Missouri's 4th congressional district

Missouri's 4th congressional district consists of west central Missouri. The district is predominantly rural and relatively conservative; George W. Bush defeated John Kerry 64% to 35% in the 2004 election and John McCain defeated Barack Obama 61% to 38% in the 2008 election. The district is currently represented by Vicky Hartzler, a Republican. She was first elected in the 2010 election, defeating 34-year Democratic incumbent Ike Skelton. It stretches from Columbia to the southern suburbs of Kansas City, including a sliver of Kansas City itself.

Missouri's 4th congressional district
Missouri US Congressional District 4 (since 2013).tif
Missouri's 4th congressional district since January 3, 2013
Representative
  Vicky Hartzler
RHarrisonville
Population (2019)775,664
Median household
income
$53,237[1]
Ethnicity
Cook PVIR+20[2]

This district had historically been a Democratic Party stronghold. Antipathy to the Republican Party had its origins in the American Civil War and the infamous General Order 11. The Union Army ordered evacuation of the county in an attempt to reduce support for and the power of bushwhacker guerrillas. After the Civil War, there was disfranchisement of white males (mostly Democrats) who had been active for the Confederacy until they took loyalty oaths, or until 1870. The area was filled with conflict between Missouri's Radicals, who joined the Republicans, and Conservatives, who were Democrats. By 1880 former secessionists dominated Missouri's congressional delegation and state legislature[citation needed].

Gradually this area developed a character similar to Yellow Dog Democrat districts in the South. Until 2010, only one Republican had been elected here since the Great Depression, and only for one term. However, several demographic trends have converged to erode the Democratic base in this district. First, as the New York Times election maps show, the predominantly rural counties lining the Missouri River have sharply trended Republican between the 2000 Senate election and the 2006 election, following trends across the South.[3]

Secondly, population losses in Kansas City resulted in the 4th gradually losing much of its share of heavily Democratic Jackson County to the Kansas City-based 5th district. As late as 1973, it included the eastern portion of Kansas City itself, and until 1983, the district stretched as far as Independence on Kansas City's eastern border. To compensate for this, large portions of heavily Republican Southwest Missouri were reassigned from the neighboring 7th district.[4] The result of these trends resulted in a dramatic collapse of Democratic support in the district. Al Gore, John Kerry, and Barack Obama won less than 40% of the vote here. It ultimately presaged Skelton's defeat by Hartzler in 2010. Since Skelton's defeat, no Democrat has managed even 40 percent of the vote.

List of members representing the districtEdit

Member Party Years Cong
ress
Electoral history
District created March 4, 1847
 
Willard P. Hall
Democratic March 4, 1847 –
March 3, 1853
30th
31st
32nd
Elected in 1846.
Re-elected in 1848.
Re-elected in 1850.
Retired.[5]
 
Mordecai Oliver
Whig March 4, 1853 –
March 3, 1855
33rd
34th
Elected in 1852.
Re-elected in 1854.
Retired.[6]
Opposition March 4, 1855 –
March 3, 1857
 
James Craig
Democratic March 4, 1857 –
March 3, 1861
35th
36th
Elected in 1856.
Re-elected in 1858.
Retired.
 
Elijah H. Norton
Democratic March 4, 1861 –
March 3, 1863
37th Elected in 1860.
Lost re-election.
 
Sempronius H. Boyd
Unconditional Unionist March 4, 1863 –
March 3, 1865
38th Elected in 1862.
Retired.[7]
 
John R. Kelso
Independent Republican March 4, 1865 –
March 3, 1867
39th Elected in 1864.
Retired.
 
Joseph J. Gravely
Republican March 4, 1867 –
March 3, 1869
40th Elected in 1866.
Retired.
 
Sempronius H. Boyd
Republican March 4, 1869 –
March 3, 1871
41st Elected in 1868.
Retired.
 
Harrison E. Havens
Republican March 4, 1871 –
March 3, 1873
42nd Elected in 1870.
Redistricted to the 6th district.
 
Robert A. Hatcher
Democratic March 4, 1873 –
March 3, 1879
43rd
44th
45th
Elected in 1872.
Re-elected in 1874.
Re-elected in 1876.
Retired.
 
Lowndes H. Davis
Democratic March 4, 1879 –
March 3, 1883
46th
47th
Elected in 1878.
Re-elected in 1880.
Redistricted to the 14th district.
 
James N. Burnes
Democratic March 4, 1883 –
January 23, 1889
48th
49th
50th
Elected in 1882.
Re-elected in 1884.
Re-elected in 1886.
Re-elected in 1888 but died before term started.
Vacant January 23, 1889 –
February 19, 1889
50th
 
Charles F. Booher
Democratic February 19, 1889 –
March 3, 1889
Elected to finish Burnes's term in the 50th Congress.
Retired.
Vacant March 4, 1889 –
December 2, 1889
51st
 
Robert P. C. Wilson
Democratic December 2, 1889 –
March 3, 1893
51st
52nd
Elected to finish Burnes's term in the 51st Congress.
Re-elected in 1890.
Retired.
 
Daniel D. Burnes
Democratic March 4, 1893 –
March 3, 1895
53rd Elected in 1892.
Retired.
 
George C. Crowther
Republican March 4, 1895 –
March 3, 1897
54th Elected in 1894.
Lost re-election.
 
Charles F. Cochran
Democratic March 4, 1897 –
March 3, 1905
55th
56th
57th
58th
Elected in 1896.
Re-elected in 1898.
Re-elected in 1900.
Re-elected in 1902.
Withdrew from renomination.
 
Frank B. Fulkerson
Republican March 4, 1905 –
March 3, 1907
59th Elected in 1904.
Lost re-election.
 
Charles F. Booher
Democratic March 4, 1907 –
January 21, 1921
60th
61st
62nd
63rd
64th
65th
66th
Elected in 1906.
Re-elected in 1908.
Re-elected in 1910.
Re-elected in 1912.
Re-elected in 1914.
Re-elected in 1916.
Re-elected in 1918.
Retired but died before term ended.
Vacant January 21, 1921 –
March 3, 1921
66th
 
Charles L. Faust
Republican March 4, 1921 –
December 17, 1928
67th
68th
69th
70th
Elected in 1920.
Re-elected in 1922.
Re-elected in 1924.
Re-elected in 1926.
Re-elected in 1928 but died before term began.
Vacant December 17, 1928 –
February 5, 1929
70th
 
David W. Hopkins
Republican February 5, 1929 –
March 3, 1933
70th
71st
72nd
Elected to finish Faust's term in the 70th Congress.
Also elected to start Faust's term in the 71st Congress.
Re-elected in 1930.
Redistricted to at-large and lost re-election.
District inactive March 4, 1933 –
January 3, 1935
73rd All representatives elected at-large on a general ticket.
 
C. Jasper Bell
Democratic January 3, 1935 –
January 3, 1949
74th
75th
76th
77th
78th
79th
80th
Elected in 1934.
Re-elected in 1936.
Re-elected in 1938.
Re-elected in 1940.
Re-elected in 1942.
Re-elected in 1944.
Re-elected in 1946.
Retired.
 
Leonard Irving
Democratic January 3, 1949 –
January 3, 1953
81st
82nd
Elected in 1948.
Re-elected in 1950.
Lost re-election.
 
Jeffrey P. Hillelson
Republican January 3, 1953 –
January 3, 1955
83rd Elected in 1952.
Lost re-election.
 
George H. Christopher
Democratic January 3, 1955 –
January 23, 1959
84th
85th
86th
Elected in 1954.
Re-elected in 1956.
Re-elected in 1958.
Died.
Vacant January 23, 1959 –
March 3, 1959
86th
 
William J. Randall
Democratic March 3, 1959 –
January 3, 1977
86th
87th
88th
89th
90th
91st
92nd
93rd
94th
Elected to finish Christopher's term.
Re-elected in 1960.
Re-elected in 1962.
Re-elected in 1964.
Re-elected in 1966.
Re-elected in 1968.
Re-elected in 1970.
Re-elected in 1972.
Re-elected in 1974.
Retired.
 
Ike Skelton
Democratic January 3, 1977 –
January 3, 2011
95th
96th
97th
98th
99th
100th
101st
102nd
103rd
104th
105th
106th
107th
108th
109th
110th
111th
Elected in 1976.
Re-elected in 1978.
Re-elected in 1980.
Re-elected in 1982.
Re-elected in 1984.
Re-elected in 1986.
Re-elected in 1988.
Re-elected in 1990.
Re-elected in 1992.
Re-elected in 1994.
Re-elected in 1996.
Re-elected in 1998.
Re-elected in 2000.
Re-elected in 2002.
Re-elected in 2004.
Re-elected in 2006.
Re-elected in 2008.
Lost re-election.
 
Vicky Hartzler
Republican January 3, 2011 –
present
112th
113th
114th
115th
116th
117th
Elected in 2010.
Re-elected in 2012.
Re-elected in 2014.
Re-elected in 2016.
Re-elected in 2018.
Re-elected in 2020.
Retiring to run for U.S. senator.

Election ResultsEdit

2010 ElectionEdit

Missouri's 4th district general election, November 2, 2010
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Vicky Hartzler 113,489 50.43%
Democratic Ike Skelton (Incumbent) 101,532 45.11%
Libertarian Jason Michael Braun 6,123 2.72%
Constitution Greg Cowan 3,912 1.74%
Total votes 225,056 100.00%

2012 ElectionEdit

Missouri 4th Congressional District 2012
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Vicky Hartzler (Incumbent) 192,237 60.3
Democratic Teresa Hensley 113,120 35.5%
Libertarian Bill Slantz 10,407 3.3%
Constitution Greg Cowan 2,959 0.5%
Total votes 318,723 100.0%

2014 ElectionEdit

Missouri's 4th Congressional District, 2014
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Vicky Hartzler (Incumbent) 120,014 68.08%
Democratic Nate Irvin 46,464 26.36%
Libertarian Herschel L. Young 9,793 5.56%
Write-In Gregory A Cowan 15 0.01%
Total votes 176,286 100%
Republican hold

2016 ElectionEdit

Missouri’s 4th congressional district election, 2016
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Vicky Hartzler (incumbent) 225,348 67.83%
Democratic Gordon Christensen 92,510 27.85%
Libertarian Mark Bliss 14,376 4.33%
Total votes 332,234 100%
Republican hold

2018 ElectionEdit

Missouri’s 4th congressional district election, 2018
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Vicky Hartzler (incumbent) 190,138 64.8%
Democratic Renee Hoagenson 95,968 32.7%
Libertarian Mark Bliss 7,210 2.5%
Total votes 293,316 100%
Republican hold

2020 ElectionEdit

Missouri's 4th congressional district, 2020[8]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Vicky Hartzler (incumbent) 245,247 67.6
Democratic Lindsey Simmons 107,635 29.7
Libertarian Steven K. Koonse 9,954 2.7
Total votes 362,836 100.0
Republican hold

CountiesEdit

There is a total of 24 counties included in MO-04.

Election results from presidential racesEdit

Year Office Results Political parties that won the district
2000 President George W. Bush 58 - Al Gore 40% Republican Party (United States)
2004 President George W. Bush 64 - John Kerry 35% Republican Party (United States)
2008 President John McCain 61 - Barack Obama 38% Republican Party (United States)
2012 President Mitt Romney 61 - Barack Obama 36% Republican Party (United States)
2016 President Donald Trump 65 - Hillary Clinton 29% Republican Party (United States)
2020 President Donald Trump 66 - Joe Biden 32% Republican Party (United States)

2008 Presidential Election Results by CountyEdit

The table below shows how individual counties in MO-04 voted in the 2008 presidential election. U.S. Senator John McCain (R-Arizona) won every single county in MO-04 and swept the district with 60.58 percent of the vote while U.S. Senator Barack Obama (D-Illinois) received 37.87 percent, a 22.71-percent margin of victory for the GOP.

County John McCain Barack Obama Difference
Barton 74.21 24.46 R + 49.75
Dade 69.65 28.79 R + 40.86
Moniteau 67.02 31.27 R + 35.75
Laclede 66.62 31.97 R + 34.65
Cedar 66.01 32.42 R + 33.59
Polk 65.39 33.24 R + 32.15
Dallas 63.71 34.57 R + 29.14
Webster 63.77 34.76 R + 29.01
Pulaski 63.68 34.99 R + 28.69
Camden 63.59 35.12 R + 28.47
Cole 62.94 36.03 R + 26.91
Pettis 60.51 38.07 R + 22.44
Benton 60.20 37.93 R + 22.27
Vernon 60.08 38.08 R + 22.00
St. Clair 59.76 37.81 R + 21.95
Morgan 59.58 38.97 R + 20.61
Cass 59.18 39.55 R + 19.63
Bates 58.35 39.49 R + 18.86
Lafayette 56.88 41.58 R + 15.30
Hickory 55.72 42.44 R + 13.28
Johnson 55.18 42.93 R + 12.25
Henry 54.62 43.63 R + 10.99
Ray 50.60 47.42 R + 3.18
Saline 50.39 47.85 R + 2.54

2008 Missouri Democratic Presidential Primary Election Results by CountyEdit

The table below shows how individual counties in MO-04 voted in the 2008 Missouri Democratic Presidential Primary. Former U.S. Senator Hillary Rodham Clinton (D-New York) swept the district by a convincing margin over U.S. Senator Barack Obama (D-Illinois). Clinton won every county in the district with the exception of Cole County, home of the State Capitol.

County Hillary Clinton Barack Obama Difference
Benton 68.77 26.95 C + 41.82
St. Clair 67.52 26.12 C + 41.40
Hickory 67.95 27.86 C + 40.09
Ray 65.29 30.31 C + 34.98
Bates 63.51 30.08 C + 33.43
Dallas 63.75 32.01 C + 31.74
Henry 63.18 32.10 C + 31.08
Barton 63.43 32.85 C + 30.58
Polk 63.81 33.28 C + 30.53
Vernon 61.55 31.42 C + 30.13
Dade 62.22 33.12 C + 29.10
Laclede 62.48 33.77 C + 28.71
Morgan 62.05 33.58 C + 28.47
Cedar 60.30 33.00 C + 27.30
Webster 61.20 34.46 C + 26.74
Lafayette 60.75 35.40 C + 25.35
Moniteau 60.38 36.38 C + 24.00
Cass 59.76 36.73 C + 23.03
Saline 57.46 37.85 C + 19.61
Camden 57.99 38.75 C + 19.24
Pulaski 56.07 39.35 C + 16.72
Pettis 54.76 41.38 C + 13.38
Johnson 53.22 43.07 C + 10.15
Cole 45.07 51.16 O + 6.09

Historical district boundariesEdit

 
2003 - 2013

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "My Congressional District".
  2. ^ "Introducing the 2021 Cook Political Report Partisan Voter Index". The Cook Political Report. April 15, 2021. Retrieved April 15, 2021.
  3. ^ "Senate Races". The New York Times.
  4. ^ "Public Interest Guide to Redistricting".
  5. ^ "Willard Preble Hall, 1864-1865". Missouri Digital Heritage. Retrieved December 26, 2020.
  6. ^ "Mordecai Oliver". Find a Grave. Retrieved December 26, 2020.
  7. ^ "Sempronius Hamilton Boyd". Find a Grave. Retrieved December 26, 2020.
  8. ^ "All Results State of Missouri - State of Missouri - General Election, November 03, 2020". Missouri Secretary of State. Retrieved December 9, 2020.
  9. ^ https://ballotpedia.org/Missouri%27s_4th_Congressional_District

Coordinates: 38°16′57″N 93°19′08″W / 38.28250°N 93.31889°W / 38.28250; -93.31889