Bill Frist

William Harrison Frist (born February 22, 1952) is an American physician, businessman and politician who served as United States Senator from Tennessee from 1995 to 2007. A heart and lung transplant surgeon by occupation, he was Senate Majority Leader from 2003 to 2007. He is a member of the Republican Party.

Bill Frist
Bill Frist official photo.jpg
Senate Majority Leader
In office
January 3, 2003 – January 3, 2007
DeputyMitch McConnell
Preceded byTom Daschle
Succeeded byHarry Reid
Leader of the Senate Republican Conference
In office
January 3, 2003 – January 3, 2007
DeputyMitch McConnell
Preceded byTrent Lott
Succeeded byMitch McConnell
United States Senator
from Tennessee
In office
January 3, 1995 – January 3, 2007
Preceded byJim Sasser
Succeeded byBob Corker
Personal details
Born
William Harrison Frist

(1952-02-22) February 22, 1952 (age 68)
Nashville, Tennessee, U.S.
Political partyRepublican
Spouse(s)
Karyn McLaughlin
(m. 1981; div. 2012)
Tracy Roberts
(m. 2015)
Children3
EducationPrinceton University (BS)
Harvard University (MD)
Signature

Born in Nashville, Tennessee, Frist studied health care policy at Princeton University and interned for U.S. Representative Joe L. Evins. Rather than going directly into politics, Frist earned a Doctor of Medicine degree from Harvard Medical School, becoming a surgeon at Massachusetts General Hospital and several other hospitals. In 1994, he defeated incumbent Democratic Senator Jim Sasser; he pledged to only serve two terms.

After serving as Chairman of the National Republican Senatorial Committee, Frist succeeded Tom Daschle as the Senate Majority Leader. Frist helped pass several parts of President George W. Bush's domestic agenda, including the Jobs and Growth Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2003 and PEPFAR. He was also a strong proponent of the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act and a prominent advocate of tort reform. Frist left the Senate in 2007, honoring his commitment to serve no more than two terms.

Early life and educationEdit

Frist was born in Nashville, Tennessee, the son of Dorothy (née Cate) Frist and Thomas Fearn Frist, Sr.[1] He is a fourth-generation Tennessean. His father was a doctor and founded the health care business organization which became Hospital Corporation of America. Frist's brother, Thomas F. Frist, Jr., became chairman and chief executive of Hospital Corporation of America in 1997.[2]

Frist graduated from Montgomery Bell Academy in Nashville, and then from Princeton University in 1974, where he specialized in health care policy at the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs. In 1972, he held a summer internship with Tennessee Congressman Joe L. Evins, who advised Frist that if he wanted to pursue a political career, he should first have a career outside politics. Frist proceeded to Harvard Medical School, where he received the degree of Doctor of Medicine with honours in 1978. While at Harvard, he shared an apartment with future United States Congressman David Wu.[3]

While he was a medical school student in the 1970s, Frist performed fatal medical experiments and vivisection on shelter cats while researching the use of drugs on the mitral valve. By his own account, Frist improperly obtained these cats from Boston animal shelters, falsely telling shelter staff he was adopting the cats as pets.[4] In his book, Frist asserted that he succumbed to the pressure to succeed in a highly competitive medical school.

Frist's treatment of cats first became controversial in 1994, in his first Senate campaign, when the opposing camp in the Republican primary called him a cat-killer. The matter again created public controversy in 2002, after mention in a Boston Globe profile, published after his election as Senate majority leader.[5][6]

Medical careerEdit

Frist joined the laboratory of W. John Powell Jr. at Massachusetts General Hospital in 1977, where he continued his training in cardiovascular physiology.[7] He left the lab in 1978 to become a resident in surgery at Massachusetts General Hospital. In 1983, he spent time at Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, England as a senior registrar in cardiothoracic surgery. He returned to Massachusetts General in 1984 as chief resident and fellow in cardiothoracic surgery. From 1985 until 1986, Frist was a senior fellow and chief resident in cardiac transplant service and cardiothoracic surgery at the Stanford University School of Medicine.[7]

After completing his fellowship, he became a faculty member at Vanderbilt University Medical Center, where he began a heart and lung transplantation program.[7][8] He became a staff surgeon at the Nashville Veterans Administration Hospital. In 1989, he founded the Vanderbilt Transplant Center.[8] In 1991, Frist operated on then–Lieutenant Colonel David Petraeus after he had been shot in a training accident at Fort Campbell.[9]

United States Senator (1995–2007)Edit

In 1990, Frist met with former Senate Majority Leader Howard Baker about the possibilities of public office. Baker advised him to pursue the Senate and suggested in 1992 that Frist begin preparations to run in 1994. Frist began to build support. He served on Tennessee's Governor's Medicaid Task Force from 1992 to 1993, joined the National Steering Committee of the Republican National Committee's Health Care Coalition and was deputy director of the Tennessee Bush-Quayle 1992 campaign.[citation needed]

 
Frist looks on as President George W. Bush signs the North Korea Nonproliferation Act of 2006 (Pub.L. 109–353 (text) (pdf)) into law.

During the 1994 election, Frist promised not to serve for more than two terms, a promise he honored.[10]

Frist accused his 1994 opponent, incumbent Senator Jim Sasser, of "sending Tennessee money to Washington, DC", and said, "While I've been transplanting lungs and hearts to heal Tennesseans, Jim Sasser has been transplanting Tennesseans' wallets to Washington, home of Marion Barry." During the campaign he also criticized Sasser for trying to become Senate Majority Leader, claiming that his opponent would be spending more time taking care of Senate business than Tennessee business. Frist won the election, defeating Sasser by 13 points in the 1994 Republican sweep of both Houses of Congress, thus becoming the first physician in the Senate since June 17, 1938, when Royal S. Copeland died.[11]

In his 2000 reelection campaign, Frist easily won with 66 percent of the vote. He received the largest vote total ever by a statewide candidate. Frist's 2000 campaign organization was later fined by the Federal Election Commission for failing to disclose a $1.44 million loan taken out jointly with the 1994 campaign organization.[12] Frist paid a civil fine of $11,000 in a settlement with the FEC.[13]

Frist first entered the national spotlight when two Capitol police officers were shot inside the United States Capitol by Russell Eugene Weston Jr. in 1998. Frist, the closest doctor, provided immediate medical attention (he was unable to save the two officers, but was able to save Weston). He also was the Congressional spokesman during the 2001 anthrax attacks.[14]

As the chairman of the National Republican Senatorial Committee, he helped Republicans win back the Senate in the 2002 midterm election. His committee collected $66.4 million for 2001–2002, 50% more than the previous year.[citation needed]

Senate Majority Leader (2003-2007)Edit

On December 23, 2002, Frist was elected Senate Majority Leader.[15] He became the third-youngest Senate Majority Leader in U.S. history. In his 2005 book, Herding Cats, A Lifetime in Politics, Frist's predecessor, Trent Lott, accused Frist of conspiring to push Lott out of the Senate Majority Leader post.[16]

In the 2003 legislative session, Frist enjoyed many successes. He was able to push many initiatives through to fruition, including the Bush administration's third major tax cut and legislation restricting abortion.[citation needed] He led the fight against a rare late term abortion procedure, intact dilation and extraction, characterized politically by abortion opponents as partial birth abortion.[17] Frist co-sponsored[18] and voted for the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act of 2003, and against an amendment to include a woman's health exception (saying that he considered the procedure to be hazardous to a woman's health).[19][better source needed] However, the tactics that he used to achieve those victories alienated many Democrats. He also was instrumental in developing and then passing the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), the historic and unprecedented funding commitment to fight disease. In 2004, by comparison, he saw no major legislative successes, with the explanations ranging from delay tactics by Democrats to lack of unity within the Republican Party.[citation needed]

 
Sen. Frist with Sen. Lamar Alexander and Interior Secretary Gale Norton

In a prominent and nationally broadcast speech to the Republican National Convention in August 2004, Frist highlighted his background as a doctor and focused on several issues related to health care. He spoke in favour of the recently passed Medicare prescription drug benefit and the passage of legislation providing for Health Savings Accounts.[citation needed]

In an impassioned argument for medical malpractice tort reform, Frist called personal injury trial lawyers "predators": "We must stop them from twisting American medicine into a litigation lottery where they hit the jackpot and every patient ends up paying." Frist has been an advocate for imposing caps on the amount of money courts can award plaintiffs for noneconomic damages in medical malpractice cases.[20]

During the 2004 election season, Frist employed the unprecedented political tactic of going to the home state of the opposition party's minority leader, Democrat Tom Daschle of South Dakota, and actively campaigning against him. Daschle's Republican opponent, John Thune, defeated Daschle. Frist and Daschle later worked together at the Bipartisan Policy Center and have spoken together at healthcare conventions and events.[21]

Many of Frist's opponents[who?] accused him of pandering to Republican primary voters and taking extreme positions on social issues such as the Terri Schiavo case to please the Republican base. However, Frist changed his position on stem cell research. Frist initially supported a total ban on human cloning, including for embryonic stem cell research. Since 2001, Frist supported President George W. Bush in his insistence that only currently existing lines be used for stem cell research. In July 2005, however, Frist reversed course and endorsed a House-passed plan to expand federal funding of the research, saying "it's not just a matter of faith, it's a matter of science."[22] Up to that point the legislation had been considered bottled up in the Senate. The decision quickly drew criticism from James Dobson and other Christians,[citation needed] but garnered praise from former First Lady Nancy Reagan.[23]

In an extended confirmation fight over Bush's pick for U.S. ambassador to the United Nations, John R. Bolton, Frist failed—on two occasions—to garner the 60 votes to break cloture. The nomination received fewer votes in Frist's second effort, and even lost the support of one moderate Republican (George Voinovich of Ohio). On June 21, 2005, Frist said the situation had been "exhausted" and there would be no more votes. Only an hour later, after speaking to the White House, Frist said: "The president made it very clear he wants an up-or-down vote." This sudden switch in strategy led to charges of flip-flopping in response to pressure from the Bush administration. Nevertheless, no up-and-down vote was held, and Bush made a recess appointment of Bolton.[24]

 
Frist at the inauguration of his successor Bob Corker (second left). Along with Tennessee's former Senator Howard Baker (second right), and Senior Senator Lamar Alexander (far right).

Frist pledged to leave the Senate after two terms in 2006 and did not run in the 2006 Republican primary for his Senate seat. He campaigned heavily for Republican candidate Bob Corker, who won by a small margin over Congressman Harold Ford Jr. in the general election.[citation needed]

Schiavo caseEdit

In the Terri Schiavo case, a brain-damaged woman whose husband wanted to remove her gastric feeding tube, Frist opposed the removal. In a 2005 speech delivered on the Senate Floor, challenged the diagnosis of Schiavo's physicians of Schiavo being in a persistent vegetative state (PVS): "I question it based on a review of the video footage which I spent an hour or so looking at last night in my office".[25] Frist was criticized by a medical ethicist at Northwestern University for making a diagnosis without personally examining the patient and for questioning the diagnosis when he was not a neurologist.[26] After her death, the autopsy showed signs of long-term and irreversible damage to a brain consistent with PVS.[27] Frist defended his actions after the autopsy.[28]

Unlawful Internet Gambling Enforcement Act (UIGEA)Edit

Just before Congress adjourned for the 2006 elections, in what politicos call a "midnight drop", Frist inserted the Unlawful Internet Gambling Enforcement Act (UIGEA) clauses into the larger, unrelated Security and Accountability for Every Port (SAFE) Act. The SAFE Act itself was a late "must pass" bill designed to safeguard ports from terrorist infiltration.[29] In the Zogby International Poll, 87% believe online gambling is a personal choice which should not be banned. A Wall Street Journal Poll showed 85% oppose government prohibition of online gambling.[30] The UIGEA became the basis for the April 15, 2011, US Department of Justice government crackdown and domain name seizure of three of the world's top online poker sites, dubbed "black Friday" in the poker community.[31] The DOJ Office of Legal Counsel subsequently issued an opinion in September 2011, stating that the UIGEA applies only to betting on sporting events and contests and not to other types of online gambling.[32][33][34][35]

Post-Senate careerEdit

Political involvementEdit

Frist was mentioned as a potential 2008 Republican presidential candidate and as a potential 2010 Republican candidate for Governor of Tennessee. He did not run for president in 2008 or for governor in 2010.[36][37][38]

In 2009, Frist stated that he would have broken with his party by voting in favor of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, which was unanimously opposed by Republicans.[39] In January 2011, after the Republicans regained a majority in the House, Frist called on them not to attempt to repeal the health care law.[40]

Other endeavorsEdit

After leaving the U.S. Senate, Frist became a co-chair of ONE VOTE '08, an initiative of the ONE campaign, with former Senate Majority Leader Tom Daschle (D-SD). According to OneVote.org, "ONE Vote '08 is an unprecedented, non-partisan campaign to make global health and extreme poverty foreign policy priorities in the 2008 presidential election."[41][better source needed] Frist traveled to Africa for the ONE campaign in July 2008.[42][better source needed]

In 2008, he became a partner in Chicago-based Cressey & Co., investing in the nation's health care market.[43][44]

In 2009, Frist launched a statewide education reform nonprofit organization targeting K-12 education called SCORE (State Collaborative on Reforming Education).[45][better source needed] The organization's mission is to "collaboratively support Tennessee's work to prepare students for college and the workforce." Frist has served as chairman of SCORE's board of directors.[citation needed] As part of SCORE's work, Frist presents the State of Education in Tennessee report at the beginning of each year, a comprehensive look at the state's efforts to improve public education.[46] In 2013, Frist voiced support for higher academic standards in grades K-12, reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, and improving efforts to identify, foster, and reward effective teaching.[47][48][49]

In May 2009, Frist joined forensic chemical and drug-testing laboratory Aegis Sciences Corp. as a health care advisor and member of its board of directors. His new responsibilities include assisting in Aegis's development of a strategic alliance with Vanderbilt University Medical Center, providing counsel on the company's research and development for new laboratory-based toxicology assessments, and advise Aegis on general health care issues.[50][better source needed]

In November 2009, Frist joined the board of directors of engineering, construction and technical services firm URS Corp. to bring his expertise and unique perspective on a wide range of economic issues.[51][52]

In March 2010, Frist was appointed a member of the six-person board of the Clinton Bush Haiti Fund, which had raised $66 million for immediate earthquake relief and long-term recovery efforts in the Caribbean country.[53]

Frist has also served as a senior fellow at the Bipartisan Policy Center. As of 2020, he is a co-leader of the Health Project.[54]

BooksEdit

In June 1989, Frist published his first book, Transplant: A Heart Surgeon's Account of the Life-And-Death Dramas of the New Medicine, in which he wrote, "A doctor is a man whose job justifies everything ... Life [is] a gift, not an inalienable right."[55] With J. H. Helderman, he edited "Grand Rounds in Transplantation" in 1995.[citation needed] In October 1999, Frist co-authored Tennessee Senators, 1911–2001: Portraits of Leadership in a Century of Change with J. Lee Annis, Jr.[56]

In March 2002, Frist published his third book, When Every Moment Counts: What You Need to Know About Bioterrorism from the Senate's Only Doctor. While generally well received, the book later spurred accusations of hypocrisy regarding his remarks about Richard Clarke. When Clarke published his book Against All Enemies in 2004, Frist stated "I am troubled that someone would sell a book, trading on their service as a government insider with access to our nation's most valuable intelligence, in order to profit from the suffering that this nation endured on September 11, 2001."[57]

In December 2003, Frist and co-author Shirley Wilson released the self-promoting book, Good People Beget Good People: A Genealogy of the Frist Family.[58]

Personal lifeEdit

Frist is the son of Thomas F. Frist, Sr. and Dorothy Cate. He has four siblings: businessman and philanthropist Thomas F. Frist, Jr.; Dr. Robert A. Frist; Dorothy F. Boensch; and Mary F. Barfield.[59]

In 1981, Frist married Karyn McLaughlin. Frist recounted in his 2009 memoir meeting his future wife in 1979 when he attended to her at a clinic in Boston. He was engaged to another woman in Tennessee and broke it off a week before the wedding. They have three sons: Harrison, Jonathan, and Bryan. The Frist family were members of the National Presbyterian Church in Washington, D.C.. Karyn Frist reportedly filed for divorce on September 7, 2012.[60] The Frists' divorce was finalized in December 2012.[61]

On May 29, 2015, Frist married Tracy Lynne Roberts (b. April 14, 1962).[62] The couple resides in Nashville, Tennessee.[63]

FinancesEdit

As of 2005, Frist had a fortune in the millions of dollars, most of it the result of his ownership of stock in Hospital Corporation of America, the for-profit hospital chain founded by his brother and father. Frist's 2005 financial disclosure form listed blind trusts valued between $15 million and $45 million.[64]

Members of the Frist family have been major donors to Princeton University, pledging a reported $25 million in 1997 for the construction of the Frist Campus Center.[65][66] Daniel Golden, a Wall Street Journal journalist and author of the book The Price of Admission: How America's Ruling Class Buys Its Way into Elite Colleges — and Who Gets Left Outside the Gates, has suggested that two of Frist's sons (Harrison and Bryan) were admitted to Princeton as recognition of this donation rather than their own academic and extracurricular merit.[67]

Bill and Karyn Frist were the sole trustees in charge of a family foundation bearing the senator's name which had more than $2 million in assets in 2004. He and his siblings were vice presidents of another charitable foundation bearing their parents' names. Frist failed to list his positions with the two foundations on his Senate disclosure form. In July 2006, when the matter was raised by the Associated Press, his staff said the form would be amended. Frist had previously disclosed his board position with World of Hope, a charity that gives money to causes associated with AIDS. The charity has come under scrutiny for paying consulting fees to members of Frist's political inner circle.[68] The status of Frist's blind trust, and subsequent statements about it and activities within it, led to an SEC investigation. He was questioned in 2005 by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) about stock sales allegedly based on inside information.[69][70] The investigation was closed after 18 months and no charges were filed.[71] Frist said in a statement, "I've always conducted myself according to the highest ethical standards in both my personal and public life, and my family and I are pleased that this matter has been resolved."[72]

Electoral historyEdit

United States Senate election in Tennessee, 1994
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Republican Bill Frist 834,226 56.35 +21
Democratic Jim Sasser (incumbent) 623,164 42.10 -22.99
Republican gain from Democratic Swing
United States Senate election in Tennessee, 2000
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Republican Bill Frist (incumbent) 1,255,444 65.10 +8.75
Democratic Jeff Clark 621,152 32.21 -10
Republican hold Swing

ReferencesEdit

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  2. ^ Britt, Russ (April 15, 2010). "HCA's public offering could be boon for hospitals". MarketWatch.
  3. ^ "How the House voted on H.R. 404". nationaljournal.com. Archived from the original on September 7, 2015.
  4. ^ William H. Frist, MD, Transplant : A Heart Surgeon's Account of the Life-and-Death Dramas of the New Medicine, Fawcett; Reprint edition (August 28, 1990), ISBN 0-449-21905-4
  5. ^ Kranish, Michael (October 27, 2002). "First Responder". Boston Globe Magazine. Archived from the original on November 1, 2002.
  6. ^ Kerr, Gail (June 12, 2006). "Kitty-killer label litters Frist resume for president". The Tennessean. Archived from the original (fee required) on 2013-06-23.
  7. ^ a b c "Former Senator Frist to join Wilson School faculty". Princeton University. June 19, 2007. Retrieved 2020-05-15.
  8. ^ a b Dewar, Helen (25 July 1998). "Senator Frist Treats Shooting Victims". Washington Post.
  9. ^ Noonan, Peggy (2007-08-11). "Get It Done". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2020-05-15.
  10. ^ Frist, Bill (2009-01-04). "A Tremendous Personal Honor". VOLPAC. Archived from the original on January 6, 2009. Retrieved 2009-01-06.
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  12. ^ "FEC Finds that Frist 2000 Violated Law". The New York Times. June 1, 2006.
  13. ^ "FEC Fines Frist's 2000 Senate Campaign for Violating Campaign Finance Laws". foxnews.com. Fox News Network, LLC. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  14. ^ "Sen. Frist Emerges as 'Chief' Spokesperson During Anthrax Scare". khn.org. KAISER FAMILY FOUNDATION. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  15. ^ "Bill Frist Fast Facts". CNN.
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  17. ^ "'Partial-Birth Abortion': Separating Fact From Spin". www.npr.org.
  18. ^ "S.3 Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act of 2003 Cosponsors". www.congress.gov.
  19. ^ Frist Floor Statement on Partial-Birth Abortion[dead link]
  20. ^ "Text: Remarks by Sen. Frist to the Republican National Convention". The Washington Post. FDCH E-Media, Inc. August 31, 2004.
  21. ^ Norman, Brett (September 16, 2012). "The Bill Frist Rx". Politico.
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  24. ^ Rothman, Lily. "Why John Bolton Couldn't Get Confirmed as U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations". time.com. TIME USA, LLC. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
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  26. ^ Letter: Frist Schiavo diagnosis being reviewed in Tennessee June 24, 2005
  27. ^ Medical Examiner's Report on the Schiavo Autopsy June 13, 2005
  28. ^ Kornblut, Anne E. (2005). "Schiavo Autopsy Renews Debate on G.O.P. Actions". The New York Times, June 16, 2005
  29. ^ "The American Conservative". The American Conservative.
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  31. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-04-19. Retrieved 2011-04-17.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  32. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-10-10. Retrieved 2012-10-04.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  33. ^ "Internet Poker Is Sort of Legal!". The Wall Street Journal.
  34. ^ "Legal News - What the DOJ's reversal on the Wire Act really means". 30 December 2011.
  35. ^ "US Department of Justice Says Wire Act Applies Only to Sports Betting - Legal News". 23 December 2011.
  36. ^ "Frist Decides Against '08 Presidential Bid", The Wall Street Journal, November 29, 2006.
  37. ^ Youngman, Sam (January 18, 2007). "Frist Looking at Governor Run in 2010". The Hill. Archived from the original on 2007-02-10.
  38. ^ "Frist out of 2010 race". POLITICO.
  39. ^ Tumulty, Karen (October 2, 2009). "Bill Frist on Health Bill: I'd Vote For It". Time. Retrieved January 21, 2012.
  40. ^ Stein, Sam (January 18, 2011). "Bill Frist: Health Care Is 'Law Of The Land', GOP Should Drop Repeal And Build On It". Huffington Post.
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  42. ^ ONE. April 2, 2014 https://www.one.org/international/page-not-found/. Missing or empty |title= (help)
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  44. ^ "Bill Frist, Cressey & Co. open Nashville officeNashville". Business Journal. August 27, 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-05.
  45. ^ "ABOUT US". SCORE. Archived from the original on 2013-06-06. Retrieved 2013-02-13.
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  47. ^ "The crucial need to hold students to a higher standard". The Week. Retrieved 2013-02-15.
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  49. ^ "How the U.S. can find and train more great teachers". The Week. Retrieved 2013-02-15.
  50. ^ "Dr. William Frist Joins Aegis Sciences as Health Care Advisor". Business Wire (press release). May 20, 2009. Archived from the original on 2015-06-03.
  51. ^ "Bill Frist joins board of engineering giant". Nashville Post. 2009-11-18. Archived from the original on 2009-11-21. Retrieved 2010-01-20.
  52. ^ "URS-Investor Relations-Board of Directors". Archived from the original on 9 July 2012. Retrieved 4 September 2011.
  53. ^ "Bolten '76, Frist '74 appointed to serve on Clinton Bush Haiti Fund's Board of Directors" Archived March 19, 2012, at the Wayback Machine by Daily Princetonian Staff, March 22, 2010. Retrieved 2010-03-30.
  54. ^ "Bill Frist". bipartisanpolicy.org. Bipartisan Policy Center. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  55. ^ McCabe, M.D., Dr. Robert E. "Transplant: A Heart Surgeon's Account of the Life-and-Death Dramas of the New Medicine". jamanetwork.com. American Medical Association. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  56. ^ Annis, James Lee; Frist, William H. (1999). Tennessee Senators, 1911-2001: Portraits of Leadership in a Century of Change. Madison Books.
  57. ^ "Bill Frist Quote". quotefancy.com. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  58. ^ Frist, William H.; Wilson, Shirley (2003). Good People Beget Good People: A Genealogy of the Frist Family. Rowman & Littlefield.
  59. ^ Gilpin, Kenneth N. (1998-01-08). "Dr. Thomas Frist Sr., HCA Founder, Dies at 87". The New York Times. New York Times. Retrieved 24 June 2015.
  60. ^ Schelzig, Erik (September 10, 2012). "Bill and Karyn Frist end marriage after 31 years". The Sacramento Bee. Associated Press. Archived from the original on September 13, 2012. Retrieved September 16, 2019.
  61. ^ Source, The Reliable (December 14, 2012). "Bill Frist and Karyn Frist finalize divorce settlement: Beach houses, buffalo head and a bathroom door".
  62. ^ "Former Senate leader Bill Frist weds Tracy Roberts". WashingtonPost.com. Retrieved 19 June 2015.
  63. ^ Ward, Getahn (4 May 2014). "Gulch developers project big changes for area by 2030". Tennessean. Tennessean. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
  64. ^ "None".
  65. ^ "PAW- October 22, 1997". www.princeton.edu.
  66. ^ Ward, Daniel L. (May 1, 2009). "An Interview with Senator Bill Frist '74". The Princeton Spectator. Archived from the original on April 24, 2005.
  67. ^ Thornburgh, Nathan (13 August 2006). "How VIPs get in". Time. Archived from the original on 2006-08-19.
  68. ^ "Frist Fails to Disclose Foundation Role".
  69. ^ Birnbaum, Jeffrey H.; Smith, R. Jeffrey (September 24, 2005). "SEC, Justice Investigate Frist's Sale of Stock". The Washington Post.
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  72. ^ Frist Not Charged as Investigators Close Probe of His Hospital Stock Sales Washington Post, April 27, 2007

External linksEdit

Party political offices
Preceded by
Bill Anderson
Republican nominee for U.S. Senator from Tennessee
(Class 1)

1994, 2000
Succeeded by
Bob Corker
Preceded by
Jennifer Dunn
Steve Largent
Response to the State of the Union address
2000
Served alongside: Susan Collins
Succeeded by
Tom Daschle
Dick Gephardt
Preceded by
Mitch McConnell
Chair of the National Republican Senatorial Committee
2001–2003
Succeeded by
George Allen
Preceded by
Trent Lott
Senate Republican Leader
2003–2007
Succeeded by
Mitch McConnell
U.S. Senate
Preceded by
Jim Sasser
U.S. Senator (Class 1) from Tennessee
1995–2007
Served alongside: Fred Thompson, Lamar Alexander
Succeeded by
Bob Corker
Preceded by
Tom Daschle
Senate Majority Leader
2003–2007
Succeeded by
Harry Reid