Jacques Marquette, S.J. (June 1, 1637 – May 18, 1675), sometimes known as Père Marquette or James Marquette, was a French Jesuit missionary who founded Michigan's first European settlement, Sault Sainte Marie, and later founded Saint Ignace. In 1673, Marquette, with Louis Jolliet, an explorer born near Quebec City, was the first European to explore and map the northern portion of the Mississippi River Valley.
|Died||May 18, 1675 (aged 37)|
near Ludington, Michigan
|Other names||Pere Marquette|
Early life edit
Jacques Marquette was born in Laon, France, on June 1, 1637. He came of an ancient family distinguished for its civic and military services. Marquette joined the Society of Jesus at age 17. He studied and taught in France for several years, then the Jesuits assigned him to New France in 1666 as a missionary to the indigenous peoples of the Americas. When he arrived in Quebec, he was assigned to Trois-Rivières on the Saint Lawrence River, where he assisted Gabriel Druillettes and, as preliminary to further work, devoted himself to the study of the local languages and became fluent in six different dialects.
In 1668, Marquette was moved by his superiors to missions farther up the Saint Lawrence River in the western Great Lakes region. That year he helped Druillettes found the mission at Sault Ste. Marie in present-day Michigan. Other missions were founded at Saint Ignace in 1671 (Mission Saint-Ignace) and at La Pointe on Lake Superior in present-day Wisconsin. At La Pointe, he encountered members of the Illinois tribes, who told him about the important trading route of the Mississippi River. They invited him to teach their people, whose settlements were mostly farther south. Because of wars between the Hurons at La Pointe and the neighboring Lakota people, Marquette left the mission and went to the Straits of Mackinac; he informed his superiors about the rumored river and requested permission to explore it.
Leave was granted, and in 1673 Marquette joined the expedition of Louis Jolliet, a French-Canadian explorer. They departed from Saint Ignace on May 17, with two canoes and five voyageurs of French-Indian ancestry. They sailed to Green Bay and up the Fox River, nearly to its headwaters. From there, they were told to portage their canoes a distance of slightly less than two miles through marsh and oak plains to the Wisconsin River. Many years later, at that point, the town of Portage, Wisconsin was built, named for the ancient path between the two rivers. They ventured forth from the portage, and on June 17, they entered the Mississippi near present-day Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin.
The Joliet-Marquette expedition traveled to within 435 miles (700 km) of the Gulf of Mexico but turned back at the mouth of the Arkansas River. By this point, they had encountered several natives carrying European trinkets, and they feared an encounter with explorers or colonists from Spain. They followed the Mississippi back to the mouth of the Illinois River, which they learned from local natives provided a shorter route back to the Great Lakes. They reached Lake Michigan near the site of modern-day Chicago, by way of the Chicago Portage. In September, Marquette stopped at Saint Francis Xavier mission in present-day Green Bay, Wisconsin, while Jolliet returned to Quebec to relate the news of their discoveries.
Marquette and his party returned to the Illinois territory in late 1674, becoming the first Europeans to winter in what would become the city of Chicago. As welcomed guests of the Illinois Confederation, the explorers were feasted en route and fed ceremonial foods such as sagamite.
In the spring of 1675, Marquette traveled westward and celebrated a public Mass at the Grand Village of the Illinois near Starved Rock. A bout of dysentery he had contracted during the Mississippi expedition sapped his health. On the return trip to Saint Ignace, he died at 37 years of age near the modern town of Ludington, Michigan. After his death, natives from the Illinois Confederation returned his bones to the chapel at Mission Saint-Ignace.
A Michigan Historical Marker at this location reads:
Father Jacques Marquette, the great Jesuit missionary and explorer, died and was buried by two French companions somewhere along the Lake Michigan shore on May 18, 1675. He had been returning to his mission at St. Ignace, which he had left in 1673, to go exploring in the Mississippi country. The exact location of his death has long been a subject of controversy. A spot close to the southeast slope of this hill, near the ancient outlet of the Pere Marquette River, corresponds with the death site as located by early French accounts and maps and a constant tradition of the past. Marquette's remains were reburied at St. Ignace in 1677.
Adjacent to gravesite of Marquette on State Street in downtown Saint Ignace, a building was constructed that now houses the Museum of Ojibwa Culture.
However, a Michigan Historical Marker in Frankfort, MI reads:
Marquette's Death: On May 18, 1675, Father Jacques Marquette, the great Jesuit missionary and explorer, died and was buried by two French companions somewhere along the Lake Michigan shore of the Lower Peninsula. Marquette had been returning to his mission at St. Ignace, which he had left in 1673 to go on an exploring trip to the Mississippi and the Illinois country. The exact location of Marquette's death has long been a subject of controversy. Evidence presented in the 1960s indicates that this site, near the natural outlet of the Betsie River, at the northeast corner of a hill which was here until 1900, is the Marquette death site and that the Betsie is the Rivière du Père Marquette of early French accounts and maps. Marquette's bones were reburied at St. Ignace in 1677.
In the early 20th century Marquette was widely celebrated as a Roman Catholic founding father of the region.
- Marquette County, Michigan; Marquette County, Wisconsin
- Several communities, including: Marquette, Michigan; Marquette, Wisconsin; Marquette, Iowa; Marquette, Illinois; Marquette Heights, Illinois; Pere Marquette Charter Township, Michigan; and Marquette, Manitoba
- Marquette University and Marquette University High School in Milwaukee, Wisconsin
- Marquette Island in Lake Huron
- Lake Marquette in Minnesota; Marquette Lake in Quebec
- Pere Marquette River and Pere Marquette Lake, which drain into Lake Michigan at Ludington, Michigan
- Marquette River in Quebec
- Pere Marquette Park in Milwaukee, WI
- Pere Marquette State Park near Grafton, Illinois
- Marquette Catholic High School, Alton, IL
- Marquette Academy Catholic High School, Ottawa, IL
- École Père-Marquette, a high school in Montreal, Quebec
- Marquette Park, Chicago, Illinois
- Hotel Pere Marquette, Peoria, Illinois
- Marquette Park, Gary, Indiana
- Marquette Park, Mackinac Island, Michigan
- Marquette Park, St. Louis, Missouri
- Pere Marquette Beach, a public beach in Muskegon, Michigan
- Pere Marquette State Forest, in Michigan
- The Pere Marquette Railway
- "Cité Marquette," former US-City-Base (1956–1966) built by Americans based on the NATO Air Force Base in Couvron (38th Bombardment Wing), Laon, France (his birthplace).
- Marquette Transportation Company, a towboat company using a silhouette of the Pere in his canoe as their emblem.
- Marquette Building in Chicago; Marquette Building in Detroit; Marquette Building in Saint Louis, Missouri; Pere Marquette Hotel in Peoria, Illinois
- Marquette Avenue, a large street in Minneapolis, Minnesota.
Marquette is memorialized by various statues, monuments, and historical markers:
- Father Marquette National Memorial near Saint Ignace, Michigan
- Chicago Portage National Historic Site, along with Louis Jolliet, near Lyons, Illinois
- Statues have been erected to Marquette various locations, including at Detroit, Michigan; Fort Mackinac, Michigan; Marquette, Michigan; Milwaukee, at Marquette University; Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin, Utica, Illinois; Laon, France; the National Statuary Hall of the United States Capitol; the Quebec Parliament Building
- The Legler Branch of the Chicago Public Library displays "Wilderness, Winter River Scene," a restored mural by Midwestern artist R. Fayerweather Babcock. The mural depicts Marquette and Native Americans trading by a river. Commissioned for Legler Branch in 1934, the mural was funded by the Works Projects Administration.
Marquette has been honored twice on postage stamps issued by the United States:
- A one-cent stamp in 1898, part of Trans-Mississippi Issue, which shows him on the Mississippi River; This is the first time a Catholic priest is honored by the U.S. Postal Department.
- A 6-cent stamp issued September 20, 1968, marking the 300th anniversary of his establishment of the Jesuit mission at Sault Ste. Marie.
- Donnelly, Joseph P. (1985). Jacques Marquette, S.J. (1637–1675). Chicago: Loyola University Press.
Sketch of Marquette
Ca. 1681 map of Marquette and Jolliet's 1673 expedition
"Marquette on the Mississippi", 1898 issue
"Marquette explorer", 1968 issue
Michigan Historical Marker: "Marquette's Death"
Memorial to Marquette in his birthplace of Laon, France
Statue of Marquette in Detroit, Michigan
Statue of Marquette at Fort Mackinac
Statue of Marquette in Marquette, Michigan
Statue of Marquette in Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin
Marker commemorating Marquette's wintering location in 1674–75, today in Chicago
Pere Marquette Memorial in Utica, Illinois
Portrait of Marquette at the National Mississippi River Museum & Aquarium
See also edit
- Jacques Marquette (sculpture), a 2005 public art work by artist Ronald Knepper
- Pere Jacques Marquette (Queoff), a 1987 public art work by Tom Queoff
- Marquette (disambiguation) for other places, buildings and geographic objects named after Marquette
- Chicago Portage
- Chicago Portage National Historic Site
- "Jacques Marquette". Encyclopædia Britannica.
- Melody, John. "Archdiocese of Chicago" The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 3. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1908. February 23, 2012
- ""Jacques Marquette", Biography". biography.com.
- Spalding, Henry. "Jacques Marquette, S.J." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 9. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910. February 15, 2019
- Monet, J., "Marquette, Jacques", Dictionary of Canadian Biography, vol. 1, University of Toronto/Université Laval, 2003
- The painting was rendered as an engraving on a US commemorative postage stamp, 1898 (Illustration)
- Catton, Bruce (1984). Michigan: A History, p. 14. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-30175-3
- Campbell, T.J., "James Marquette", Pioneer priests of North America, 1642–1710, Vol. 3, Fordham University Press, 1910
- "Odd Wisconsin Archive: Beer and Sweet Corn". wisconsinhistory.org. Archived from the original on September 21, 2013.
- "Marquette, Jacques 1637 - 1675". November 3, 2013. Archived from the original on November 3, 2013. Retrieved February 2, 2021.
- Holzknecht, J. (1895). "The Relics of Pere Marouette". The American Catholic Historical Researches. 12 (1): 30–34. ISSN 2155-5273.
- "Michigan Historical Markers". michmarkers.com. Archived from the original on March 31, 2009. Retrieved July 26, 2008.
- "Marquette's Death".
- Katherine D. Moran, The Imperial Church: Catholic Founding Fathers and United States Empire (Cornell University Press, 2020).
- "Bibliography on Marquette County". Clarke Historical Library, Central Michigan University. Retrieved January 20, 2013.
- "Focus on our history: How county was named". Ludington Daily News. October 3, 1987. p. 2. Retrieved April 30, 2015.
- "Home | Marquette Transportation Company". marquettetrans.com. Marquette Transportation Company LLC. 2015. Retrieved May 7, 2015.
- "Term: Marquette, Jacques 1637 – 1675". wisconsinhistory.org. Archived from the original on November 3, 2013.
- Chicago Public Library. About Legler Branch.
- Haimann, Alexander T., "Arago: people, postage & the post. 1-cent Marquette on the Mississippi". National Postal Museum. Accessed May 2, 2017.
- Tessa Sabol. "Trans-Mississippi Exposition Commemorative Stamp Issue and National Identity at the Turn of the Twentieth Century." National Postal Museum. Accessed May 2, 2017.
Media related to Jacques Marquette at Wikimedia Commons
- Iconographic sources of jesuit father Jacques Marquette fictitious portraits, Web Robert Derome, Professeur honoraire d'histoire de l'art, Université du Québec à Montréal.
- The Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents 1610 to 1791, including Marquette's journal (Chapters CXXXVI – CXXXVIII)
- Thwaites, Reuben G. Father Marquette New York: D. Appleton & Company, 1902.