Columbia // is a city in Missouri and the county seat of Boone County. Founded in 1821, it is home to the University of Missouri and is the principal city of the Columbia metropolitan area. It is Missouri's fourth most-populous and fastest growing city, with an estimated 121,717 residents in 2017.
|Nickname(s): "Athens of Missouri", or CoMo|
Location in Boone County and the state of Missouri
|• Mayor||Brian Treece|
|• City manager||Mike Matthes|
|• City||63.5 sq mi (164 km2)|
|• Land||63.08 sq mi (163.4 km2)|
|• Water||.42 sq mi (1.1 km2)|
|Elevation||758 ft (231 m)|
|• Estimate (2017)||121,717|
|• Density||1,700/sq mi (660/km2)|
|• Urban||124,748 (US: 255th)|
|• Metro||178,271 (US: 237th)|
|Time zone||CST (UTC-6)|
|• Summer (DST)||CDT (UTC-5)|
|ZIP Codes||65201, 65202, 65203, 65211|
|GNIS feature ID||0716133|
As a Midwestern college town, the city has a reputation for progressive politics, persuasive journalism, and public art. The tripartite establishment of Stephens College (1833), the University of Missouri (1839), and Columbia College (1851), which surround the city's central business district to the east, south, and north, has made Columbia a center of learning. At the center of Downtown is 8th Street, also known as the Avenue of the Columns, which connects Francis Quadrangle and Jesse Hall to the Boone County Courthouse and the City Hall. Originally an agricultural town, the cultivation of the mind is Columbia's chief economic concern today. Never a major center of manufacturing, the city also depends on healthcare, insurance, and technology businesses. Companies such as Shelter Insurance, Carfax, and Slackers CDs and Games, were founded in the city. Cultural institutions include the State Historical Society of Missouri, the Museum of Art and Archaeology, and the annual True/False Film Festival. The Missouri Tigers, the state's only major college athletic program, play football at Faurot Field and basketball at Mizzou Arena as members of the rigorous Southeastern Conference.
The city rests upon the forested hills and rolling prairies of Mid-Missouri, near the Missouri River valley, where the Ozark Mountains begin to transform into plains and savanna. Limestone forms bluffs and glades while rain dissolves the bedrock, creating caves and springs which water the Hinkson, Roche Perche, and Bonne Femme creeks. Surrounding the city, Rock Bridge Memorial State Park, Mark Twain National Forest, and Big Muddy National Fish and Wildlife Refuge form a greenbelt preserving sensitive and rare environments.
The first humans, who entered the area at least twelve thousand years ago, were nomadic hunters. Later, woodland tribes lived in villages along waterways and built mounds in high places. The Osage and Missouria nations were expelled by the exploration of French traders and the rapid settlement of American pioneers. The latter arrived by the Boone's Lick Road and hailed from the slave-owning culture of the Upland South, especially Virginia, Kentucky, and Tennessee, giving Boonslick the name "Little Dixie" during the American Civil War. German, Irish, and other European immigrants soon joined. The modern populace is unusually diverse, over eight percent foreign-born. While White and Black remain the largest ethnicities, people of Asian descent are now the third-largest group. The city has been called the "Athens of Missouri" for its classic beauty and educational emphasis, but is more commonly called "CoMo".
Columbia's origins begin with the settlement of American pioneers from Kentucky and Virginia in an early 1800s region known as the Boonslick. Before 1815 settlement in the region was confined to small log forts because of the threat of Native American attack during the War of 1812. When the war ended settlers came on foot, horseback, and wagon, often moving entire households along the Boone's Lick Road and sometimes bringing enslaved African Americans. By 1818 it was clear that the increased population would necessitate a new county be created from territorial Howard County. The Moniteau Creek on the west and Cedar Creek on the east were obvious natural boundaries.
Believing it was only a matter of time before a county seat was chosen, the Smithton Land Company was formed to purchase over 2,000 acres (8.1 km2) to established the village of Smithton near the present-day intersection of Walnut and Garth. In 1819 Smithton was a small cluster of log cabins in an ancient forest of oak and hickory; chief among them was the cabin of Richard Gentry, a trustee of the Smithton Company who would become first mayor of Columbia. In 1820 Boone County was formed and named after the recently deceased explorer Daniel Boone. The Missouri Legislature appointed John Gray, Jefferson Fulcher, Absalom Hicks, Lawrence Bass, and David Jackson as commissioners to select and establish a permanent county seat. Smithton never had more than twenty people, and it was quickly realized that well digging was difficult because of the bedrock.
Springs were discovered across the Flat Branch Creek, so in the Spring of 1821 Columbia was laid off and the inhabitants of Smithton moved their cabins to the new town. The first house in Columbia was built by Thomas Duly in 1820 at what would become Fifth and Broadway. Columbia's permanence was ensured when it was chosen as county seat in 1821 and the Boone's Lick Road was rerouted down Broadway.
The roots of Columbia's three economic foundations—education, medicine, and insurance— can be traced to the city's incorporation in 1821. Original plans for the town set aside land for a state university. In 1833, Columbia Baptist Female College opened, which later became Stephens College. Columbia College, distinct from today's and later to become the University of Missouri, was founded in 1839. When the state legislature decided to establish a state university, Columbia raised three times as much money as any competing city, and James S. Rollins donated the land that is today the Francis Quadrangle. Soon other educational institutions were founded in Columbia, such as Christian Female College, the first college for women west of the Mississippi, which later became Columbia College.
The city benefited from being a stagecoach stop of the Santa Fe and Oregon trails, and later from the Missouri–Kansas–Texas Railroad. In 1822, William Jewell set up the first hospital. In 1830, the first newspaper began; in 1832, the first theater in the state was opened; and in 1835, the state's first agricultural fair was held. By 1839, the population of 13,000 and wealth of Boone County was exceeded in Missouri only by that of St. Louis County, which, at that time, included the City of St. Louis.
Columbia's infrastructure was relatively untouched by the Civil War. As a slave state, Missouri had many residents with Southern sympathies, but it stayed in the Union. The majority of the city was pro-Union; however, the surrounding agricultural areas of Boone County and the rest of central Missouri were decidedly pro-Confederate. Because of this, the University of Missouri became a base from which Union troops operated. No battles were fought within the city because the presence of Union troops dissuaded Confederate guerrillas from attacking, though several major battles occurred at nearby Boonville and Centralia.
After Reconstruction, race relations in Columbia followed the Southern pattern of increasing violence of whites against blacks in efforts to suppress voting and free movement: George Burke, a black man who worked at the university, was lynched in 1889. In the spring of 1923, James T. Scott, an African-American janitor at the University of Missouri, was arrested on allegations of raping a university professor's daughter. He was taken from the county jail and lynched on April 29 before a white mob of several hundred, hanged from the Old Stewart Road Bridge.
In the 21st century, a number of efforts have been undertaken to recognize Scott's death. In 2010 his death certificate was changed to reflect that he was never tried or convicted of charges, and that he had been lynched. In 2011 a headstone was put at his grave at Columbia Cemetery; it includes his wife's and parents' names and dates, to provide a fuller account of his life. In 2016, a marker was erected at the lynching site to memorialize Scott.
In 1963, University of Missouri System and the Columbia College system established their headquarters in Columbia. The insurance industry also became important to the local economy as several companies established headquarters in Columbia, including Shelter Insurance, Missouri Employers Mutual, and Columbia Insurance Group. State Farm Insurance has a regional office in Columbia. In addition, the now-defunct Silvey Insurance was a large local employer.
Columbia became a transportation crossroads when U.S. Route 63 and U.S. Route 40 (which was improved as present-day Interstate 70) were routed through the city. Soon after, the city opened the Columbia Regional Airport. By 2000, the city's population was nearly 85,000.
Columbia, in northern mid-Missouri, is 120 miles (190 km) away from both St. Louis and Kansas City, and 29 miles (47 km) north of the state capital of Jefferson City. The city is near the Missouri River, between the Ozark Plateau and the Northern Plains.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 63.5 square miles (164.46 km2) of which 63.08 square miles (163.38 km2) is land and 0.42 square miles (1.09 km2) is water.
The city generally slopes from the highest point in the Northeast to the lowest point in the Southwest towards the Missouri River. Prominent tributaries of the river are Perche Creek, Hinkson Creek, and Flat Branch Creek. Along these and other creeks in the area can be found large valleys, cliffs, and cave systems such as that in Rock Bridge State Park just south of the city. These creeks are largely responsible for numerous stream valleys giving Columbia hilly terrain similar to the Ozarks while also having prairie flatland typical of northern Missouri. Columbia also operates several greenbelts with trails and parks throughout town.
Large mammals found in the city include urbanized coyotes, red foxes, and numerous whitetail deer. Eastern gray squirrel, and other rodents are abundant, as well as cottontail rabbits and the nocturnal opossum and raccoon. Large bird species are abundant in parks and include the Canada goose, mallard duck, as well as shorebirds, including the great egret and great blue heron. Turkeys are also common in wooded areas and can occasionally be seen on the MKT recreation trail. Populations of bald eagles are found by the Missouri River. The city is on the Mississippi Flyway, used by migrating birds, and has a large variety of small bird species, common to the eastern U.S. The Eurasian tree sparrow, an introduced species, is limited in North America to the counties surrounding St. Louis. Columbia has large areas of forested and open land and many of these areas are home to wildlife.
Columbia has a humid continental climate (Köppen Dfa) marked by sharp seasonal contrasts in temperature, and is in USDA Plant Hardiness Zone 6a. The monthly daily average temperature ranges from 29.7 °F (−1.3 °C) in January to 77.3 °F (25.2 °C) in July, while the high reaches or exceeds 90 °F (32 °C) on an average of 32 days per year, 100 °F (38 °C) on two days, while four nights of sub-0 °F (−18 °C) lows can be expected. Precipitation tends to be greatest and most frequent in the latter half of spring, when severe weather is also most common. Snow averages 18.0 inches (46 cm) per season, mostly from December to March, with occasional November accumulation and falls in April being rarer; historically seasonal snow accumulation has ranged from 3.4 in (8.6 cm) in 2005–06 to 54.9 in (139 cm) in 1977–78. Extreme temperatures have ranged from −26 °F (−32 °C) on February 12, 1899 to 113 °F (45 °C) on July 12 and 14, 1954. Readings of −10 °F (−23 °C) or 105 °F (41 °C) are uncommon, the last occurrences being January 7, 2014 and July 31, 2012.
|Climate data for Columbia Regional Airport, Missouri (1981–2010 normals,[a] extremes 1889–present)[b]|
|Record high °F (°C)||77
|Mean maximum °F (°C)||61.9
|Average high °F (°C)||38.5
|Average low °F (°C)||20.9
|Mean minimum °F (°C)||0.3
|Record low °F (°C)||−20
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||1.92
|Average snowfall inches (cm)||6.1
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||7.7||8.0||10.6||10.8||12.5||9.7||8.8||8.6||8.1||9.5||9.7||8.4||112.4|
|Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||3.6||3.3||1.3||0.2||0||0||0||0||0||0||1.0||2.5||11.9|
|Average relative humidity (%)||71.2||71.5||67.3||63.9||70.9||71.3||69.5||70.8||71.7||69.4||71.8||74.0||70.3|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||161.5||154.3||193.5||226.9||264.1||294.1||313.4||288.5||229.1||210.7||150.6||140.3||2,627|
|Percent possible sunshine||53||51||52||57||60||66||69||68||61||61||50||48||59|
|Source: NOAA (relative humidity 1969–1990, sun 1961–1990)|
Columbia's most significant and well-known architecture is in buildings downtown and within the university campuses. The University of Missouri's Jesse Hall and the neo-gothic Memorial Union have become icons of the city. The David R. Francis Quadrangle is an example of Thomas Jefferson's academic village concept.
Four historic districts within the city are listed on the National Register of Historic Places: Downtown Columbia, the East Campus Neighborhood, Francis Quadrangle, and the North Ninth Street Historic District. The downtown skyline is relatively low and is dominated by the 10-story Tiger Hotel, which was built in 1928 before the Stock Market Crash, and the 15-story Paquin Tower.
Downtown Columbia is an area of approximately one square mile surrounded by the University of Missouri on the south, Stephens College to the east, and Columbia College on the north. The area serves as Columbia's financial and business district.
Since the early 21st century, a large number of high-rise apartment complexes have been built in downtown Columbia. Many of these buildings also offer mixed-use business and retail space on the lower levels. These developments have not been without criticism, with some expressing concern the buildings hurt the historic feel of the area, or that the city does not yet have the infrastructure to support them.
The city's historic residential core lies in a ring around downtown, extending especially to the west along Broadway, and south into the East Campus Neighborhood. The city government recognizes 63 neighborhood associations. The city's most dense commercial areas are primarily along Interstate 70, U.S. Route 63, Stadium Boulevard, Grindstone Parkway, and Downtown.
|For the year 1850, slaves and free minorites were not counted.|
U.S. Decennial Census
As of the census of 2010, 108,500 people, 43,065 households, and 21,418 families resided in the city. The population density was 1,720.0 inhabitants per square mile (664.1/km2). There were 46,758 housing units at an average density of 741.2 per square mile (286.2/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 79.0% White, 11.3% African American, 0.3% Native American, 5.2% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.1% from other races, and 3.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.4% of the population.
There were 43,065 households of which 26.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.6% were married couples living together, 10.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.5% had a male householder with no wife present, and 50.3% were non-families. 32.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.94.
In the city the population was spread out with 18.8% of residents under the age of 18; 27.3% between the ages of 18 and 24; 26.7% from 25 to 44; 18.6% from 45 to 64; and 8.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age in the city was 26.8 years. The gender makeup of the city was 48.3% male and 51.7% female.
As of the census of 2000, there were 84,531 people, 33,689 households, and 17,282 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,592.8 people per square mile (615.0/km²). There were 35,916 housing units at an average density of 676.8 per square mile (261.3/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 81.54% White, 10.85% Black or African American, 0.39% Native American, 4.30% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.81% from other races, and 2.07% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.05% of the population.
There were 33,689 households out of which 26.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.2% were married couples living together, 10.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 48.7% were non-families. 33.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.26 and the average family size was 2.92.
In the city, the population was spread out with 19.7% under the age of 18, 26.7% from 18 to 24, 28.7% from 25 to 44, 16.2% from 45 to 64, and 8.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 27 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.1 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $33,729, and the median income for a family was $52,288. Males had a median income of $34,710 versus $26,694 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,507. About 9.4% of families and 19.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.8% of those under age 18 and 5.2% of those age 65 or over.
Columbia's economy is historically dominated by education, healthcare, and the insurance industry. Jobs in government are also common, either in Columbia or a half-hour south in Jefferson City. Commutes into the city are also common and, in 2000, the city had a day time population of 106,487—a 26% increase over the census population of the same year. The Columbia Regional Airport and the Missouri River Port of Rocheport connect the region with trade and transportation.
The economy of Columbia's metro area is slightly larger than the Bahamas. With a Gross Metropolitan Product of $5.84 billion in 2004, Columbia's economy makes up 2.9% of the Gross State Product of Missouri. Insurance corporations headquartered in Columbia include Shelter Insurance, and the Columbia Insurance Group. Other organizations include Veterans United Home Loans, MFA Incorporated, the Missouri State High School Activities Association, and MFA Oil. Companies such as Socket, Datastorm Technologies, Inc. (no longer existent), Slackers CDs and Games, Carfax, and MBS Textbook Exchange were founded in Columbia.
According to Columbia's 2017 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the city are:
|#||Employer||# of Employees|
|1||University of Missouri||8,706|
|2||University of Missouri Health Care||4,600|
|3||Columbia Public Schools||2,517|
|4||Veterans United Home Loans||1,742|
|5||City of Columbia||1,487|
|6||Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans' Hospital||1,341|
|7||Boone Hospital Center||1,220|
|9||Joe Machens Dealerships||882|
|10||MBS Textbook Exchange||827|
The Missouri Theatre Center for the Arts and Jesse Auditorium are Columbia's largest fine arts venues. Ragtag Cinema annually hosts the True/False Film Festival. In 2008, filmmaker Todd Sklar completed Box Elder, which was filmed entirely in and around Columbia and the University of Missouri.
The University of Missouri's Museum of Art and Archaeology displays 14,000 works of art and archaeological objects in five galleries for no charge to the public. Libraries include the Columbia Public Library, the University of Missouri Libraries, with over three million volumes in Ellis Library, and the State Historical Society of Missouri. One of the last remaining traditional arcades in the country, Gunther's Games, is a popular destination for gamers.
The "We Always Swing" Jazz Series and the Roots N Blues N BBQ Festival is held in Columbia. "9th Street Summerfest" (Now hosted in Rose Park at Rose Music Hall) closes part of that street several nights each summer to hold outdoor performances and has featured Willie Nelson (2009), Snoop Dogg (2010), The Flaming Lips (2010), Weird Al Yankovic (2013), and others. The "University Concert Series" regularly includes musicians and dancers from various genres, typically in Jesse Hall. Other musical venues in town include the Missouri Theatre, the University's multipurpose Hearnes Center, The Blue Note, and Rose Music Hall. Shelter Gardens, a park on the campus of Shelter Insurance headquarters, also hosts outdoor performances during the summer.
Among many non-profit organizations for classical music are included the "Odyssey Chamber Music Series", "Missouri Symphony Society" and "Columbia Civic Orchestra". Founded in 2006, the "Plowman Chamber Music Competition" is a biennial competition held in March/April of odd-numbered years, considered to be one of the finest, top five chamber music competitions in the nation.
The post-hardcore band Mocklove formed in Columbia in 2015.
The University of Missouri's sports teams, the Missouri Tigers, play a significant role in the city's sports culture. Faurot Field at Memorial Stadium, which has a capacity of 71,168, hosts home football games. The Hearnes Center and Mizzou Arena are two other large sport and event venues, the latter being the home arena for Mizzou's basketball team. Taylor Stadium is host to their baseball team and was the regional host for the 2007 NCAA Baseball Championship. Columbia College has several men and women collegiate sports teams as well. In 2007, Columbia hosted the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics Volleyball National Championship, which the Lady Cougars participated in.
Situated midway between St. Louis and Kansas City, Columbians will often have allegiances to the professional sports teams housed there, such as the St. Louis Cardinals, the Kansas City Royals, the Kansas City Chiefs, the St. Louis Blues and Sporting Kansas City.
The city has two daily newspapers: the Columbia Missourian and the Columbia Daily Tribune, both morning deliveries. The Missourian is directed by professional editors and staffed by Missouri School of Journalism students who do reporting, design, copy editing, information graphics, photography and multimedia. The Missourian publishes the weekly city magazine, Vox. With a daily circulation of nearly 20,000, the Daily Tribune is the most widely read newspaper in central Missouri. The University of Missouri has the independent but official student newspaper called The Maneater, which is printed bi-weekly. The now-defunct Prysms Weekly was also published in Columbia. In Fall 2009, KCOU News launched full operations out of KCOU 88.1 FM on the MU Campus. The entirely student-run news organization airs a daily newscast, "The Pulse", weekdays from 4:30 to 5:30 p.m.
The city has 14 radio stations and 4 television channels. Columbia’s Public Access channel, Columbia Access Television, is commonly referred to by its acronym, CAT, or CAT-TV. The Education Access channel in Columbia, CPSTV, is managed by Columbia Public Schools as a function of the Columbia Public Schools Community Relations Department. The city's Government Access channel broadcast City Council, Planning and Zoning Commission and Board of Adjustment meetings
Columbia has many bars and restaurants that provide diverse styles of cuisine, which is in part due to it being a college town with three colleges. One such establishment is the historic Booches bar, restaurant and pool hall, which was established in 1884 and is frequented by college students, as well as others from all walks of life.
Government and politicsEdit
The City of Columbia's current government was established by a home rule charter adopted by voters on November 11, 1974, which established a Council-manager government that invested power in the City Council. The City Council is made up of seven members – six elected by each of Columbia's six single-member districts or wards, plus an at-large council member, the Mayor, who is elected by all city voters. The Mayor receives a $9,000 annual stipend and the six remaining council members receive a $6,000 annual stipend. They are elected to staggered three-year terms. The Mayor, in addition to being a voting member of the City Council, is recognized as the head of city government for ceremonial purposes. Chief executive authority is invested in a hired city manager, who oversees the day-to-day operations of government.
Columbia is the county seat of Boone County, and houses the county court and government center. The city is in Missouri's 4th congressional district. The 19th Missouri State Senate district covers all of Boone County. There are five Missouri House of Representatives districts (9, 21, 23, 24, 25) in the city. The principal law enforcement agency is the Columbia Police Department, with the Columbia Fire Department providing fire protection. The University of Missouri Police Department patrols areas on and around the MU campus and has jurisdiction throughout the city and Boone County. The Public Service Joint Communications Center coordinates efforts between the two organizations as well as the Boone County Fire Protection District which operates Urban Search and Rescue Missouri Task Force 1.
The population generally supports progressive causes such as the extensive city recycling programs and the decriminalization of cannabis both for medical and recreational use at the municipal level (though the scope of the latter of the two cannabis ordinances has since been restricted). The city is one of only four in the state to offer medical benefits to same-sex partners of city employees. The new health plan extends health benefits to unmarried heterosexual domestic partners of city employees.
On October 10, 2006, the City Council approved an ordinance to prohibit smoking in public places, including restaurants and bars. The ordinance was passed over protest, and several amendments to the ordinance reflect this. Over half of residents possess at least a bachelor's degree, while over a quarter hold a graduate degree. Columbia is the thirteenth most highly educated municipality in the United States.
Columbia and much of the surrounding area lies within the Columbia Public School District. The district enrolls over 17,000 students and had a revenue of nearly $200 million for the 2007–2008 school year.[needs update] It is above the state average in both attendance percentage and graduation rate. The city operates four public high schools which cover grades 9–12: David H. Hickman High School, Rock Bridge High School, Muriel Battle High School, and Frederick Douglass High School. Rock Bridge is one of two Missouri high schools to receive a silver medal by U.S. News & World Report, putting it in the top 3% of all high schools in the nation. Hickman has been on Newsweek magazine's list of top 1,300 schools in the country for the past three years and has more named presidential scholars than any other public high school in the United States. There are also several private high schools including Christian Fellowship School, Columbia Independent School, Heritage Academy, Christian Chapel Academy, and Father Augustine Tolton Regional Catholic High School.
The city has three institutions of higher education: the University of Missouri, Stephens College, and Columbia College, all of which surround Downtown Columbia. The city is the headquarters of the University of Missouri System, which also operates campuses in St. Louis, Kansas City, and Rolla. Moberly Area Community College, Central Methodist University, and William Woods University also operate satellite campuses in Columbia.
The Columbia Transit provides public bus and para-transit service, and is owned and operated by the city. In 2008, 1,414,400 passengers boarded along the system's six fixed routes and nine University of Missouri shuttle routes, and 27,000 boarded the Para-transit service. The system is constantly experiencing growth in service and technology. A $3.5 million project to renovate and expand the Wabash Station, a rail depot built in 1910 and converted into the city's transit center in the mid-1980s, was completed in summer of 2007. In 2007, a Transit Master Plan was created to address the future transit needs of the city and county with a comprehensive plan to add infrastructure in three key phases. The five to 15-year plan intends to add service along the southwest, southeast and northeast sections of Columbia and develop alternative transportation models for Boone County.
Columbia is also known for its MKT Trail, a spur of the Katy Trail State Park, which allows foot and bike traffic across the city, and, conceivably, the state. It consists of a soft gravel surface for running and biking. Columbia also is preparing to embark on construction of several new bike paths and street bike lanes thanks to a $25 million grant from the federal government. The city is also served by American Airlines and United Airlines at the Columbia Regional Airport, the only commercial airport in mid-Missouri.
I-70 (concurrent with US 40) and US 63 are the two main freeways used for travel to and from Columbia. Within the city, there are also three state highways: Routes 763 (Rangeline Street & College Avenue), 163 (Providence Road), and 740 (Stadium Boulevard).
Health care is a big part of Columbia's economy, with nearly one in six people working in a health-care related profession and a physician density that is about three times the United States average. Columbia's hospitals and supporting facilities are a large referral center for the state, and medical related trips to the city are common. There are three hospital systems within the city and five hospitals with a total of 1,105 beds.
The University of Missouri Health Care operates three hospitals in Columbia: the University of Missouri Hospital, the University of Missouri Women's and Children's Hospital (formerly Columbia Regional Hospital), and the Ellis Fischel Cancer Center. Boone Hospital Center is administered by BJC Healthcare and operates several clinics as well as outpatient locations. The Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans' Hospital, next to University Hospital, is administered by the United States Department of Veterans Affairs.
There are also a large number of medical-related industries in Columbia. The University of Missouri School of Medicine uses university-owned facilities as teaching hospitals. The University of Missouri Research Reactor Center is the largest research reactor in the United States and produces radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine. The center serves as the sole supplier of the active ingredients in two U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved radiopharmaceuticals and produces Fluorine-18 used in PET imaging with its cyclotron.
In accordance with the Columbia Sister Cities Program, which operates in conjunction with Sister Cities International, Columbia has been paired with five international sister cities in an attempt to foster cross-cultural understanding:
- Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the highest and lowest temperature readings during an entire month or year) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010.
- Official records for Columbia kept at downtown from August 1889 to December 1947, Columbia Municipal Airport from January 1948 to October 1969 and at Columbia Regional Airport since November 1969.
- Switzler, William (1882). History of Boone County, Missouri. St. Louis Western Historical Company. pp. 220–221.
- "How CoMO does Halloween". The Maneater. Retrieved July 18, 2008.
- "Mayor Brian Treece - City Council".
- "Columbia, Missouri". city-data.com. Retrieved July 13, 2013.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 8, 2012.
- "About Columbia". City of Columbia, Missouri. Archived from the original on December 25, 2007. Retrieved January 1, 2008.
- "City of Columbia, Missouri Demographic Statistics" (PDF). City of Columbia, Missouri. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 1, 2007. Retrieved January 1, 2008.
- "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
- https://www.forbes.com/places/mo/columbia/ Columbia, Missouri
- "History of Columbia". Columbia Public Schools. Archived from the original on February 2, 2008. Retrieved January 1, 2008.
- "Columbia Kudos" (PDF). Columbia Regional Economic Development (REDI). Archived from the original (PDF) on February 16, 2008. Retrieved January 1, 2008.
- Switzler, William (1882). History of Boone County, Missouri. St. Louis Western Historical Company. pp. 300–310.
- Switzler, William (1882). History of Boone County, Missouri. St. Louis Western Historical Company. pp. 325–327.
- NAACP (1919). Thirty Years of Lynching in the United States, 1889–1918. NAACP. p. 80.
- Katy Bergen, "Community celebrates life of lynching victim James T. Scott", Columbia Missourian, 03 May 2011
- Ann Marion, "New plaque memorializes 1923 lynching victim James T. Scott", Missourian, 30 September 2016; accessed 15 June 2018
- "History of the University". University of Missouri System. Retrieved July 18, 2008.
- "Welcome to Columbia College". Columbia College. Retrieved July 18, 2008.
- "Solar Eclipse 2017: Here's what you need to know". Columbia Missourian. Retrieved September 7, 2017.
- "About Columbia". MU internal Medicine and Child Health. Archived from the original on October 10, 2004. Retrieved January 11, 2008.
- "Maps". Columbia Chamber of Commerce. Archived from the original on February 9, 2008. Retrieved January 11, 2008.
- "Early Settlement Rural...Ozark Frontier". National Park Service. Retrieved January 11, 2008.
- "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on July 14, 2012. Retrieved July 8, 2012.
- Unklesbay, A.G. (1952). Geology of Boone County, Missouri. Missouri Geological Survey.
- "Coyote". Missouri Department of Conservation. Archived from the original on September 28, 2006. Retrieved January 11, 2008.
- "Whitetale deer". Missouri Department of Conservation. Archived from the original on September 28, 2006. Retrieved January 11, 2008.
- "Eastern Gray Squirrel". Missouri Department of Conservation. Archived from the original on September 28, 2006. Retrieved January 11, 2008.
- "Mammals (In Missouri)". Missouri Department of Conservation. Archived from the original on February 3, 2008. Retrieved January 11, 2008.
- "USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map". planthardiness.ars.usda.gov. Agricultural Research Center, PRISM Climate Group Oregon State University. 2012. Archived from the original on February 27, 2014. Retrieved May 30, 2014.
- "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2016-09-07.
- "Station Name: MO COLUMBIA RGNL AP". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2016-09-07.
- "WMO Climate Normals for COLUMBIA/REGIONAL ARPT MO 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2014-03-11.
- "Recent Listings". National Park Service. Retrieved January 1, 2008.
- "Discover The District". The District. Archived from the original on January 22, 2008. Retrieved January 1, 2008.
- "Council candidates: City needs to address growing pains". Columbia Daily Tribune. Retrieved 19 March 2017.
- "Columbia, Missouri Neighborhood Associations" (PDF). City of Columbia. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 16, 2008. Retrieved February 16, 2008.
- United States Census Bureau. "Census of Population and Housing". Archived from the original on April 22, 2013. Retrieved May 1, 2015.
- "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Archived from the original on April 22, 2013. Retrieved June 4, 2016.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on September 11, 2013. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "Largest Employers". Columbia REDI. Archived from the original on November 2, 2006. Retrieved January 1, 2008.
- "Daytime Population" (PDF). Missouri Economic Research Center. Retrieved January 1, 2008.
- "Economies of Missouri Metros Larger than Many Countries". Missouri Economic Research and Development. Retrieved January 1, 2008.
- "The Role of Metro Areas in the U.S. Economy" (PDF). U.S. Conference of Mayors. March 2006. p. 119. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 16, 2009. Retrieved December 26, 2009.
- McCormick, Lisa Wade (October 10, 2006). "Carfax History". Consumer affairs. Retrieved January 4, 2008.
- "Collections". Museum of Art and Archaeology. Archived from the original on August 19, 2007. Retrieved January 11, 2008.
- "Gunthers Games arcade website". Retrieved August 19, 2013.
- "Jazz Series Website". Retrieved May 21, 2008.
- "Roots 'N Blues 'N Barbeque Festival Website". Retrieved May 21, 2008.
- Bland, Pete (March 19, 2009). "Willie Nelson kicking off Ninth Street Summerfest". Columbia Daily Tribune. Retrieved 19 March 2017.
- Hudnall, David (June 28, 2010). "Flaming Lips, Snoop Dogg, Ice Cube help celebrate the Blue Note's 30th anniversary". The Pitch. Retrieved 19 March 2017.
- "CoMo's ABCs: Our roundup of the most unexpected things Columbia has to offer/W". Mizzou Magazine. The Curators of the University of Missouri. February 17, 2015. Retrieved 19 March 2017.
- "Shelter Gardens". Columbia Convention and Visitors Bureau. Retrieved 19 March 2017.
- "Odyssey Chamber Music Series Website". Retrieved August 24, 2011.
- "Plowman Competition Website". Retrieved July 2, 2012.
- "2007 NCAA Division I College Baseball Regional & Super Regional Schedule & Results". NCAA. June 7, 2007. Archived from the original on July 10, 2007. Retrieved July 19, 2008.
- "NAIA Volleyball National Championship". Columbia College. Archived from the original on January 8, 2008. Retrieved January 9, 2008.
- "Show-Me State Games 2008". Show-Me State Games. Retrieved January 9, 2008.
- "Show-Me State Games – About Us". 360Columbia. Retrieved January 9, 2008.
- "Chiefs and rams fans remain dedicated despite down years". Columbia Missourian. Archived from the original on July 28, 2012. Retrieved February 12, 2009.
- "About the Missourian". Columbia Missourian. Retrieved January 11, 2008.
- "Local Media". Columbia Convention and Visitors Bureau. Archived from the original on September 22, 2007. Retrieved January 11, 2008.
- Wise, C.C. (2007). The Law School Buzz Book. Law School Buzz Book Series. Vault, Incorporated. p. 375. ISBN 978-1-58131-424-3. Retrieved 2017-11-08.
- Jarzemsky, Matt (April 18, 2008). "Pool hall popularity change over generations". Columbia Business Times. Retrieved November 7, 2017.
- "Columbia Code of Ordinances". City of Columbia. Retrieved January 1, 2008.
- Willems, Spencer (November 8, 2007). "Ideological scales: A look at Columbia's political landscape". Columbia Missourian. Archived from the original on January 11, 2008. Retrieved January 1, 2008.
- Zagier, Alan Scher (November 10, 2005). "Marijuana law gets new review". Columbia Missourian. Archived from the original on January 12, 2008. Retrieved January 1, 2008.
- Hammes, Joanie (February 21, 2006). "City Council revises pot ordinance". Columbia Missourian. Archived from the original on January 12, 2008. Retrieved January 1, 2008.
- Salazar, Anne (December 19, 2006). "Council Oks Benefits for Domestic Partners". Columbia Missourian. Archived from the original on January 12, 2008. Retrieved January 1, 2008.
- "Smoking Ban Passes". Columbia Missourian. October 10, 2006. Archived from the original on July 27, 2012. Retrieved January 1, 2008.
- "American Factfinder Columbia, Missouri". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 1, 2008.
- "Money's best places to live – most educated". Money Magazine. Archived from the original on May 11, 2012. Retrieved January 1, 2008.
- "Columbia Public Schools enrollment" (PDF). Columbia Public Schools. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 16, 2008. Retrieved January 7, 2008.
- "Columbia School District Budget" (PDF). Columbia Public Schools. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 16, 2008. Retrieved January 9, 2008.
- "School Accountability Report Card". Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education. Retrieved January 9, 2008.
- Heavin, Janese (December 3, 2007). "Rock Bridge gains national recognition". Columbia Daily Tribune. Archived from the original on December 8, 2007. Retrieved January 9, 2008.
- Braden, Jonathon. "Catholic high has a name as donations still sought". Archived from the original on March 7, 2012. Retrieved March 10, 2009.
- "Home - Public Works". Public Works.
- Latzko, Laura (October 17, 2007). "Moving Greyhound services to Wabash still a major goal for City Council". Columbia Missourian. Archived from the original on February 2, 2008. Retrieved January 9, 2008.
- "Historic Wabash Station Renovation". Columbia Public Works. Retrieved July 19, 2008.
- "COMO Connect" (PDF). Gocolumbiamo.com. 2015-03-30. Retrieved 2016-03-22.
- "$25 Million of Federal Funding for Columbia's Bike/Ped Network". PedNet Coalition. July 28, 2005. Archived from the original on February 22, 2008. Retrieved January 1, 2008.
- "Hospitals offer a vital indicator of fiscal health". Columbia Daily Tribune. June 17, 2007. Archived from the original on February 3, 2008. Retrieved January 8, 2008.
- "The Columbia Area". Missouri Health Sciences Psychology Consortium. Archived from the original on February 20, 2008. Retrieved January 9, 2008.
- "Physician Migration to the United States, Canada, United Kingdom and Australia". Academy Health. Archived from the original (PPT) on September 10, 2008. Retrieved January 9, 2008.
- "Community Profile". Columbia Chamber of Commerce. Archived from the original on February 3, 2008. Retrieved January 9, 2008.
- "Health Care". Columbia Chamber of Commerce. Archived from the original on February 9, 2008. Retrieved January 8, 2008.
- "Universities". The Missouri Life Sciences Project. Archived from the original on August 8, 2007. Retrieved January 8, 2008.
- "MU Research Reactor Submits 20-year License Renewal Application". MU News Bureau. November 24, 2006. Archived from the original on December 17, 2007. Retrieved January 1, 2008.
- "Columbia's Sister Cities". The City of Columbia. Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved January 1, 2008.
- Doug Hunt, Summary Justice: The Lynching of James Scott and the Trial of George Barkwell in Columbia, Missouri, 1923, Amazon Digital Services LLC, Kindle Edition: 2010
- Official city government website
- Columbia Convention & Visitors Bureau
- Columbia Chamber of Commerce
- Historic maps of Columbia in the Sanborn Maps of Missouri Collection at the University of Missouri