Jefferson City, Missouri
Jefferson City, officially the city of Jefferson, is the capital of the U.S. state of Missouri and the 15th most populous city in the state. It is also the county seat of Cole County and the principal city of the Jefferson City Metropolitan Statistical Area. Most of the city is in Cole County, with a small northern section extending into Callaway County.
Jefferson City, Missouri
U.S. Census Map
|Named for||Thomas Jefferson, the third President of the United States|
|• Mayor||Carrie Tergin|
|• Administrator||Steve Crowell|
|• City Clerk||Emily Donaldson|
|• State capital city||37.58 sq mi (97.33 km2)|
|• Land||35.95 sq mi (93.11 km2)|
|• Water||1.63 sq mi (4.22 km2)|
|Elevation||630 ft (192 m)|
|• State capital city||43,079|
| • Estimate |
|• Density||1,100/sq mi (440/km2)|
|Time zone||UTC−6 (CST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−5 (CDT)|
|GNIS feature ID||0758233|
Jefferson City is on the northern edge of the Ozark Plateau on the southern side of the Missouri River in a region known as Mid-Missouri. It is also at the western edge of one of the major wine-producing regions of the Midwest, the Missouri Rhineland. The city is dominated by the domed Capitol, which rises from a bluff overlooking the Missouri River to the north; Lewis and Clark passed the bluff on their historic expedition upriver before Europeans established any settlement there.
Often referred to as "Jeff," many of Jefferson City's primary employers fall within the service and manufacturing industries. Jefferson City is also home to Lincoln University, a public historically black land-grant university founded in 1866 by the 62nd Regiment of U.S. Colored Troops with additional support from the 65th Regiment of U.S. Colored Troops.
Missouri admitted to the union in 1821. In pre-Columbian times, this region was home of an ancient people known only as the "Mound Builders", having been replaced by Osage Native Americans. In the late 17th century, frontiersmen started to inhabit the area, including Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac, Louis Jolliet, Jacques Marquette, Robert de LaSalle, and Daniel Boone, with the latter having the greatest influence on the region. Daniel Boone's son, Daniel Morgan Boone, would later lay out Jefferson City in the early 19th century.
When the Missouri Territory was organized in 1812, St. Louis was Missouri's seat of government, and St. Charles would serve as the next capital. However, in the middle of the state, Jefferson City was chosen as the new capital in 1821, when Thomas Jefferson was still living. The village first was called "Lohman's Landing", and when the legislature decided to relocate there, they proposed the name "Missouriopolis" before settling on the city of "Jefferson" to honor Thomas Jefferson. Over the years, the city became to be most often referred to as "Jefferson City" and the name stuck. For years, this village was little more than a trading post located in the wilderness about midway between St. Louis and Kansas City. In 1825, the settlement was incorporated as a city and a year later, the Missouri legislature first met in Jefferson City.
Jefferson City was chosen as the site of a state prison. This prison, named the Missouri State Penitentiary, opened in 1836. This prison was home to multiple infamous Americans, including former heavyweight champion Sonny Liston, assassin James Earl Ray, and bank robber Pretty Boy Floyd. During the Civil War, Jefferson City was occupied by Union troops and the elected state legislature was driven from Jefferson City by Union General Nathaniel Lyon. Some of the legislators later reconvened in Neosho and passed an ordinance of secession. Missouri was claimed by both the Confederacy and the Union, as was neighboring state Kentucky. Missourians were strongly divided and many people in the state—especially in St. Louis—supported the Union, while other areas (such as Missouri's Little Dixie) were strongly pro-Confederate along the Missouri River between Jefferson City and Kansas City.
German immigrants created vineyards in small towns on either side of the Missouri River, especially on the north from the city east to Marthasville, located outside of St. Louis. Known as the "Missouri Rhineland" for its vineyards and first established by German immigrants in the mid-1800s, this region has become part of Missouri's agricultural and tourist economy.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 37.58 square miles (97.33 km2), of which 35.95 square miles (93.11 km2) is land and 1.63 square miles (4.22 km2) is water.
Jefferson City has a humid continental climate (Dfa) with hot, rainy summers and cold winters. The city borders on having a humid subtropical climate but falls just short due to January having a mean temperature of 30 °F (−1 °C) which is below the 32 °F (0 °C) isothern. Thunderstorms are common in both the spring and summer. Light snow is common during the winter, although about half of wintertime precipitation falls as rain.
|Climate data for Jefferson City, Missouri, 1981–2010 normals|
|Record high °F (°C)||79
|Average high °F (°C)||39.9
|Daily mean °F (°C)||30.4
|Average low °F (°C)||20.9
|Record low °F (°C)||−23
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||1.93
|Average snowfall inches (cm)||4.8
|U.S. Decennial Census|
As of the census of 2010, there were 43,079 people, 17,278 households, and 9,969 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,198.3 inhabitants per square mile (462.7/km2). There were 18,852 housing units at an average density of 524.4 per square mile (202.5/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 78.0% White, 16.9% African American, 0.3% Native American, 1.8% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.8% from other races, and 2.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 2.6% of the population.
There were 17,278 households of which 28.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.6% were married couples living together, 12.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.7% had a male householder with no wife present, and 42.3% were non-families. 36.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.21 and the average family size was 2.89.
In the city, the population was spread out with 20.9% of residents under the age of 18, 10.3% between the ages of 18 and 24, 28.6% from 25 to 44, 26.8% from 45 to 64, and 13.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age in the city was 37.5 years. The gender makeup of the city was 51.2% male and 48.8% female.
As of the census of 2000, there were 39,636 people, 15,794 households, and 9,207 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,454.4 people per square mile (561.6/km²). There were 16,987 housing units at an average density of 623.3 per square mile (240.7/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 81.5% White, 14.7% Black or African American, 0.4% Native American, 1.2% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.6% from other races, and 1.5% from two or more races. 1.6% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 15,794 households of which 27.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.4% were married couples living together, 10.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 41.7% were non-families. 36.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.21 and the average family size was 2.90.
In the city, the population was spread out with 20.9% under the age of 18, 11.0% from 18 to 24, 32.1% from 25 to 44, 22.0% from 45 to 64, and 14.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 105.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 106.6 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $39,628, and the median income for a family was $52,627. Males had a median income of $35,050 versus $25,521 for females. The per capita income for the city was $21,268. About 7.3% of families and 11.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.1% of those under age 18 and 7.1% of those age 65 or over.
The city uses a mayor-council system. The mayor is elected in a citywide vote. The city council has 10 members. Two are elected from each of the city's five wards.
The State Capitol is located in Jefferson City. In addition, state agencies are headquartered in Jefferson City. The Missouri State Archives is located in Jefferson City.
The Missouri Department of Corrections (MDOC) operates the Jefferson City Correctional Center (JCCC) and the Algoa Correctional Center (ACC) in Jefferson City. JCCC replaced the Missouri State Penitentiary on September 15, 2004, which until its closure was the oldest operating penal facility west of the Mississippi River. It served as the State of Missouri's primary maximum security institution, and it housed male death row prisoners until April 1989, when they were moved to the Potosi Correctional Center.
The United States Postal Service operates several postal facilities. The Jefferson City Main Post Office building previously shared occupancy with the U.S. District Court from its dedication in November 1934 until September 27, 2011 when it moved into the Christopher S. Bond Court House.
The 118,000-square-foot courthouse is named for the former Governor and United States Senator from Missouri. The courthouse, which is occupied by the Central Division of the United States District Court for the Western District of Missouri and under the appellate jurisdiction of the United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit, was designed to achieve the U.S. Green Building Council’s LEED Gold rating. Sustainable design features include reducing water use by 44 percent, using 13 percent recycled content, diverting 80 percent of construction waste materials from landfills, and it is 36 percent more efficient than current energy standards.
|Jefferson City's top employers (2016)|
|Rank||Employers||# of employees|
|1||State of Missouri||14,223|
|2||Capital Region Medical Center||1,573|
|4||Jefferson City Public Schools||1,489|
|5||SSM Health-St. Mary's Hospital||1,154|
|7||ABB Power T&D Company||775|
|8||Jefferson City Medical Group||633|
|No change reported in 2017|
Jefferson City's economy is driven by its residents, citizens of surrounding communities, and tourists.
Jefferson City's economy is based on the government, health care, manufacturing, retail, education, and tourism industries. In 2016, Jefferson City's gross metropolitan product was $7.366 billion and Missouri's real total gross domestic product was $260.309 billion, making Jefferson City's economy 2.829% of the total gross state product of Missouri.
Central Bancompany, Hawthorn Bancshares, Capital Region Medical Center, and Arris Pizza all have their headquarters in Jefferson City. Jefferson City is also known for Central Dairy, whose products are shipped statewide.
In 2017, Jefferson City was ranked the fifth Best Small City to Start a Business (out of the 1,261 cities examined nationally). The rankings were based on fifteen factors, including: average growth in number of small businesses, prevalence of investors, office-space affordability, and corporate taxes.
In 2016, Jefferson City was ranked thirteenth nationally (and second in the state, next to Columbia) among the Best Cities for Career Opportunities. SmartAsset examined 355 metro areas and based the rankings on metrics such as the unemployment rate, median income, median annual housing costs and the rate of employment growth.
As the state capital, Jefferson City is a tourist destination for the Missouri State Capitol, Missouri State Penitentiary, Missouri Governor's Mansion, and Missouri State Museum. Ranked by U.S. News & World Report in 2007 as a top educational institution for international students, Lincoln University also helps draw students and tourists from many other states and countries.
The major daily English-language newspaper in the area is the Jefferson City News Tribune. Several monthly magazines cover Jefferson City and/or the surrounding areas: Jefferson City Magazine, Her Magazine, Capital Lifestyles, and Professional Day.
Jefferson City, along with Columbia, is part of the Mid Missouri television market. KRCG, the region's CBS affiliate, and KNLJ, a station owned by the Christian Television Network (CTN), are both licensed to the city.
Jefferson City Public School District currently operates Jefferson City High School, a ninth grade center, two middle schools, and eleven elementary schools. The district will open Capital City High School in Fall 2019.
Blair Oaks R-II School District also provides education from kindergarten through 12th grade in Jefferson City.
In addition to public education, there are also five private elementary schools and three private high schools, including Helias High School, in the city.
Colleges and universitiesEdit
Although Jefferson City is one of the four state capitals that is not served by an Interstate highway, Interstate 70 passes by the city 30 miles (48 km) to the north in Columbia. U.S. highways in the city include U.S. Routes 50, 54, and 63. Missouri Routes 179 and 94 also run through the city, giving it four highways that intersect with I-70.
JeffTran, the city operated public transit system, provides year-round bus service during traditional weekday business hours, but is currently considering the extension of service hours to include evenings and weekends.
The Jefferson City station, located in the former Union Hotel at Jefferson Landing State Historic Site, is one of many stops provided by Amtrak, the sole intercity passenger railroad service in the United States.
A Greyhound bus stop near the Eastland Drive Convenient Food Mart also provides intercity transit. Jefferson City Memorial Airport, which is located in the Jefferson City limits of Callaway County, Missouri, serves general aviation but has no scheduled commercial airline service.
Arts & entertainmentEdit
- Janet Beecher, actress of stage and screen; born in Jefferson City
- Cedric the Entertainer (Cedric Kyle), actor/comedian; born in Jefferson City
- Deborah Digges (born Deborah Sugarbaker), poet; born in Jefferson City
- John Farris, author; born in Jefferson City
- Arthur Frommer, travel writer, publisher, consumer advocate, and the founder of the Frommer's series of travel guides; born in Jefferson City
- Chester Himes, author; born in Jefferson City
- Kent Jones, writer and radio personality; attended Jefferson City public schools
- Laura La Varnie, actress of the silent era; born in Jefferson City
- William Rose, screenwriter known for writing Guess Who's Coming to Dinner; born in Jefferson City
- Shaman's Harvest, hard rock band
- Charlie Weber, film and television actor currently on How to Get Away with Murder
- James T. Blair, Jr., mayor of Jefferson City in 1947 and later governor of Missouri
- Richard Everett Dorr, former U.S. federal judge; born in Jefferson City
- Patricia A. Goodrich, member of the Wisconsin State Assembly; born in Jefferson City
- John A. Gordon, former Deputy Director of the Central Intelligence Agency; born in Jefferson City
- James Kirkpatrick, former Missouri Secretary of State; former editor of the Jefferson City News-Tribune
- Stephen R. Leopold, former member of the Wisconsin State Assembly; born in Jefferson City
- Blaine Luetkemeyer, U.S. Representative for Missouri's 3rd congressional district; born in Jefferson City and graduated from Lincoln University
- Richard R. Nacy, former State Treasurer of Missouri; born and raised in Jefferson City
- Karl L. Rundberg (1899–1969), Los Angeles City Council member
- Rodney W. Sippel, United States federal judge; born in Jefferson City
- Sarah Steelman, former State Treasurer of Missouri; born and raised in Jefferson City
- Carl M. Vogel, former member of the Missouri Senate; born and raised in Jefferson City
- Harold Volkmer, former member of the United States House of Representatives; born and raised in Jefferson City
- Charles Roman Koester, former American Bishop of the Catholic Church; born in Jefferson City
- Reginald Heber Weller, Episcopal priest and bishop active in the ecumenism; born in Jefferson City
- Jack S. Kilby, Nobel Prize-winning inventor and physicist; born in Jefferson City
- William A. Massey, mathematician and operations researcher with expertise in queueing theory; born in Jefferson City
- David Sugarbaker, cancer surgeon most known for developing new surgical treatments of mesothelioma.
- Mishael Abbott, race car driver; born in Jefferson City
- OG Anunoby, small forward for the Toronto Raptors; attended University of Indiana, attended Jefferson City High School
- Charlie Brown, former NFL running back born in Jefferson City
- Christian Cantwell, 2009 shot put world champion, born in Jefferson City
- Joe Crede, major league baseball player, won 2005 World Series with Chicago White Sox; born in Jefferson City
- John Daly, professional golfer on the PGA Tour
- Justin Gage, former football player for the Chicago Bears and the Tennessee Titans; attended Jefferson City public schools
- Tom Henke, major league baseball player, won 1992 World Series with Toronto Blue Jays, also pitched for the St. Louis Cardinals; lives in nearby Taos
- Dennis Higgins, former professional pitcher; born in Jefferson City
- Joe Jimenez, professional golfer best known for winning the 1978 PGA Seniors' Championship; was the club pro at the Jefferson City Country Club
- Sam LeCure, current major league baseball player for the Cincinnati Reds; born near Jefferson City
- Steve Martin, former football player; attended Jefferson City public schools
- Napoleon McCallum, former running back in the National Football League; born in Jefferson City
- Dennis Meyer, former Pittsburgh Steelers football player and coach; born in Jefferson City
- Paul Miller, basketball player; born in Jefferson City
- Maya Moore, current WNBA player for the Minnesota Lynx and Olympic gold medalist; born in Jefferson City and attended Jefferson City public schools
- Clint Robinson, professional first baseman with the Los Angeles Dodgers
- Steve Rogers, former starting pitcher for the Montreal Expos; born in Jefferson City
- Justin Smith, former football player with the Cincinnati Bengals and San Francisco 49ers; born and raised in Jefferson City
- Jamaal Tatum, former college basketball player for Southern Illinois Salukis; born and raised in Jefferson City
- Don Webb, former college and Professional Football defensive back
- Keith Weber, former quarterback and pitcher for the University of Missouri
- Sylvester Williams, defensive tackle for the Detroit Lions; attended Jefferson City High School
- "Capital of Missouri – Jefferson City ***". www.spangledwithstars.com. Retrieved 9 June 2017.
- ""Contact the Mayor."". Archived from the original on May 7, 2006. Retrieved 2010-09-19.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) City of Jefferson. Retrieved on May 21, 2010.
- "Jefferson City — Departments". Archived from the original on 10 September 2014. Retrieved 9 June 2017.
- "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2012-07-14. Retrieved 2012-07-08.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-07-08.
- "City and Town Population Totals: 2010-2017". Retrieved May 26, 2018.
- "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "Chapter 01 - General Provisions - Laserfiche WebLink". documents.jeffcitymo.org. Retrieved 2019-01-13.
- "Cole County, Missouri Place Names, 1928-1945 | The State Historical Society of Missouri". shsmo.org. Retrieved 2019-01-13.
- "Welcome to City of Jefferson, Missouri". www.jeffersoncitymo.gov. Retrieved 2019-01-13.
- "Table 10. Rank by 2010 Population and Housing Units: 2000 and 2010" (PDF). US Census Bureau. Retrieved 10 July 2016.
- "Best of the Road by Rand McNally". Best of the Road by Rand McNally. Retrieved 9 June 2017.
- Moorman, Amy (2014). "Picture This" (PDF). The Missouri State Archives...Where History Begins. Missouri State Archives.
- McMillen, Margot Ford & Murphy, Dennis. A to Z: The Dictionary of Missouri Place Names. Columbia, MO. Pebble Publishing, 1996. ISBN 0-9646625-4-X.
- "Cole County, Missouri Place Names, 1928-1945 | The State Historical Society of Missouri". shsmo.org. Retrieved 2019-01-13.
- "Average Weather in Jefferson City, Missouri, United States, Year Round – Weather Spark". weatherspark.com. Retrieved 9 June 2017.
- "NowData – NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2013-12-08.
- "Kansas City Daily Climate Records/Normals". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved December 8, 2013.
- ""Jefferson City Correctional Center."". Archived from the original on May 7, 2006. Retrieved 2010-09-19.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) Missouri Department of Corrections. May 7, 2006. Retrieved on September 18, 2010.
- "MidMoGIS Mapping Website Archived 2011-07-18 at the Wayback Machine." City of Jefferson. Retrieved on September 18, 2010.
- Lombardi, George, Richard D. Sluder, and Donald Wallace. "The Management of Death-Sentenced Inmates: Issues, Realities, and Innovative Strategies Archived 2010-05-27 at the Wayback Machine." Missouri Department of Corrections. 8. Retrieved on September 18, 2010.
- "Post Office Location – JEFFERSON CITY Archived 2010-11-26 at the Wayback Machine." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on September 18, 2010.
- "Christopher S. Bond U.S. Courthouse". www.gsa.gov. Retrieved 9 June 2017.
- "2016 PAFR – Laserfiche WebLink". documents.jeffcitymo.org. Retrieved 9 June 2017.
- "Total Gross Domestic Product for Jefferson City, MO (MSA)". Federal Reserve Economic Data (FRED) St. Louis Fed. 2017-09-20. Retrieved 2018-06-23.
- "Real Total Gross Domestic Product for Missouri". Federal Reserve Economic Data (FRED) St. Louis Fed. 2018-05-04. Retrieved 2018-06-23.
- Bernardo, Richie. "2017's Best & Worst Small Cities to Start a Business". Retrieved 9 June 2017.
- "The Top 10 Cities for Career Opportunities in 2016 - SmartAsset.com". SmartAsset. Retrieved 9 June 2017.
- "The Dwight D. Eisenhower System of Interstate and Defense Highways - Part VII - Miscellaneous Interstate Facts". Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved June 3, 2018.
- "Schedules". City of Jefferson. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
- "Jefferson City Missouri Bus Station – Greyhound". locations.greyhound.com. Retrieved 9 June 2017.
- "Lorenzo Greene". The University of Houston. Archived from the original on 25 June 2014. Retrieved 8 October 2013.
- "James T. Blair, Jr". Notable Names Data Base. Retrieved 8 October 2013.
- "Jefferson City, Mo.", Logan's Railway Business Directory from Saint Louis to Galveston, St. Louis, Mo.: A. L. Logan & Co., 1873
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jefferson City, Missouri.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Jefferson City.|
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Jefferson City.|