Mississippi's 2nd congressional district

Mississippi's 2nd congressional district (MS-2) covers much of Western Mississippi. It includes most of Jackson, the riverfront cities of Greenville and Vicksburg and the interior market cities of Clarksdale, Greenwood and Clinton. The district is approximately 275 miles (443 km) long, 180 miles (290 km) wide and borders the Mississippi River; it encompasses much of the Mississippi Delta, and a total of 15 counties and parts of several others. It is the only majority-black district in the state.

Mississippi's 2nd congressional district
Mississippi US Congressional District 2 (since 2013).tif
Mississippi's 2nd congressional district since January 3, 2013
Representative
  Bennie Thompson
DBolton
Area14,519.68 sq mi (37,605.8 km2)
Distribution
  • 62.67% urban
  • 37.33% rural
Population (2019)692,452[1]
Median household
income
$37,372[2]
Ethnicity
Cook PVID+13[3]

The district is home to four of Mississippi's eight public four-year colleges and universities: Alcorn State University in Lorman; Delta State University in Cleveland; Jackson State University in Jackson; and Mississippi Valley State University in Itta Bena, a few miles west of Greenwood. All except Delta State are HBCUs and are members of the Southwestern Athletic Conference.

From statehood to the election of 1846, Mississippi elected representatives at-large statewide on a general ticket. This favored candidates who could command a majority of the voters, then consisting mostly of white men of property.

Following Reconstruction, the Democratic Party regained control of the state legislature and worked to reduce Republican voting strength in the state. It redefined congressional districts, creating a 'shoestring' congressional district running the length of the Mississippi River and taking in the black-majority (then Republican) areas of the Mississippi Delta. By this gerrymandering, they created five other districts with white majorities.[4]

Election campaigns were often accompanied by fraud and violence as Democrats tried to reduce black Republican voting. Finally, the Democratic-dominated legislature passed a new constitution in 1890, with barriers to voter registration and other measures that effectively disenfranchised most blacks and many poor whites for decades, subduing the Republican and Populist movements of the late 19th century.[5]

The legislature has redefined congressional districts over the years to reflect population changes in the state. Districts 5 through 8 were reallocated to the 1st, 3rd and 4th. The 2nd, bounded by the Mississippi River on the west, continues to have a black-majority population. Since the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Voting Rights Act of 1965, which provided federal oversight and enforcement to protect voting, African-American residents here have consistently supported Democratic party candidates. On the other hand, most white conservatives have shifted into the Republican Party, which would eventually dominate the legislature. The district is one of the poorest in the state,[6] with 26.2% of people in poverty as of 2017.[7]

The district's current Representative is Democrat Bennie Thompson.

Election results from presidential racesEdit

Year Office Result
2000 President Gore 59 - 39%
2004 President Kerry 57 - 40%
2008 President Obama 66 - 34%
2012 President Obama 66 - 33%
2016 President Clinton 64 - 35%
2020 President Biden 64 - 35%

Recent election resultsEdit

2000Edit

2000 United States House of Representatives elections in Mississippi: District 2
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Democratic Bennie Thompson (Incumbent) 112,777 65.07
Republican Hardy Caraway 54,090 31.21
Libertarian William G. Chipman 4,305 2.48
Reform Lee F. Dilworth 2,135 1.23
Turnout 173,307
Majority 58,687 33.86

2002Edit

2002 United States House of Representatives elections in Mississippi: District 2
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Democratic Bennie Thompson (Incumbent) 89,913 55.14 -9.93
Republican Clinton B. LeSueur 69,711 42.75 +11.54
Reform Lee F. Dilworth 3,426 2.10 +0.87
Turnout 163,050
Majority 20,202 12.39

2004Edit

2004 United States House of Representatives elections in Mississippi: District 2
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Democratic Bennie Thompson (Incumbent) 154,626 58.38 +3.24
Republican Clinton B. LeSueur 107,647 40.64 -2.11
Reform Shawn O'Hara 2,596 0.98 -1.12
Turnout 264,869
Majority 46,979 17.74

2006Edit

2006 United States House of Representatives elections in Mississippi: District 2
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Democratic Bennie Thompson (Incumbent) 100,168 64.27 +5.89
Republican Yvonne R. Brown 55,672 35.73 -4.91
Turnout 155,832
Majority 44,496 28.55

2008Edit

2008 United States House of Representatives elections in Mississippi: District 2
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Democratic Bennie Thompson (Incumbent) 201,606 69.05 +4.78
Republican Richard Cook 90,364 30.95 -4.78
Turnout 291,970
Majority 111,242 38.10

2010Edit

2010 United States House of Representatives elections in Mississippi: District 2
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Democratic Bennie Thompson (Incumbent) 105,327 61.47 -7.58
Republican Bill Marcy 64,499 37.64 +6.69
Reform Ashley Norwood 1,530 0.89 N/A
Total votes 171,356 100.00
Democratic hold

2012Edit

2012 United States House of Representatives elections in Mississippi: District 2
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Democratic Bennie Thompson (Incumbent) 214,978 67.13 +5.66
Republican Bill Marcy 99,160 30.96 -6.68
Independent Cobby Williams 4,605 1.44 N/A
Reform Lajena Williams 1,501 0.47 -0.42
Total votes 320,244 100.00
Democratic hold

2014Edit

2014 United States House of Representatives elections in Mississippi: District 2
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Bennie Thompson (Incumbent) 100,688 67.7
Independent Troy Ray 36,465 24.5
Reform Shelley Shoemake 11,493 7.7
Total votes 148,646 100.00
Democratic hold

2016Edit

2016 United States House of Representatives elections in Mississippi: District 2
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Bennie Thompson (Incumbent) 192,343 67.1
Republican John Bouie II 83,542 29.1
Independent Troy Ray 6,918 2.4
Reform Johnny McLeod 3,823 1.3
Total votes 286,626 100.00
Democratic hold

2018Edit

2018 United States House of Representatives elections in Mississippi: District 2
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Bennie Thompson (Incumbent) 158,921 71.8
Independent Troy Ray 48,104 21.7
Reform Irving Harris 14,354 6.5
Total votes 221,379 100.00
Democratic hold

2020Edit

2020 United States House of Representatives elections in Mississippi: District 2
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Bennie Thompson (Incumbent) 196,331 66.2
Republican Brian Flowers 101,037 33.9
Total votes 297,368 100.00
Democratic hold

List of members representing the districtEdit

Name Party Years of Service Cong
ress
Electoral history
District created March 4, 1847
 
Winfield S. Featherston
Democratic March 4, 1847 –
March 3, 1851
30th
31st
Elected in 1846.
Re-elected in 1848.
Lost re-election as a Southern Rights candidate.[8]
John A. Wilcox Unionist March 4, 1851 –
March 3, 1853
32nd Elected in 1851.
Lost re-election as a Whig.
William T. S. Barry Democratic March 4, 1853 –
March 3, 1855
33rd Elected in 1853.
Retired to run for state representative.
Hendley S. Bennett Democratic March 4, 1855 –
March 3, 1857
34th Elected in 1855.
Lost renomination.
 
Reuben Davis
Democratic March 4, 1857 –
January 12, 1861
35th
36th
Elected in 1857.
Re-elected in 1859.
Withdrew due to Civil War.
Vacant January 12, 1861 –
February 23, 1870
36th
37th
38th
39th
40th
41st
Civil War and Reconstruction
 
Joseph L. Morphis
Republican February 23, 1870 –
March 3, 1873
41st
42nd
Elected in 1869 to finish the term and to the next term.
Lost renomination.
Albert R. Howe Republican March 4, 1873 –
March 3, 1875
43rd Elected in 1872.
Lost re-election.
 
G. Wiley Wells
Independent Republican March 4, 1875 –
March 3, 1877
44th Elected in 1874.
Retired.
 
Van H. Manning
Democratic March 4, 1877 –
March 3, 1883
45th
46th
47th
Elected in 1876.
Re-elected in 1878.
Re-elected in 1880.
Re-elected in 1882 but lost contested election.
Vacant March 4, 1883 –
June 25, 1884
48th
 
James R. Chalmers
Independent June 25, 1884 –
March 3, 1885
Seated after contested election with Van H. Manning.
Lost re-election.
James B. Morgan Democratic March 4, 1885 –
March 3, 1891
49th
50th
51st
Elected in 1884.
Re-elected in 1886.
Re-elected in 1888.
Retired.
 
John C. Kyle
Democratic March 4, 1891 –
March 3, 1897
52nd
53rd
54th
Elected in 1890.
Re-elected in 1892.
Re-elected in 1894.
Retired.
 
William V. Sullivan
Democratic March 4, 1897 –
May 31, 1898
55th Elected in 1896.
Resigned when appointed U.S. senator.
Vacant May 31, 1898 –
July 5, 1898
 
Thomas Spight
Democratic July 5, 1898 –
March 3, 1911
55th
56th
57th
58th
59th
60th
61st
Elected to finish Sullivan's term.
Re-elected in 1898.
Re-elected in 1900.
Re-elected in 1902.
Re-elected in 1904.
Re-elected in 1906.
Re-elected in 1908.
Lost renomination.
 
Hubert D. Stephens
Democratic March 4, 1911 –
March 3, 1921
62nd
63rd
64th
65th
66th
Elected in 1910.
Re-elected in 1912.
Re-elected in 1914.
Re-elected in 1916.
Re-elected in 1918.
Retired.
 
Bill G. Lowrey
Democratic March 4, 1921 –
March 3, 1929
67th
68th
69th
70th
Elected in 1920.
Re-elected in 1922.
Re-elected in 1924.
Re-elected in 1926.
Lost renomination.
 
Wall Doxey
Democratic March 4, 1929 –
September 28, 1941
71st
72nd
73rd
74th
75th
76th
77th
Elected in 1928.
Re-elected in 1930.
Re-elected in 1932.
Re-elected in 1934.
Re-elected in 1936.
Re-elected in 1938.
Re-elected in 1940.
Resigned when elected U.S. senator.
Vacant September 28, 1941 –
November 4, 1941
77th
 
Jamie Whitten
Democratic November 4, 1941 –
January 3, 1973
77th
78th
79th
80th
81st
82nd
83rd
84th
85th
86th
87th
88th
89th
90th
91st
92nd
Elected to finish Doxey's term.
Re-elected in 1942.
Re-elected in 1944.
Re-elected in 1946.
Re-elected in 1948.
Re-elected in 1950.
Re-elected in 1952.
Re-elected in 1954.
Re-elected in 1956.
Re-elected in 1958.
Re-elected in 1960.
Re-elected in 1962.
Re-elected in 1964.
Re-elected in 1966.
Re-elected in 1968.
Re-elected in 1970.
Redistricted to the 1st district.
 
David R. Bowen
Democratic January 3, 1973 –
January 3, 1983
93rd
94th
95th
96th
97th
Elected in 1972.
Re-elected in 1974.
Re-elected in 1976.
Re-elected in 1978.
Re-elected in 1980.
Retired.
 
Webb Franklin
Republican January 3, 1983 –
January 3, 1987
98th
99th
Elected in 1982.
Re-elected in 1984.
Lost re-election.
 
Mike Espy
Democratic January 3, 1987 –
January 22, 1993
100th
101st
102nd
103rd
Elected in 1986.
Re-elected in 1988.
Re-elected in 1990.
Re-elected in 1992.
Resigned to become U.S. Secretary of Agriculture.
Vacant January 22, 1993 –
April 13, 1993
103rd
 
Bennie Thompson
Democratic April 13, 1993 –
present
103rd
104th
105th
106th
107th
108th
109th
110th
111th
112th
113th
114th
115th
116th
117th
Elected to finish Espy's term.
Re-elected in 1994.
Re-elected in 1996.
Re-elected in 1998.
Re-elected in 2000.
Re-elected in 2002.
Re-elected in 2004.
Re-elected in 2006.
Re-elected in 2008.
Re-elected in 2010.
Re-elected in 2012.
Re-elected in 2014.
Re-elected in 2016.
Re-elected in 2018.
Re-elected in 2020.

Historical district boundariesEdit

 
2003 - 2013

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "My Congressional District".
  2. ^ "My Congressional District".
  3. ^ "Introducing the 2021 Cook Political Report Partisan Voter Index". The Cook Political Report. April 15, 2021. Retrieved April 15, 2021.
  4. ^ Eric Foner, Reconstruction, 1863-1877, New York: Perennial Classics, p. 590.
  5. ^ Michael Perman, Struggle for Mastery: Disfranchisement in the South, 1888-1908 (2000), ch 4.
  6. ^ "Rich, poor, young, old: Congressional districts at a glance | Bloomberg Government". Bloomberg Government. September 15, 2017. Retrieved November 21, 2018.
  7. ^ "datatables". www.frac.org. Retrieved November 21, 2018.
  8. ^ "MS - District 02". Our Campaigns. Retrieved March 9, 2021.

Coordinates: 33°10′35″N 90°21′03″W / 33.17639°N 90.35083°W / 33.17639; -90.35083