

1933–1940
Succeeded by
Zadoc L. Weatherford
Preceded by
Jo Byrns
House Majority Leader
1935–1936
Succeeded by
Sam Rayburn
Party political offices
Preceded by
Jo Byrns
House Democratic Deputy Leader
1935–1936
Succeeded by
Sam Rayburn
House Democratic Leader
1936–1940
Preceded by
Alben W. Barkley
Joseph Taylor Robinson
Keynote Speaker of the Democratic National Convention
1940
Succeeded by
Robert S. Kerr
Political offices
Preceded by
Jo Byrns
Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives
1936–1940
Succeeded by
Sam Rayburn