Tennessee's 1st congressional district

Tennessee's 1st congressional district is the congressional district of northeast Tennessee, including all of Carter, Cocke, Greene, Hamblen, Hancock, Hawkins, Johnson, Sullivan, Unicoi, and Washington counties and parts of Jefferson County and Sevier County. It is largely coextensive with the Tennessee portion of the Tri-Cities region of northeast Tennessee and southwest Virginia.

Tennessee's 1st congressional district
Tennessee US Congressional District 1 (since 2013).tif
Tennessee's 1st congressional district since January 3, 2013
Representative
  Diana Harshbarger
RKingsport
Distribution
  • 57.46% urban[1]
  • 42.54% rural
Population (2019)725,173[2]
Median household
income
$47,478[3]
Ethnicity
Cook PVIR+30[4]

Cities and towns represented within the district include Blountville, Bristol, Church Hill, Elizabethton, Erwin, Greeneville, Johnson City, Jonesborough, Kingsport, Morristown, Mountain City, Newport, Pigeon Forge, Roan Mountain, Rogersville, Sneedville, Sevierville and Tusculum. The 1st district's seat in the U.S. House of Representatives has been held by Republicans since 1881.

The district was created in 1805 when the at-large seat was divided among multiple districts.

The district's current representative is Republican Diana Harshbarger, who was first elected in 2020 following the retirement of Republican Phil Roe.[5]

Election results from other racesEdit

Year Office Result
1998 Governor Sundquist 77% - Hooker 23%
2000 President George W. Bush 61% – Al Gore 38%
Senate Frist 75% - Clark 25
2002 Senate Alexander 66% - Clement 34%
Governor Hilleary 57% - Bredesen 43%
2004 President George W. Bush 68% – John Kerry 31%
2006 Governor Bredesen 59% - Bryson 41%
Senate Corker 62% - Ford Jr. 38%
2008 President John McCain 70% – Barack Obama 28.6%
Senate Alexander 76% - Tuke 24%
2010 Governor Haslam 78% - McWherter 22%
2012 President Mitt Romney 72.7% – Barack Obama 25.7%
Senate Corker 77% - Clayton 23%
2014 Governor Bill Haslam 78% - Brown 22%
Senate Alexander 71% - Ball 29%
2016 President Donald Trump 76.7% – Hillary Clinton 19.7%
2018 Governor Lee 78% - Dean 22%
Senate Blackburn 72% - Bredesen 28%
2020 President Donald Trump 76.2% – Joe Biden 22.1%
Senate Hagerty 80% - Bradshaw 20%

Political characteristicsEdit

The 1st has generally been a very secure voting district for the Republican Party since the American Civil War, and is one of only two ancestrally Republican districts in the state (the other being the neighboring 2nd district).

 
Democratic
U.S. Representatives Andrew Jackson (1796–1797, at large) and Andrew Johnson (1843–1853, 1st) represented this area and later served as President of the United States

Republicans (or their antecedents) have held the seat continuously since 1881 and for all but four years since 1859, while Democrats (or their antecedents) have held the congressional seat for all but eight years from when Andrew Jackson was first elected to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1796 (as the state's single at large representative) up to the term of Albert Galiton Watkins ending in 1859.

Andrew Johnson, the seventeenth President of the United States, represented the district from 1843 to 1853.

The 1st was one of four districts in Tennessee whose congressmen did not resign when Tennessee seceded from the Union in 1861. Thomas Amos Rogers Nelson was reelected as a Unionist (the name used by a coalition of Republicans, northern Democrats and anti-Confederate Southern Democrats) to the Thirty-seventh Congress, but he was arrested by Confederate troops while en route to Washington, D.C. and taken to Richmond. Nelson was paroled and returned home to Jonesborough, where he kept a low profile for the length of his term.[6]

Like the rest of East Tennessee, slavery was not as common in this area as the rest of the state due to its mountain terrain, which was dominated by small farms instead of plantations.[7] The district was also the home of the first exclusively abolitionist periodicals in the nation, The Manumission Intelligencer and The Emancipator, founded in Jonesborough by Elihu Embree in 1819.[8]

Due to these factors, this area supported the Union over the Confederacy in the Civil War, and identified with the Republican Party after Tennessee was readmitted to the Union in 1867, electing candidates representing the Unionist Party—a merger of Republicans and pro-Union Democrats—both before and after the war. This allegiance has continued through good times and bad ever since, with Republicans dominating every level of government. While a few Democratic pockets exist in the district's urban areas, they are not enough to sway the district. Since 1898, Democrats have only crossed the 40 percent barrier twice, in 1962 and 1976.

The district's Republican bent is no less pronounced at the presidential level. It was one of the few areas of Tennessee where Barry Goldwater did well in 1964. Indeed, Johnson and Washington counties are among the few counties in the country to have never supported a Democrat for president. Franklin D. Roosevelt turned in respectable showings in the district during his four runs for president, as did Jimmy Carter in 1976. However, Carter is the last Democrat to come close to carrying any county in the district.

The district typically gives its congressmen very long tenures in Washington; indeed, it elected some of the few truly senior Southern Republican congressmen before the 1950s. Only nine people have represented it since 1921. Two of them, B. Carroll Reece and Jimmy Quillen, are the longest-serving members of the House in Tennessee history. Reece held the seat for all but six years from 1921 and 1961, while Quillen held it from 1963 to 1997.

List of members representing the districtEdit

Representative Party Years Cong
ress
Electoral history District location
District created March 4, 1805
 
John Rhea
Democratic-Republican March 4, 1805 –
March 3, 1813
9th
10th
11th
12th
13th
Redistricted from the at-large district and re-elected in 1805.
Re-elected in 1807.
Re-elected in 1809.
Re-elected in 1811.
Re-elected in 1813.
Lost re-election.
1805–1813
"Washington district": Carter, Greene, Hawkins, Sullivan, and Washington counties
March 4, 1813 –
March 3, 1815
1813–1823
Carter, Greene, Hawkins, Sullivan, and Washington counties
Samuel Powell Democratic-Republican March 4, 1815 –
March 3, 1817
14th Elected in 1815.
Retired.
 
John Rhea
Democratic-Republican March 4, 1817 –
March 3, 1823
15th
16th
17th
Elected in 1817.
Re-elected in 1819.
Re-elected in 1821.
Retired.
John Blair Democratic-Republican March 4, 1823 –
March 3, 1825
18th
19th
20th
21st
22nd
23rd
Elected in 1823.
Re-elected in 1825.
Re-elected in 1827.
Re-elected in 1829.
Re-elected in 1831.
Re-elected in 1833.
Lost re-election.
1823–1833
Carter, Greene, Hawkins, Sullivan, and Washington counties
Jacksonian March 4, 1825 –
March 3, 1835
1833–1843
[data unknown/missing]
William B. Carter Anti-Jacksonian March 4, 1835 –
March 3, 1837
24th
25th
26th
Elected in 1835.
Re-elected in 1837.
Re-elected in 1839.
Retired.
Whig March 4, 1837 –
March 3, 1841
Thomas D. Arnold Whig March 4, 1841 –
March 3, 1843
27th Elected in 1841.
Retired.
 
Andrew Johnson
Democratic March 4, 1843 –
March 3, 1853
28th
29th
30th
31st
32nd
Elected in 1842.
Re-elected in 1845.
Re-elected in 1847.
Re-elected in 1849.
Re-elected in 1851.
Retired to run for Governor of Tennessee.
1843–1853
[data unknown/missing]}
Brookins Campbell Democratic March 4, 1853 –
December 25, 1853
33rd Elected in 1853.
Died.
1853–1863
[data unknown/missing]}
Vacant December 25, 1853 –
March 30, 1854
 
Nathaniel G. Taylor
Whig March 30, 1854 –
March 3, 1855
Elected to finish Campbell's term.
Lost re-election.
Albert G. Watkins Democratic March 4, 1855 –
March 3, 1859
34th
35th
Elected in 1855.
Re-elected in 1857.
Retired.
 
Thomas A. R. Nelson
Opposition March 4, 1859 –
March 3, 1861
36th Elected in 1859.
Re-elected in 1861, but captured en route to Congress and failed to take his seat.
Vacant March 4, 1861 –
July 24, 1866
37th
38th
39th
Civil War and Reconstruction
1863–1873
[data unknown/missing]
 
Nathaniel G. Taylor
Unionist July 24, 1866 –
March 3, 1867
39th Elected in 1865.
Retired.
 
Roderick R. Butler
Republican March 4, 1867 –
March 3, 1875
40th
41st
42nd
43rd
Elected in 1867.
Re-elected in 1868.
Re-elected in 1870.
Re-elected in 1872.
Lost re-election.
1873–1883
[data unknown/missing]
William McFarland Democratic March 4, 1875 –
March 3, 1877
44th Elected in 1874.
Lost re-election.
 
James H. Randolph
Republican March 4, 1877 –
March 3, 1879
45th Elected in 1876.
Retired.
 
Robert L. Taylor
Democratic March 4, 1879 –
March 3, 1881
46th Elected in 1878.
Lost re-election.
Augustus H. Pettibone Republican March 4, 1881 –
March 3, 1887
47th
48th
49th
Elected in 1880.
Re-elected in 1882.
Re-elected in 1884.
Retired.
1883–1893
[data unknown/missing]
 
Roderick R. Butler
Republican March 4, 1887 –
March 3, 1889
50th Elected in 1886.
Retired.
 
Alfred A. Taylor
Republican March 4, 1889 –
March 3, 1895
51st
52nd
53rd
Elected in 1888.
Re-elected in 1890.
Re-elected in 1892.
Retired.
1893–1903
[data unknown/missing]
William C. Anderson Republican March 4, 1895 –
March 3, 1897
54th Elected in 1894.
Lost renomination.
 
Walter P. Brownlow
Republican March 4, 1897 –
July 8, 1910
55th
56th
57th
58th
59th
60th
61st
Elected in 1896.
Re-elected in 1898.
Re-elected in 1900.
Re-elected in 1902.
Re-elected in 1904.
Re-elected in 1906.
Re-elected in 1908.
Died.
1903–1913
[data unknown/missing]
Vacant July 9, 1910 –
November 7, 1910
61st
Zachary D. Massey Republican November 8, 1910 –
March 3, 1911
Elected to finish Brownlow's term.
Retired.
 
Sam R. Sells
Republican March 4, 1911 –
March 3, 1921
62nd
63rd
64th
65th
66th
Elected in 1910.
Re-elected in 1912.
Re-elected in 1914.
Re-elected in 1916.
Re-elected in 1918.
Lost renomination.
1913–1933
Carter, Claiborne, Cocke, Grainger, Greene, Hancock, Hawkins, Johnson, Sevier, Sullivan, Unicoi, and Washington counties[9]
 
B. Carroll Reece
Republican March 4, 1921 –
March 3, 1931
67th
68th
69th
70th
71st
Elected in 1920.
Re-elected in 1922.
Re-elected in 1924.
Re-elected in 1926.
Re-elected in 1928.
Lost renomination.
Oscar B. Lovette Republican March 4, 1931 –
March 3, 1933
72nd Elected in 1930.
Lost renomination.
 
B. Carroll Reece
Republican March 4, 1933 –
January 3, 1947
73rd
74th
75th
76th
77th
78th
79th
Elected in 1932.
Re-elected in 1934.
Re-elected in 1936.
Re-elected in 1938.
Re-elected in 1940.
Re-elected in 1942.
Re-elected in 1944.
Retired to serve as chairman of the Republican National Committee.
1933–1943
[data unknown/missing]
1943–1953
[data unknown/missing]
 
Dayton E. Phillips
Republican January 3, 1947 –
January 3, 1951
80th
81st
Elected in 1946.
Re-elected in 1948.
Lost renomination.
 
B. Carroll Reece
Republican January 3, 1951 –
March 19, 1961
82nd
83rd
84th
85th
86th
87th
Elected in 1950.
Re-elected in 1952.
Re-elected in 1954.
Re-elected in 1956.
Re-elected in 1958.
Re-elected in 1960.
Died.
1953–1963
[data unknown/missing]
Vacant March 20, 1961 –
May 15, 1961
87th
 
Louise Reece
Republican May 16, 1961 –
January 3, 1963
Elected to finish her husband's term.
Retired.
 
Jimmy Quillen
Republican January 3, 1963 –
January 3, 1997
88th
89th
90th
91st
92nd
93rd
94th
95th
96th
97th
98th
99th
100th
101st
102nd
103rd
104th
Elected in 1962.
Re-elected in 1964.
Re-elected in 1966.
Re-elected in 1968.
Re-elected in 1970.
Re-elected in 1972.
Re-elected in 1974.
Re-elected in 1976.
Re-elected in 1978.
Re-elected in 1980.
Re-elected in 1982.
Re-elected in 1984.
Re-elected in 1986.
Re-elected in 1988.
Re-elected in 1990.
Re-elected in 1992.
Re-elected in 1994.
Retired.
1963–1973
[data unknown/missing]
1973–1983
[data unknown/missing]
1983–1993
[data unknown/missing]
1993–2003
[data unknown/missing]
 
Bill Jenkins
Republican January 3, 1997 –
January 3, 2007
105th
106th
107th
108th
109th
Elected in 1996.
Re-elected in 1998.
Re-elected in 2000.
Re-elected in 2002.
Re-elected in 2004.
Retired.
2003–2013
[data unknown/missing]
 
David Davis
Republican January 3, 2007 –
January 3, 2009
110th Elected in 2006.
Lost renomination.
 
Phil Roe
Republican January 3, 2009 –
January 3, 2021
111th
112th
113th
114th
115th
116th
Elected in 2008.
Re-elected in 2010.
Re-elected in 2012.
Re-elected in 2014.
Re-elected in 2016.
Re-elected in 2018.
Retired.
2013–Present
[data unknown/missing]
 
Diana Harshbarger
Republican January 3, 2021 –
Present
117th Elected in 2020.

Recent election resultsEdit

2012Edit

Tennessee's 1st congressional district, 2012
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Phil Roe (Incumbent) 182,252 76
Democratic Alan Woodruff 47,663 19.9
Green Robert N. Smith 2,872 1.2
Independent Karen Brackett 4,837 2
Independent Michael Salyer 2,048 0.9
Total votes 239,672 100
Republican hold

2014Edit

Tennessee's 1st congressional district, 2014[10]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Phil Roe (incumbent) 115,533 82.8
Independent Robert D. Franklin 9,906 7.1
Green Robert N. Smith 9,869 7.1
Independent Michael D. Salyer 4,148 3.0
Independent Scott Kudialis (write-in) 14 0.0
Total votes 139,470 100.0
Republican hold

2016Edit

Tennessee's 1st congressional district, 2016[11]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Phil Roe (incumbent) 198,293 78.4
Democratic Alan Bohms 39,024 15.4
Independent Robert Franklin 15,702 6.2
Independent Paul Krane (write-in) 6 0.0
Total votes 253,025 100.0
Republican hold

2018Edit

Tennessee's 1st congressional district, 2018[12]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Phil Roe (incumbent) 172,835 77.1
Democratic Marty Olsen 47,138 21.0
Independent Michael Salyer 4,309 1.9
Total votes 224,282 100.0
Republican hold

2020Edit

Tennessee's 1st congressional district, 2020[13]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Diana Harshbarger 228,181 74.7
Democratic Blair Walsingham 68,617 22.5
Independent Steve Holder 8,621 2.8
Write-in 4 0.0
Total votes 305,423 100.0
Republican hold


Historical district boundariesEdit

 
2003 – 2013

See alsoEdit

SourcesEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Geography, US Census Bureau. "Congressional Districts Relationship Files (state-based)". www.census.gov.
  2. ^ Bureau, Center for New Media & Promotion (CNMP), US Census. "My Congressional District". www.census.gov.
  3. ^ https://www.census.gov/mycd/?st=47&cd=01
  4. ^ "Introducing the 2021 Cook Political Report Partisan Voter Index". The Cook Political Report. April 15, 2021. Retrieved April 15, 2021.
  5. ^ Pathé, Simone (January 3, 2020). "Tennessee's Phil Roe won't run for reelection in 2020". Roll Call. Washington, D.C. Retrieved January 3, 2020.
  6. ^ ""A Patriot's Voice", Neal O'Steen, Tennessee Alumnus Summer 1997". utk.edu. Archived from the original on June 18, 2010.
  7. ^ "Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture: Slavery". tennesseeencyclopedia.net. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007.
  8. ^ "First Abolition Publications 1A82 - Jonesborough, Tn. - Tennessee Historical Markers on Waymarking.com". www.waymarking.com.
  9. ^ L.A. Coolidge (1897). "Tennessee". Official Congressional Directory: Fifty-Fifth Congress. Washington DC: Government Printing Office.
  10. ^ https://sos-tn-gov-files.s3.amazonaws.com/20141104_CountyTotals_01.pdf
  11. ^ https://sos-tn-gov-files.s3.amazonaws.com/USHousebyCountyNov2016.pdf
  12. ^ Johnson, Cheryl L. (February 28, 2019). "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 6, 2018". Clerk of the U.S. House of Representatives. Retrieved April 27, 2019.
  13. ^ State of Tennessee General Election Results, November 3, 2020, Results By Office (PDF) (Report). Secretary of State of Tennessee. December 2, 2020. Retrieved December 2, 2020.

Coordinates: 36°12′45″N 82°48′00″W / 36.21250°N 82.80000°W / 36.21250; -82.80000