Marquette (// mar-KEHT) is a city in Marquette County in the U.S. state of Michigan. The population was 21,355 at the 2010 census, which makes it the largest city in the Upper Peninsula. It also serves as the county seat of Marquette County. Located on the shores of Lake Superior, the city is a major port, known primarily for shipping iron ore. The city is partially surrounded by Marquette Charter Township, but the two are administered autonomously.
|City of Marquette|
Downtown Marquette along Front Street
Location within Marquette County
|• Type||City commission|
|• Mayor||Jenna Smith|
|• Manager||Mike Angeli|
|• City||19.40 sq mi (50.24 km2)|
|• Land||11.34 sq mi (29.36 km2)|
|• Water||8.06 sq mi (20.87 km2)|
|Elevation||633 ft (203 m)|
| • Estimate |
|• Density||1,851.90/sq mi (715.02/km2)|
|Time zone||UTC−5 (EST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−4 (EDT)|
|GNIS feature ID||0631600|
The land around Marquette was known to French missionaries of the early 17th century and the trappers of the early 19th century. Development of the area did not begin until 1844, when William Burt and Jacob Houghton (the brother of geologist Douglass Houghton) discovered iron deposits near Teal Lake west of Marquette. In 1845, Jackson Mining Company, the first organized mining company in the region, was formed.
The village of Marquette began on September 14, 1849, with the formation of a second iron concern, the Marquette Iron Company. Three men participated in organizing the firm: Robert J. Graveraet, who had prospected the region for ore; Edward Clark, agent for Waterman A. Fisher of Worcester, Massachusetts, who financed the company, and Amos Rogers Harlow. The village was at first called New Worcester, with Harlow as the first postmaster. On August 21, 1850, the name was changed to honor Jacques Marquette, the French Jesuit missionary who had explored the region. A second post office, named Carp River, was opened on October 13, 1851 by Peter White, who had gone there with Graveraet at age 18. Harlow closed his post office in August 1852. The Marquette Iron Company failed, while its successor, the Cleveland Iron Mining Company, flourished and had the village platted in 1854. The plat was recorded by Peter White. White's office was renamed as Marquette in April 1856, and the village was incorporated in 1859. It was incorporated as a city in 1871.
During the 1850s, Marquette was linked by rail to numerous mines and became the leading shipping center of the Upper Peninsula. The first ore pocket dock, designed by an early town leader, John Burt, was built by the Cleveland Iron Mining Company in 1859. By 1862, the city had a population of over 1,600 and a soaring economy.
In the late 19th century, during the height of iron mining, Marquette became nationally known as a summer haven. Visitors brought in by Great Lakes passenger steamships filled the city's hotels and resorts.
South of the city, K. I. Sawyer Air Force Base was an important Air Force installation during the Cold War, host to B-52H bombers and KC-135 tankers of the Strategic Air Command, as well as a fighter interceptor squadron. The base closed in September 1995, and is now the county's Sawyer International Airport.
Marquette continues to be a shipping port for hematite ores and, today, enriched iron ore pellets, from nearby mines and pelletizing plants. About 7.9 million gross tons of pelletized iron ore passed through Marquette's Presque Isle Harbor in 2005.
Lakeview Arena, an ice hockey rink in Marquette won the Kraft Hockeyville USA contest on April 30, 2016. The arena received $150,000 in upgrades, and hosted the Buffalo Sabres and Carolina Hurricanes on October 4, 2016 in a preseason NHL contest. Buffalo won the game 2-0.
Postal and philatelic historyEdit
In addition to the Marquette #1 Post Office there is the "Northern Michigan University Bookstore Contract Station #384".
Geography and climateEdit
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 19.45 square miles (50.38 km2), of which 11.39 square miles (29.50 km2) is land and 8.06 square miles (20.88 km2) is water.
The city includes several small islands (principally Middle Island, Gull Island, Lover's Island, Presque Isle Pt. Rocks, White Rocks, Ripley Rock, and Picnic Rocks) in Lake Superior. The Marquette Underwater Preserve lies immediately offshore.
Marquette Mountain, used for skiing, is located in the city, as is most of the land of Marquette Branch Prison of the Michigan Department of Corrections. The town of Trowbridge Park (under Marquette Township), is located to the west, Sands Township to the south, and Marquette Township to the northwest of the city.
The climate is a hemiboreal humid continental (Köppen: Dfb) with four distinct seasons that is strongly moderated by Lake Superior and is located in Plant Hardiness zone 5b. Narrative below is based on chart below, reflecting 1991-2020 climate normals. Winters are long and cold with a January average of 18.5 °F (−7.5 °C). Winter temperatures are slightly warmer than inland locations at a similar latitude due to the release of the heat stored by the lake, which moderates the climate. On average, there are 11.6 days annually where the minimum temperature reaches 0 °F (−18 °C) and 73 days with a maximum at or below freezing, including a majority of days during meteorological winter (December thru February).
Being located in the snowbelt region, Marquette receives a significant amount of snowfall during the winter months, mostly from lake-effect snow. Because Lake Superior rarely freezes over completely, this enables lake effect snow to persist throughout winter, making Marquette the third snowiest location in the contiguous United States as reported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration with an average annual snowfall of 149.1 inches or 3.79 metres. The snow depth in winter usually exceeds 10 inches or 0.25 metres. Marquette is the city with the deepest snow depths with a population of more than 20,000 in the US (and one of the largest in North America outside the western Cordillera or eastern Canada), as temperatures remain low throughout the winter and cold, dry air is intercepted by the Great Lakes.
The warmest months, July and August, each average 66.2 °F (19.0 °C), showing somewhat of a seasonal lag. The surrounding lake cools summertime temperatures and as a result, temperatures above 90 °F (32.2 °C) are rare, with only 3.4 days per year. Spring and fall are transitional seasons that are generally mild though highly variable due to the alternation of air masses moving quickly. Spring is usually cooler than fall because the surrounding lake is slower to warm than the land, while in fall the lake releases heat, warming the area.
Marquette receives 30.2 in (767 mm) of precipitation per year, which is fairly evenly distributed throughout the year, though September and October are the wettest months with February and March being the driest. The average window for morning freezes is October 15 thru May 7. The highest temperature ever recorded in Marquette was 108 °F (42 °C) on July 15, 1901 and the lowest was −33 °F (−36 °C) on February 8, 1861. Marquette receives an average of 2,294 hours of sunshine per year or 51 percent of possible sunshine, ranging from a low of 29 percent in December to a high of 68 percent in July.
The City of Marquette has received national attention for its measures to adapt to climate change, such as coastline restoration and moving portions of Lakeshore Boulevard which are flooded by Lake Superior 100 yards inland. Property owners are required to maintain “riparian buffers” of native plants along waterways. A county task force has created a guidebook in cooperation with the University of Michigan for landscaping which can reduce the habitat for disease-bearing ticks. A federally funded stormwater drain project will route runoff which flows into Lake Superior into restored wetlands.
|Climate data for Marquette (1991–2020 normals, extremes 1857–present)|
|Record high °F (°C)||57
|Mean maximum °F (°C)||42
|Average high °F (°C)||24.6
|Daily mean °F (°C)||18.5
|Average low °F (°C)||12.4
|Mean minimum °F (°C)||−3
|Record low °F (°C)||−27
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||1.86
|Average snowfall inches (cm)||25.1
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||17.7||12.2||10.8||10.4||11.8||11.8||11.3||11.0||12.9||14.6||13.4||14.4||152.3|
|Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||17.7||12.5||8.9||4.5||0.2||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.6||7.7||12.5||64.6|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||105.5||128.8||181.3||225.3||278.8||289.7||322.8||270.6||191.5||140.6||80.7||78.2||2,293.8|
|Percent possible sunshine||38||45||49||55||60||61||68||62||51||42||29||29||51|
|Source: NOAA (sun 1961–1990)|
|U.S. Decennial Census|
As of the census of 2010, there were 21,355 people, 8,321 households, and 3,788 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,874.9 inhabitants per square mile (723.9/km2). There were 8,756 housing units at an average density of 768.7 per square mile (296.8/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 91.1% White, 4.4% African American, 1.5% Native American, 0.9% Asian, 0.3% from other races, and 1.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.4% of the population.
There were 8,321 households, of which 18.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 33.3% were married couples living together, 9.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.3% had a male householder with no wife present, and 54.5% were non-families. 38.2% of all households were made up of individuals, and 11.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.05 and the average family size was 2.71.
The median age in the city was 29.1 years. 12.2% of residents were under the age of 18; 30.6% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 22.3% were from 25 to 44; 21.9% were from 45 to 64; and 13% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 51.8% male and 48.2% female.
At the 2000 census, there were 19,661 people, 8,071 households and 4,067 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,723.9 per square mile (665.3/km2). There were 8,429 housing units at an average density of 739.1 per square mile (285.4/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 95% White, 0.8% African American, 1.7% Native American, 0.8% Asian, 0% Pacific Islander, 0.22% from other races, and 1.33% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.77% of the population. 15.5% were of German, 12.6% Finnish, 8.9% French, 8.5% English, 8.2% Irish, 6.8% Italian and 6.7% Swedish ancestry according to Census 2000.
There were 8,071 households, of which 23.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.2% were married couples living together, 10.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 49.6% were non-families. 37.0% of all households were made up of individuals, and 11.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.13 and the average family size was 2.81.
Age distribution was 16.8% under the age of 18, 25.9% from 18 to 24, 23.8% from 25 to 44, 19.7% from 45 to 64, and 13.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.4 males.
The median household income was $29,918, and the median family income was $48,120. Males had a median income of $34,107 versus $24,549 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,787. About 7.2% of families and 17.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.3% of those under age 18 and 5.1% of those age 65 or over.
Along with Northern Michigan University, the largest employers in Marquette are the Marquette Area Public Schools, UP Health System-Marquette (a regional medical center that is the only Level 2 Trauma center in the Upper Peninsula), Marquette Branch Prison, RTI Surgical, Charter Communications, and Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan.
Recreation and tourismEdit
The city of Marquette has a number of parks and recreational facilities that are used by city and county residents. Presque Isle Park is Marquette's most popular park located on the north side of the city. It includes 323 acres (131 ha) of mostly forested land and juts out into Lake Superior. The park was designed by Frederick Law Olmsted, noted for designing Central Park in New York City. Amenities include a wooden band shell for concerts, a park pavilion, a gazebo, a marina, a concession stand, picnic tables, barbecue pits, walking/skiing trails, playground facilities, and Moosewood Nature Center. The city has two popular beaches, South Beach Park and McCarty's Cove. McCarty's Cove, flanked by the red U.S. Coast Guard Station lighthouse on its south shore, serves as a reprieve from hot summer days, where city and county residents alike take advantage of the cool, but tolerable, water temperatures and the cooling effects of the lake-generated sea breeze. Both beaches have picnic areas, grills, children's playgrounds and lifeguard stands. Other parks include Tourist Park, Founder's Landing, LaBonte Park, Mattson Lower Harbor Park, Park Cemetery, Shiras Park, Williams Park, Harlow Park, Pocket Park, Spring Street Park and Father Marquette Park.
There are also numerous other recreational facilities located within the city. Lakeview Arena is best known for its use as an ice hockey facility, but it also hosts a number of public events. A skateboard park is located just outside the arena and open during the summer. Lakeview Arena was home to the Marquette Electricians and Marquette Senior High School's Redmen hockey team. In 1974, the arena replaced the historic Palestra, which had been located a few blocks away. Gerard Haley Memorial Baseball field home of the Marquette Blues and Reds is located in the north side along with numerous little league and softball fields. Marquette has the largest wooden dome in the world, the Superior Dome—unofficially but affectionately known as the YooperDome. During the football season, the Dome is used primarily for football on its newly renovated astro turf field. The turf was installed in July 2009. Northern Michigan University holds its home football games in the Dome, as does the Michigan High School Athletic Association with the upper peninsula's High School football playoffs. The dome also hosts numerous private and public events that draw in thousands from around the region. The Marquette Golf Club has brought international recognition to the area for its unique and dramatic Greywalls course, opened in 2005. The course features several panoramic views of Lake Superior and winds its way through rocky outcroppings, heaving fairways and a rolling valley, yet is located less than two miles (3 km) from the downtown area.
The city is also known for fishing for deep water lake trout, whitefish, salmon and brown trout.
Marquette has an extensive network of biking and walking paths. The city has been gradually expanding the paths and has been promoting itself as a walkable and livable community. Cross Country ski trails are also located at Presque Isle Park and the Fit Strip.
Camping facilities are located at Tourist Park.
Museums, galleries, and lighthousesEdit
- The Marquette Maritime Museum, including the Marquette Harbor Light;
- The Upper Peninsula Children's Museum, Baraga Avenue.
- The Marquette County History Museum.
- The DeVos Art Museum, Northern Michigan University.
- The Oasis Gallery for Contemporary Art.
Festivals and eventsEdit
- Art on the Rocks—art festival at Ellwood Mattson Lower Harbor Park
- Hiawatha Music Festival Traditional music festival at Tourist Park
- Marquette's July 4 Celebration
- Marquette's Blueberry Festival 
- Superior Bike Fest
- UP 200 Dog Sled Race
- Noquemanon Ski Marathon
- Marquette Area Blues Fest
- Marquette Scandinavian Midsummer Festival and Wife-Carrying Contest
- U.P. Fall Beer Festival- hosted by Michigan Brewers Guild 
- Ore to Shore
- Marquette Marathon
- OutBack Art Fair
Live theatrical productions are also provided through Northern Michigan University's Forest Roberts Theatre and Black Box Theatre, Marquette's Graveraet School Kaufman Auditorium and Lake Superior Theatre, a semi-professional summer stock theatre.
Marquette is served by American Eagle and Delta Connection out of Sawyer International Airport (MQT, KSAW) with daily flights to Chicago, Detroit and Minneapolis–Saint Paul, as of March 2017[update]. The airport is located 20 miles (32 km) south of downtown Marquette.
The city is served by a public transit system known as MarqTran, which runs buses through the city and to nearby places such as Sawyer International Airport and Ishpeming. The system operates out of a transit center in the adjacent Marquette Township in addition to a small transfer station in downtown. In addition, Indian Trails bus lines operates daily intercity bus service between Hancock and Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The line operates a stop at MarqTran's transit center.
Marquette has limited freight rail service by the Lake Superior and Ishpeming Railroad (LS&I). The Canadian National Railway also goes through nearby Negaunee. The LS&I serves the Upper Harbor Ore Dock, which loads iron ore pellets from nearby mining operations onto lake freighters for shipment throughout the Great Lakes.
Three state highways serve Marquette. They are:
The City of Marquette is served by the Marquette Area Public Schools. The district is the largest school district in the Upper Peninsula and Northern Wisconsin, with about 3,100 students and 420 faculty and Staff.
- Marquette Senior High School, grades 9-12 (Marquette Area Public Schools)
- Marquette Alternative High School at Vandenboom (Marquette Area Public Schools)
- Bothwell Middle School, grades 6-8 (Marquette Area Public Schools)
- Cherry Creek Elementary (Marquette Area Public Schools)
- Graveraet Elementary (Marquette Area Public Schools)
- Sandy Knoll Elementary School (Marquette Area Public Schools)
- Superior Hills Elementary School (Marquette Area Public Schools)
- North Star Academy (public charter Montessori K-12)
- Marquette is home to Northern Michigan University, the Upper Peninsula's largest university at just under 10,000 students.
Multiple media outlets provide local coverage of the Marquette area.
- Newspaper: The Mining Journal, The North Wind, and Marquette Monthly
- Television: WLUC-TV/WLUC-DT2, WBUP-TV/WBKP, WZMQ, WNMU-TV and WJMN-TV
- Radio: WNMU-FM, WHWL-FM, WUPK-FM, WFXD-FM, WUPT-FM, WUPX, WJPD-FM, WUPZ-FM, WKPK-FM, WUPG-FM, WGLQ-FM, WRUP-FM, WNGE-FM, WKQS-FM, WCMM-FM, W291BH, WMQT, WDMJ-AM, WZAM-AM
- Stephen Adamini, politician
- Mike Bordick, baseball player
- Edward Breitung, minister
- Leonard Brumm, college hockey coach
- Alfred Burt, composer of Christmas carols
- Kyle Carr, speed skater
- Curtis L. Carter, academic and founder of the Patrick and Beatrice Haggerty Museum of Art
- Tony Chebatoris, the only person executed in Michigan since 1846
- Sallie W. Chisholm, oceanographer
- Robert William Davis, politician
- Shani Davis, speed skater
- Susan Diol, actress
- Dallas Drake, NHL player
- Nita Engle, artist
- Robert Erickson, composer
- Joe Fine, mayor of Marquette 1964–1965 and prominent businessman
- Justin Florek, NHL player
- Vernon Forrest, boxer
- James Henry Garland, Catholic bishop
- John Gilmore, NFL tight end
- Patricia Hogan, professor
- John Henry Jacobs, former mayor
- Louis Graveraet Kaufman, banker
- Alfred V. Kidder, archaeologist
- Reynolds R. Kinkade, justice of the Ohio Supreme Court
- John Kivela, former mayor
- John Munro Longyear, former mayor and land developer
- Mary Beecher Longyear, philanthropist
- John Lautner, architect
- Francis Joseph Magner, Catholic bishop
- John D. Mangum, politician
- Aghasi Manukyan, wrestler
- Helen Maroulis, wrestler
- Beverly Matherne, writer
- C. V. Money, coach
- Jon Morosi, sportswriter and reporter
- Ignatius Mrak, bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Marquette
- William J. Olcott, mining executive and college football player
- Weldon Olson, hockey player
- David Palumbo, illustrator
- Jimmy Peters, Sr., NHL hockey player
- Hjalmar Peterson, musician and comedian
- Joseph G. Pinten, Catholic bishop
- Jeremy Porter, rock musician
- Robert Roosa, economist
- Chris Rothfuss, Wyoming politician
- Ralph Royce, USAF general
- Mark Francis Schmitt, Catholic bishop
- Bernard F. Sliger, former president, Florida State University
- Sycamore Smith, folk musician
- Matthew Songer, surgeon
- Frederic Dorr Steele, illustrator
- Mary Stein, actress
- Wendel Suckow, luger
- Jane Summersett, ice dancer
- Alfred P. Swineford, former mayor and newspaper editor
- John Vertin, Catholic bishop
- Peter White, businessman
In popular cultureEdit
- Robert Traver (John Voelker) set his novels Anatomy of a Murder (1958) and Laughing Whitefish (1965) in Marquette. The film version of Anatomy of a Murder, dramatizing a 1952 murder that happened in the area and the subsequent trial, was partly filmed in Marquette and Big Bay. Much of it was filmed in the Marquette County Courthouse in Marquette, where the actual murder case had been tried. Traver's Danny and the Boys (1951) is a collection of short stories set in and around Marquette.
- Philip Caputo set his novel Indian Country (1987) in the Upper Peninsula and several scenes depict Marquette.
- Jim Harrison's novel True North (2005) tells about a Marquette family whose wealth is based on exploiting Upper Peninsula timber.
- Jeffrey Eugenides' Pulitzer Prize winning novel, Middlesex (2002) refers to Marquette by name, in addition to other locations in Michigan.
- A large portion of the graphic novel Blankets, by Craig Thompson, takes place in Marquette.
- The Adult Swim television series Joe Pera Talks with You was partially filmed at and takes place in and around the city.
- City of Marquette (2020). "City Commission: Meet the Commission". Retrieved August 11, 2020.
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- "Marquette". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey.
- Smith, Nancy F. (March 8, 2012). "The 10 Best Places to Retire". Yahoo! Finance. Retrieved February 3, 2013.
- Eckert, Kathryn Bishop (2000). The Sandstone Architecture of the Lake Superior Region. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. pp. 89–91. ISBN 0-8143-2807-5.
- "[not listed]". Inland Seas. 1968 – via Google Books.[full citation needed]
- Romig, Walter (1986) . Michigan Place Names. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. ISBN 0-8143-1838-X.
- Bogue, Margaret Beattie (2007). Around the Shores of Lake Superior: A Guide to Historic Sites. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. pp. 237–39. ISBN 978-0-299-22174-4.
- "Post Office Photo Collection". Post Mark Collectors Club.
- Murphy, Joe (June 30, 1984). "Postal Card Honors Work of Snowshoe Priest". The Mining Journal. Marquette, MI. p. 1A. ISSN 0898-4964.
- "39c Lake Superior single". Arago.com. Retrieved April 23, 2013.
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- "Marquette Branch Prison". Michigan Department of Corrections.
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- "Marquette, Michigan Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase. Retrieved March 11, 2019.
- "Natural Processes in the Great Lakes". The Great Lakes An Environmental Atlas and Resource Book. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved May 10, 2013.
- "NOWData: NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved May 5, 2021.
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- "Summary of Monthly Normals 1991–2020". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on May 6, 2021. Retrieved May 6, 2021.
- SE, Windyty. "Windy as forecasted". www.windy.com. Retrieved March 11, 2019.
- "Marquette/FAA ARPT MI Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved March 17, 2017.
- Malewitz, Jim (November 11, 2019). "Marquette girds for climate change in Michigan's Upper Peninsula". Bridge, Michigan Environment Watch. Retrieved November 13, 2019.
- "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 8, 2018.
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- Shefchik, Claire (March 2, 2017). "Midwest Traveler: A new era in Marquette, Mich". Star Tribune. Retrieved June 5, 2017.
- Alusheff, Alexander (April 25, 2017). "Is Michigan craft beer at apex of its golden age?". Lansing State Journal. Retrieved June 5, 2017.
- Markle, Tyler (October 1, 2019). "Craft brewing a $300M industry in the Upper Peninsula". WLUC-TV.
- "Principal Ports of the United States". U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. October 12, 2016. Retrieved December 2, 2016.
- "Fishing". Travel Marquette. Travel Marquette. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
- "Presque Isle State Park: Winter Activities". Archived from the original on July 24, 2008.
- "Marquette Mountain Ski Resort". Archived from the original on February 17, 2007.
- "Marquette Maritime Museum and Lighthouse". Retrieved March 19, 2015.
- "Upper Peninsula Children's Museum". Upper Peninsula Children's Museum.
- "About Us". Marquette County History Museum. Archived from the original on May 10, 2008. Retrieved March 7, 2008.
- "DeVos Art Museum". Northern Michigan University.
- "About Us". Oasis Gallery for Contemporary Art. Archived from the original on June 2, 2002.
- "Marquette area 4th of July committee".
- "Blueberry Festival".
- "Superior Bike Fest".
- "The UP-200".
- "Noquemanon Ski Marathon".
- "Marquette Area Blues Fest". Marquette Area Blues Fest Society. Archived from the original on September 23, 2009.
- Cheatham, Sierra, ed. (June 2007). "City Notes". Marquette Monthly. Archived from the original on October 13, 2008. Retrieved February 3, 2013.
- "U.P. Fall Beer Festival". Michigan' Brewers Guild.
- "Ore 2 Shore". Ore 2 Shore.
- "Marquette Marathon and Half Marathon". Marquette Marathon.
- "Home Page". Out Back Art Fair.
- Thekan, Molly (November 1, 2016). "Sawyer International Airport Will Be Offering Flights to Minneapolis Come 2017". Upper Michigan's Source. Negaunee, MI: WLUC-TV. Retrieved January 10, 2017.
- "Hancock–Marquette–Green Bay–Milwaukee" (PDF). Indian Trails. January 12, 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 22, 2014. Retrieved February 27, 2013.
- Mejia, Mercedes (September 1, 2015). "Marquette Ore Docks a Reminder of the City's Maritime and Mining Heritage". Michigan Radio. Retrieved February 2, 2019.
- "Marquette Alternative High School at Vandenboom". Marquette Area Public Schools.
- "Fifth-Graders to Move to Bothwell". The Mining Journal. Marquette, MI. February 24, 2010. Retrieved February 3, 2013.
- "Graveraet Elementary". Marquette Area Public Schools.
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- Prusi, Renee (May 19, 2018). "Iron Man: First episode of new Adult Swim series pays tribute to U.P., mining history". The Mining Journal. Retrieved June 4, 2018.
- Hunt, Mary; Hunt, Don (2007). "Peter White Library". Hunts' Guide to Michigan's Upper Peninsula. Albion, MI: Midwestern Guides. Retrieved February 3, 2013.
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