1888 United States House of Representatives elections

Elections to the United States House of Representatives held in 1888 were held to choose members of the 51st Congress, and were held at the same time as the election of President Benjamin Harrison.

1888 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1886 June 6, September 4, September 10, and November 6, 1888[a] 1890 →

All 332 seats in the United States House of Representatives[b]
167 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  Thomas Brackett Reed - Brady-Handy.jpg John Griffin Carlisle, Brady-Handy photo portrait, ca1870-1880.jpg
Leader Thomas Brackett Reed John G. Carlisle
Party Republican Democratic
Leader's seat Maine 1st Kentucky 6th
Last election 152 seats 167 seats
Seats won 179[1][c] 152[1][c]
Seat change Increase 27 Decrease 15
Popular vote 5,408,259 5,558,964
Percentage 47.36% 48.68%
Swing Increase 2.37% Increase 0.56%

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Labor Independent
Last election 2 seats 2 seats[d]
Seats won 1[1] 0
Seat change Decrease 1 Decrease 2
Popular vote 161,225 61,520
Percentage 1.41% 0.54%
Swing Increase 0.33% Decrease 1.54%

House051ElectionMap.png
Map of U.S. House elections results from 1888 elections for 51st Congress on election day (a number of Southern seats were later successfully contested and the results overturned)

Speaker before election

John Carlisle
Democratic

Elected Speaker

Thomas Reed
Republican

Harrison's Republican Party gained a majority in the House at the expense of the Democratic Party, even though incumbent President Grover Cleveland actually received more votes counted than Harrison. However, as in other elections in the period, widespread vote suppression and fraud was common on behalf of Democrats and against black Republicans in the South. The Republican House majority in uncontested elections unseated a number of initially reported as victorious Democratic candidates in favor of Republican candidates who contested their election loss. The issue of tariffs played a key role in this election. The Democrats, with the support of farmers and laborers, wanted to lower tariffs in order to promote free trade, while the Republicans, backed by industry and big business, believed that higher tariffs were necessary to protect American manufacturing. Especially in industrializing regions, voters chose the Republican view on tariffs, as they gave the party a slim majority in the House.

Election summariesEdit

Seven seats were added, for the six new states of, in order of admission (number of House seats for each new state listed in parentheses): North Dakota (1), South Dakota (2), Montana (1), Washington (1), Idaho (1), and Wyoming (1).

179 1 152
Republican [e] Democratic
State Type Total
seats
Republican Democratic
Seats Change Seats Change
Alabama District 8 1   1 7   1
Arkansas District 5[f] 1   3  
California District 6 4   2  
Colorado At-large 1 1   0  
Connecticut District 4 3   1 1   1
Delaware At-large 1 0   1  
Florida District 2 0   2  
Georgia District 10 0   10  
Illinois District 20 13   1 7   1
Indiana District 13 3   4 10   4
Iowa District 11[g] 10   1 1  
Kansas District 7 7   0  
Kentucky District 11 2   1 9   1
Louisiana District 6 1   1 5   1
Maine[h] District 4 4   0  
Maryland District 6 3   2 3   2
Massachusetts District 12 10   2 2   2
Michigan District 11 9   3 2   3
Minnesota District 5 5   3 0   3
Mississippi District 7 0   7  
Missouri District 14 4   2 10   2
Nebraska District 3 3   1 0   1
Nevada At-large 1 1   0  
New Hampshire District 2 2   1 0   1
New Jersey District 7 4   1 3   1
New York District 34 19   1 15   1
North Carolina District 9[i] 3   2 6   2
Ohio District 21 16   1 5   1
Oregon[h] At-large 1 1   0  
Pennsylvania District[j] 28 21   1 7   1
Rhode Island District 2 2   0  
South Carolina District 7 1   1 6   1
Tennessee District 10 3   1 7   1
Texas District 11 0   11  
Vermont[h] District 2 2   0  
Virginia District 10[k] 4   2 6   3
West Virginia District 4 2   1 2   1
Wisconsin District 9[k] 7   2   1
1889 elections (New States)
Montana At-large 1 1   1 0  
North Dakota At-large 1 1   1 0  
South Dakota At-large 2 2   2 0  
Washington At-large 1 1   1 0  
1890 elections (New States)
Idaho At-large 1 1   1 0  
Wyoming At-large 1 1   1 0  
Total[b] 332 179[1]
53.9%
  17 152[1]
45.8%
  6
Popular vote
Democratic
48.68%
Independent
0.54%
Labor
1.41%
Republican
47.36%
Others
2.01%
House seats
Democratic
45.78%
Labor
0.30%
Republican
53.92%

The previous election had 4 third-party candidates, 2 Labor, 1 Greenback, and 1 Independent.


Election datesEdit

All states elected their members November 6, 1888 except, three states, with 7 seats among them:

AlabamaEdit

Arizona TerritoryEdit

See Non-voting delegates, below.

ArkansasEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Arkansas 1 Poindexter Dunn Democratic 1878 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Arkansas 2 Clifton R. Breckinridge Democratic 1882 Incumbent re-elected.
Arkansas 3 Thomas C. McRae Democratic 1884 Incumbent re-elected.
Arkansas 4 John H. Rogers Democratic 1884 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y John H. Rogers (Democratic) 57.8%
  • Isaac McCacken (Independent) 42.2%
Arkansas 5 Samuel W. Peel Democratic 1884 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Samuel W. Peel (Democratic) 68.9%
  • Edward P. Watson (Independent) 22.0%
  • John Gates (Republican) 9.1%

In the 1st district, initial returns showed William H. Cate (Democratic) winning the election, but the election was contested by Lewis P. Featherstone (Labor), and on May 5, 1890, he was declared the winner.

In the 2nd district, Clifton R. Breckinridge (Democratic) was initially declared re-elected. John M. Clayton successfully contested the election, but was assassinated before the contest was complete, so the House declared the seat vacant. Breckinridge was subsequently re-elected November 4, 1890 to finish the term.

CaliforniaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
California 1 Thomas Larkin Thompson Democratic 1886 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
  •  Y John J. De Haven (Republican) 49.9%
  • Thomas L. Thompson (Democratic) 49%
  • W. D. Reynolds (Independent) 1.1%
California 2 Marion Biggs Democratic 1886 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Marion Biggs (Democratic) 50.6%
  • John A. Eagon (Republican) 46.6%
  • S. M. McLean (Prohibition) 2.4%
  • J. F. McSwain (Independent) 0.4%
California 3 Joseph McKenna Republican 1884 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Joseph McKenna (Republican) 56.0%
  • Ben Morgan (Democratic) 41.2%
  • W. W. Smith (Prohibition) 1.9%
  • S. Solon Holl (Independent) 1.0%
California 4 William W. Morrow Republican 1884 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y William W. Morrow (Republican) 50.8%
  • Robert Ferral (Democratic) 48.6%
  • Frank M. Pixley (Socialist) 0.6%
California 5 Charles N. Felton Republican 1884 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
California 6 William Vandever Republican 1886 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold
  •  Y William Vandever (Republican) 52.5%
  • Reel B. Terry (Democratic) 43.7%
  • J. G. Miller (Prohibition) 3.5%
  • Alfred Daggett (Know Nothing) 0.2%

ColoradoEdit

ConnecticutEdit

DelawareEdit

FloridaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Florida 1 Robert H. M. Davidson Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Florida 2 Charles Dougherty Democratic 1884 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold
  •  Y Robert Bullock (Democratic) 53.5%
  • Frederick S. Goodrich (Republican) 46.5%

Idaho TerritoryEdit

See Non-voting delegates, below.

IllinoisEdit

IndianaEdit

IowaEdit

KansasEdit

KentuckyEdit

LouisianaEdit

MaineEdit

MarylandEdit

MassachusettsEdit

MichiganEdit

MinnesotaEdit

MississippiEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Mississippi 1 John M. Allen Democratic 1884 Incumbent re-elected.
Mississippi 2 James B. Morgan Democratic 1884 Incumbent re-elected.
Mississippi 3 Thomas C. Catchings Democratic 1884 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Thomas C. Catchings (Democratic) 71.12%
  • James Hill (Republican) 28.23%
  • James Witherspoon (Independent) 0.66%[4]
Mississippi 4 Frederick G. Barry Democratic 1884 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
  •  Y Clarke Lewis (Democratic) 84.29%
  • Matthew K. Mister (Republican) 15.71%[5]
Mississippi 5 Chapman L. Anderson Democratic 1886 Incumbent re-elected.
Mississippi 6 T. R. Stockdale Democratic 1886 Incumbent re-elected.
Mississippi 7 Charles E. Hooker Democratic 1886 Incumbent re-elected.

MissouriEdit

NebraskaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Nebraska 1 John A. McShane Democratic 1886 Incumbent retired to run for U.S. senator.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Nebraska 2 James Laird Republican 1882 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y James Laird (Republican) 53.38%
  • W. G. Hastings (Democratic) 36.55%
  • George Scott (Prohibition) 7.12%
  • R. H. Rohr (Labor) 2.96%[10]
Nebraska 3 George W. E. Dorsey Republican 1884 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y George W. E. Dorsey (Republican) 54.16%
  • E. P. Weatherby (Democratic) 39.95%
  • A. M. Walling (Prohibition) 3.85%
  • I. O. Jones (Labor) 1.91%
  • Scattering 0.13%[11]

NevadaEdit

New HampshireEdit

New JerseyEdit

Montana TerritoryEdit

See Non-voting delegates, below.

New Mexico TerritoryEdit

See Non-voting delegates, below.

New YorkEdit

North CarolinaEdit

OhioEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates[12]
Ohio 1 Benjamin Butterworth Republican 1884 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 2 Charles Elwood Brown Republican 1884 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Ohio 3 Elihu S. Williams Republican 1886 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 4 Samuel S. Yoder Democratic 1886 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Samuel S. Yoder (Democratic) 60.6%
  • Robert L. Mattingly (Republican) 39.4%
Ohio 5 George E. Seney Democratic 1886 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 6 Melvin M. Boothman Republican 1886 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 7 James E. Campbell Democratic 1886 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 8 Robert P. Kennedy Republican 1886 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 9 William C. Cooper Republican 1884 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 10 Jacob Romeis Republican 1884 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 11 Albert C. Thompson Republican 1886 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 12 Jacob J. Pugsley Republican 1886 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 13 Joseph H. Outhwaite Democratic 1884 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 14 Charles P. Wickham Republican 1886 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 15 Charles H. Grosvenor Republican 1886 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 16 Beriah Wilkins Democratic 1886 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
  •  Y James W. Owens (Democratic) 55.2%
  • Edwin L. Lybarger (Republican) 44.8%
Ohio 17 Joseph D. Taylor Republican 1886 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 18 William McKinley Republican 1886 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 19 Ezra B. Taylor Republican 1880 (s) Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Ezra B. Taylor (Republican) 67.5%
  • Henry Apthorp (Democratic) 32.5%
Ohio 20 George W. Crouse Republican 1886 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican Hold
Ohio 21 Martin A. Foran Democratic 1882 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.

OregonEdit

PennsylvaniaEdit

Rhode IslandEdit

South CarolinaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
South Carolina 1 Samuel Dibble Democratic 1882 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Samuel Dibble (Democratic) 86.7%
  • S. W. McKinlay (Republican) 13.1%
  • Others 0.2%
South Carolina 2 George D. Tillman Democratic 1878 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y George D. Tillman (Democratic) 86.8%
  • Seymour E. Smith (Republican) 11.4%
  • Others 1.8%
South Carolina 3 James S. Cothran Democratic 1886 Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 4 William H. Perry Democratic 1884 Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 5 John J. Hemphill Democratic 1882 Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 6 George W. Dargan Democratic 1882 Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 7 William Elliott Democratic 1884 Incumbent re-elected.

In the 7th district, Elliott was initially declared re-elected, but Miller successfully challenged the election and was seated in his place in September 1890.

TennesseeEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Tennessee 1 Roderick R. Butler Republican 1886 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
  •  Y Alfred A. Taylor (Republican) 60.33%
  • David P. Wilcox (Democratic) 38.20%
  • James M. Pierce (Prohibition) 1.47%[13]
Tennessee 2 Leonidas C. Houk Republican 1878 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Leonidas C. Houk (Republican) 68.80%
  • Samuel G. Heiskell (Democratic) 28.98%
  • James A. Ruble (Prohibition) 2.22%[14]
Tennessee 3 John R. Neal Democratic 1884 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
  •  Y Henry C. Evans (Republican) 49.99%
  • Creed F. Bates (Democratic) 49.22%
  • M. D. Cone (Prohibition) 0.79%[15]
Tennessee 4 Benton McMillin Democratic 1878 Incumbent re-elected.
Tennessee 5 James D. Richardson Democratic 1884 Incumbent re-elected.
Tennessee 6 Joseph E. Washington Democratic 1886 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Joseph E. Washington (Democratic) 57.20%
  • William H. Young (Republican) 38.26%
  • Louis G. Mumford (Prohibition) 4.54%[18]
Tennessee 7 Washington C. Whitthorne Democratic 1886 Incumbent re-elected.
Tennessee 8 Benjamin A. Enloe Democratic 1886 Incumbent re-elected.
Tennessee 9 Presley T. Glass Democratic 1884 Incumbent lost renomination.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Tennessee 10 James Phelan Jr. Democratic 1886 Incumbent re-elected.

TexasEdit

Utah TerritoryEdit

See Non-voting delegates, below.

VermontEdit

VirginiaEdit

Washington TerritoryEdit

See Non-voting delegates, below.

West VirginiaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
West Virginia 1 Nathan Goff Jr. Republican 1882 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Election successfully contested.
New member seated February 26, 1890.
Republican hold.
West Virginia 2 William L. Wilson Democratic 1882 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y William L. Wilson (Democratic) 50.11%
  • W. H. Flick (Republican) 49.19%
  • Frank Burt (Prohibition) 0.46%
  • S. W. Sturm (Labor) 0.24%[25]
West Virginia 3 Charles P. Snyder Democratic 1883 (special) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
  •  Y John D. Alderson (Democratic) 50.51%
  • James H. McGinnis (Republican) 46.44%
  • W. D. Sanford (Independent) 2.24%
  • C. W. Henson (Prohibition) 0.80%[26]
West Virginia 4 Charles E. Hogg Democratic 1886 Incumbent lost renomination.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Election successfully contested.
New member seated February 3, 1890.
Republican gain.

WisconsinEdit

Wisconsin elected nine members of congress on Election Day, November 6, 1888.[28][29]

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Wisconsin 1 Lucien B. Caswell Republican 1884 Incumbent re-elected.
Wisconsin 2 Richard W. Guenther Republican 1886 Incumbent declined re-nomination.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Wisconsin 3 Robert M. La Follette Republican 1884 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Robert M. La Follette (Republican) 50.0%
  • John B. Parkinson (Democratic) 42.3%
  • Thomas C. Richmond (Prohibition) 7.0%
  • C. D. Wooster (Labor) 7.0%
Wisconsin 4 Henry Smith Labor 1886 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Wisconsin 5 Thomas R. Hudd Democratic 1886
Special
Incumbent lost re-nomination.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Wisconsin 6 Charles B. Clark Republican 1886 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Charles B. Clark (Republican) 52.5%
  • Charles W. Felger (Democratic) 41.5%
  • W. S. Sweet (Prohibition) 3.6%
  • Peter A. Griffith (Labor) 2.4%
Wisconsin 7 Ormsby B. Thomas Republican 1884 Incumbent re-elected.
Wisconsin 8 Nils P. Haugen Republican 1887 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Nils P. Haugen (Republican) 57.0%
  • Samuel C. Johnson (Democrat-Labor) 34.9%
  • Charles Alexander (Prohibition) 7.8%
  • Dan C. Johnson (Write-in) 0.2%
Wisconsin 9 Isaac Stephenson Republican 1882 Incumbent declined re-nomination.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
  •  Y Myron H. McCord (Republican) 50.5%
  • H. W. Early (Democratic) 44.0%
  • A. C. Merryman (Prohibition) 0.1%
  • John F. Moore (Labor) 0.1%
  • F. H. Moore (Write-in) 0.2%

Wyoming TerritoryEdit

See Non-voting delegates, below.

Non-voting delegatesEdit

District Incumbent This race
Delegate Party First elected Results Candidates
Arizona Territory at-large
Idaho Territory at-large Fred Dubois Republican 1886 Incumbent re-elected.
Montana Territory at-large Joseph K. Toole Democratic 1884 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
New Mexico Territory at-large
Utah Territory at-large
Washington Territory at-large
Wyoming Territory at-large Joseph M. Carey Republican 1884 Incumbent re-elected.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Regulars only, not including Specials.
  2. ^ a b Includes late elections.
  3. ^ a b There are significant discrepancies between the party counts provided by Martis (pp. 142–43) and Dubin (p. 285) in regards to the 51st Congress, mainly due to the fact that Martis counts the results of many later contested elections (which were generally decided in favor of the challenging Republican candidate, resulting in the unseating of a number of Democratic members). Dubin records 169 Republicans and 161 Democrats on the first day of the 1st session of the 51st Congress; Dubin reports 177 Republicans, 154 Democrats, and one Labor Party member at the start of the 2nd session of the 51st Congress, figures that nearly match Martis' numbers.
  4. ^ Including 2 Independent Republicans, John Alexander Anderson elected to Kansas's 5th congressional district, and Albert R. Anderson to Iowa's 8th congressional district.
  5. ^ There was 1 labor member.
  6. ^ After a contested election, Lewis P. Featherstone of the Labor Party was declared the winner in Arkansas's 1st congressional district.
  7. ^ Previous election had 1 Greenback Party Representative.
  8. ^ a b c Elections held early.
  9. ^ Previous election had 1 Independent.
  10. ^ At-large seat eliminated in redistricting.
  11. ^ a b Previous election had 1 Labor Party member.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e Martis, pp. 142–143.
  2. ^ "MS - District 01". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
  3. ^ "MS - District 02". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
  4. ^ "MS - District 03". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
  5. ^ "MS - District 04". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
  6. ^ "MS - District 05". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
  7. ^ "MS - District 06". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
  8. ^ "MS - District 07". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
  9. ^ "Our Campaigns - NE - District 01 Race - Nov 6, 1888". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved 25 September 2021.
  10. ^ "Our Campaigns - NE - District 02 Race - Nov 6, 1888". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved 25 September 2021.
  11. ^ "Our Campaigns - NE - District 03 Race - Nov 6, 1888". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved 25 September 2021.
  12. ^ Smith, Joseph P, ed. (1898). History of the Republican Party in Ohio. I. Chicago: the Lewis Publishing Company. pp. 567, 568.
  13. ^ "TN - District 01". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 25 February 2021.
  14. ^ "TN - District 02". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 25 February 2021.
  15. ^ "TN - District 03". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 25 February 2021.
  16. ^ "TN - District 04". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 25 February 2021.
  17. ^ "TN - District 05". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 25 February 2021.
  18. ^ "TN - District 06". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 25 February 2021.
  19. ^ "TN - District 07". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 25 February 2021.
  20. ^ "TN - District 08". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 25 February 2021.
  21. ^ "TN - District 09". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 25 February 2021.
  22. ^ "TN - District 10". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 25 February 2021.
  23. ^ "WV District 01". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 18 April 2021.
  24. ^ "WV District 01 Recount". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 18 April 2021.
  25. ^ "WV District 02". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 18 April 2021.
  26. ^ "WV District 03". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 18 April 2021.
  27. ^ "WV District 04". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 18 April 2021.
  28. ^ "Wisconsin U.S. House Election Results" (PDF). Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 5, 2012. Retrieved November 19, 2021 – via Wayback Machine.
  29. ^ Timme, Ernst G., ed. (1889). "Biographical" (PDF). The Blue Book of the State of Wisconsin (Report). Madison, Wisconsin: State of Wisconsin. pp. 487–489. Retrieved November 21, 2021.
  30. ^ "ID Territorial Delegate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 4 April 2021.
  31. ^ "Our Campaigns - MT Territorial Delegate - Final Election Race - Nov 06, 1888".
  32. ^ "WY Territorial Delegate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 11 April 2021.

BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit