Climate change adaptation

Climate change adaptation is the process of adjusting to current or expected effects of climate change.[1] It is one of the ways to respond to climate change, along with mitigation.[2] For humans, adaptation aims to moderate or avoid harm, and exploit opportunities; for natural systems, humans may intervene to help adjustment.[1] Adaptation actions can be either incremental (actions where the central aim is to maintain the essence and integrity of a system) or transformative (actions that change the fundamental attributes of a system in response to climate change and its impacts).[3] The need for adaptation varies from place to place, depending on the sensitivity and vulnerability to environmental impacts.[4][5] As of 2022, the Harvard Business Review stated that climate adaptation initiatives should be an urgent priority for business investment.[6][7]

Adapting to climate change involves structural, physical, social and institutional approaches. Clockwise from top left: reforestation and other habitat conservation; seawalls to protect against storm surge worsened by sea level rise; green roofs to moderate urban heat islands; selective breeding for drought-resistant crops.

Adaptation actions can be grouped into three categories: Structural and physical adaptation (this can be grouped into engineering and built environment, technological, ecosystem-based, services); Social adaptation (educational, informational, behavioral); and Institutional adaptation (economic organizations, laws and regulation, government policies and programs).[8]: 845 

Adaptation is especially important in developing countries since those countries are most vulnerable to climate change[9] and are bearing the brunt of the effects of climate change.[10][11] Human adaptive capacity is unevenly distributed across different regions and populations, and developing countries generally have less capacity to adapt.[12] Adaptive capacity is closely linked to social and economic development.[13]

In general higher levels of development mean higher adaptive capacity, but some development locks people in to certain patterns or behaviors. And the most developed areas may have low adaptation capacity to new types of natural hazards, not previously experienced, relative to more familiar natural hazards. The economic costs of adaptation to climate change are likely to cost billions of dollars annually for the next several decades.


In the IPCC Sixth Assessment Report in 2022, climate adaptation was defined as "the process of adjustment to actual or expected climate and its effects in order to moderate harm or take advantage of beneficial opportunities", in human systems. In natural systems on the other hand, adaptation is "the process of adjustment to actual climate and its effects"; human intervention may facilitate this.[14]: SPM-5 


Diagram explaining the relationships between risk, hazard mitigation, resilience, and adaptation

Respond to effects of climate changeEdit

The Paris Agreement of 2015 requires countries to keep global temperature rise this century to less than 2 °C above pre-industrial levels, and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C.[15] Even if emissions are stopped relatively soon, global warming and its effects will last many years due to the inertia of the climate system, so both net zero and adaptation are necessary.[16]

The projected effects for the environment and for civilization are numerous and varied. The main effect is an increasing global average temperature. As of 2013 the average surface temperature could increase by a further 0.3 to 4.8 °C (0.5 to 8.6 °F) by the end of the century.[17] This is causing a variety of secondary effects where in many cases the extent of change is uncertain. The most important of these are changes in patterns of precipitation, rising sea levels, altered patterns of agriculture, increased extreme weather events, the expansion of the range of tropical diseases, and the opening of new marine trade routes. Climate change will also have multifaceted social effects including inequity (social inequality), poverty and increased burden on women as main food and care providers for households. However, social effects such as increased migration, and conflict over resources like water and land, are generally hard to attribute to climate change as the only or main driver of change.

Potential biophysical effects include sea level rise of 110 to 770 mm (0.36 to 2.5 feet) between 1990 and 2100,[18] repercussions to agriculture, possible slowing of the thermohaline circulation, reductions in the ozone layer, increased intensity and frequency of extreme weather events, lowering of ocean pH, and the spread of tropical diseases such as malaria and dengue fever.

Reduce risk factorsEdit

Adaptation can help decrease climate risk via the three risk factors: hazards, vulnerability and exposure. Impacts of climate hazards (typically natural hazards) may be reduced with the help of ecosystem-based adaptation. For instance, flooding may be prevented if mangroves have the ability to dampen storm energy. As such, protection of the mangrove ecosystem can be a form of adaptation. Insurance and livelihood diversification increase resilience and decrease vulnerability. Further actions to decrease vulnerability include strengthening social protection and building infrastructure more resistant to hazards. Exposure can be decreased by retreating from areas with high climate risks, such as floodplains and by improving systems for early warnings and evacuations.[19]

Categories of adaptation actionsEdit

Adaptation actions can be grouped into three categories:[8]: 845 

  1. Structural and physical adaptation (this can be grouped into engineering and built environment, technological, ecosystem-based, services);
  2. Social adaptation (educational, informational, behavioral);
  3. Institutional adaptation (economic organizations, laws and regulation, government policies and programs).

Structural and physical adaptation optionsEdit

Wetland restoration in Australia
Checking contours in Monterey County strawberry fields, United States
Terraces, conservation tillage and conservation buffers save soil and improve water quality on this farm in Woodbury County in northwest Iowa, United States

Protection against flooding and sea level riseEdit

Flood protection for town of Ybbs along the river Donau

There are a wide variety of adaptation options for flooding:[20]

  • Installing protective and/ or resilient technologies and materials in properties that are prone to flooding[21]
  • Rainwater storage to deal with more frequent flooding rainfall – Changing to water-permeable pavements, adding water-buffering vegetation, adding underground storage tanks, subsidizing household rain barrels[22]
  • Reducing paved areas to deal with rainwater and heat[23]
  • Requiring waterfront properties to have higher foundations[24]
  • Raising pumps at wastewater treatment plants[24]
  • Surveying local vulnerabilities, raising public awareness, and making climate change-specific planning tools like future flood maps[24][25][26]
  • Installing devices to prevent seawater from backflowing into storm drains[24]
  • Installing better flood defenses, such as sea walls and increased pumping capacity[27]
  • Buying out homeowners in flood-prone areas[28]
  • Raising street level to prevent flooding[27]
  • Flooding could be prevented by using and protecting mangroves[29]

Dealing with more frequent drenching rains may required increasing the capacity of stormwater systems, and separating stormwater from blackwater, so that overflows in peak periods do not contaminate rivers. One example is the SMART Tunnel in Kuala Lumpur.

New York City produced a comprehensive report for its Rebuilding and Resiliency initiative after Hurricane Sandy. Its efforts include not only making buildings less prone to flooding, but taking steps to reduce the recurrence of specific problems encountered during and after the storm: weeks-long fuel shortages even in unaffected areas due to legal and transportation problems, flooded health care facilities, insurance premium increases, damage to electricity and steam generation in addition to distribution networks, and flooding of subway and roadway tunnels.[30]

Retreat, accommodate and protectEdit

Adaptation options to sea level rise can be broadly classified into retreat, accommodate and protect. Retreating involves moving people and infrastructure to less exposed areas and preventing further development in areas at risk. This type of adaptation is potentially disruptive, as displacement of people may lead to tensions. Accommodation options make societies more flexible to sea level rise. Examples are the cultivation of food crops that tolerate a high salt content in the soil and making new building standards which require building to be built higher and incur less damage in the case a flood does occur. Finally, areas can be protected by the construction of dams, dikes and by improving natural defenses.[31][32] In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency supports the development and maintenance of water supply infrastructure nationwide, especially in coastal cities, and more coastal cities and countries are actively implementing this approach.[33] Besides, storm surges and flooding can be instantaneous and devastating to cities, and some coastal areas have begun investing in storm water valves to cope with more frequent and severe flooding during high tides.[33]

Damming glacial lakesEdit

Glacial lake outburst floods may become a bigger concern due to the retreat of glaciers, leaving behind numerous lakes that are impounded by often weak terminal moraine dams. In the past, the sudden failure of these dams has resulted in localized property damage, injury and deaths. Glacial lakes in danger of bursting can have their moraines replaced with concrete dams (which may also provide hydroelectric power).[34]


A significant effect of global climate change is the altering of global rainfall patterns, with certain effects on agriculture.[35] Rainfed agriculture constitutes 80% of global agriculture.[36] Many of the 852 million poor people in the world live in parts of Asia and Africa that depend on rainfall to cultivate food crops. Climate change will modify rainfall, evaporation, runoff, and soil moisture storage. Extended drought can cause the failure of small and marginal farms with resultant economic, political and social disruption, more so than this currently occurs.

Agriculture of any kind is strongly influenced by the availability of water. Changes in total seasonal precipitation or in its pattern of variability are both important. The occurrence of moisture stress during flowering, pollination, and grain-filling is harmful to most crops and particularly so to corn, soybeans, and wheat. Increased evaporation from the soil and accelerated transpiration in the plants themselves will cause moisture stress.

Adaptive ideas include:

  • Taking advantage of global transportation systems to delivering surplus food to where it is needed[35] (though this does not help subsistence farmers unless aid is given).
  • Developing crop varieties with greater drought tolerance.[37]
  • Rainwater storage. For example, according to the International Water Management Institute, using small planting basins to 'harvest' water in Zimbabwe has been shown to boost maize yields, whether rainfall is abundant or scarce. And in Niger, they have led to three or fourfold increases in millet yields.[38]
  • Falling back from crops to wild edible fruits, roots and leaves. Promoting the growth of forests can provide these backup food supplies, and also provide watershed conservation, carbon sequestration, and aesthetic value.

Climate change can threaten food security and water security. Food systems can be adapted to enhance food security and to prevent future negative impacts from climate change.[39]

More spending on irrigationEdit

The demand for water for irrigation is projected to rise in a warmer climate, bringing increased competition between agriculture—already the largest consumer of water resources in semi-arid regions—and urban as well as industrial users. Falling water tables and the resulting increase in the energy needed to pump water will make the practice of irrigation more expensive, particularly when with drier conditions more water will be required per acre. Other strategies will be needed to make the most efficient use of water resources. For example, the International Water Management Institute has suggested five strategies that could help Asia feed its growing population in light of climate change. These are: Modernising existing irrigation schemes to suit modern methods of farming; supporting farmers' efforts to find their own water supplies, by tapping into groundwater in a sustainable way; Looking beyond conventional "Participatory Irrigation Management" schemes, by engaging the private sector; Expanding capacity and knowledge; Investing outside the irrigation sector.[40]

Protection against heatwaves and extreme heatEdit

Green roof

A 2020 study projects that regions inhabited by a third of the human population could become as hot as the hottest parts of the Sahara within 50 years without a change in patterns of population growth and without migration, unless greenhouse gas emissions are substantially reduced to a limit of 1.5 °C of warming. The most affected regions have little adaptive capacity as of 2020.[41][42][43]

Projects to adapt to or to reduce heat include:

  • Incentivizing lighter-colored roofs and paint of houses to reduce the heat island effect and use radiative cooling[24]
    • Specific paint formulations that reflect up to 98.1% of sunlight could be used[44][45]
  • Changing to heat tolerant tree varieties[22][46]
  • Adding green roofs to deal with rainwater and heat[22]
  • The use and development of air conditioning and cooling systems
    • Adding air conditioning in public schools[22] provides a cooler work place but can result in higher energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions unless solar energy is used.
  • Solar-energy passive cooling systems for houses and/or refrigeration
    • In some cases designs that are relatively low-cost, do not use electrical components, are off-grid and chemically store solar energy for on-demand use[47][48]


Ecosystems adapt to global warming depending on their resilience to climatic changes. Humans can help adaptation in ecosystems for biodiversity. Possible responses include increasing connectivity between ecosystems so that species can migrate on their own to more favorable climate conditions and assisting their migration through human transport of plants or animals. Protection and restoration of natural and semi-natural areas also helps build resilience, making it easier for ecosystems to adapt.[49]

Many of the actions that promote adaptation in ecosystems, also help humans adapt via ecosystem-based adaptation and nature-based solutions. For instance, restoration of natural fire regimes makes catastrophic fires less likely, and reduces the human exposure to this hazard. Giving rivers more space allows for storage of more water in the natural system, making floods in inhabited areas less likely. The provision of green spaces and tree planting creates shade for livestock. There is a trade-off between agricultural production and the restoration of ecosystems in some areas.[49]

Furthermore, humans can help ecosystems adapt to and become more resilient against climate change and its impacts. For instance, scientific research and development could be used to help coral reefs survive climate change.


Reforestation activities in Praslin, Seychelles

Reforestation is one of the ways to stop desertification fueled by anthropogenic climate change and non sustainable land use. One of the most important projects is the Great Green Wall that should stop the expansion of Sahara desert to the south. By 2018 only 15% of it is accomplished, but there are already many positive effects, which include: "Over 12 million acres (5 million hectares) of degraded land has been restored in Nigeria; roughly 30 million acres of drought-resistant trees have been planted across Senegal; and a whopping 37 million acres of land has been restored in Ethiopia – just to name a few of the states involved." "Many groundwater wells [were] refilled with drinking water, rural towns with additional food supplies, and new sources of work and income for villagers, thanks to the need for tree maintenance."[50][51][52]

Disaster response and preparednessEdit

As climate change is projected to increase frequency and severity of extreme weather events and disasters, adaptation may also include measures towards increased preparedness and relevant disaster response capacities.

Social adaptation optionsEdit

Enhancing adaptive capacityEdit

Adaptive capacity is the ability of a system (human, natural or managed) to adjust to climate change (including climate variability and extremes) to moderate potential damages, to take advantage of opportunities, or to cope with consequences.[53] As a property, adaptive capacity is distinct from adaptation itself.[54] Those societies that can respond to change quickly and successfully have a high adaptive capacity.[55] High adaptive capacity does not necessarily translate into successful adaptation. For example, adaptive capacity in Western Europe is generally considered to be high,[56] and the risks of warmer winters increasing the range of livestock diseases is well documented, but many parts of Europe were still badly affected by outbreaks of the Bluetongue virus in livestock in 2007. Adaptive capacity may include the capacity to produce, widely deploy and develop efficient and sustainable cooling technologies to protect populations against elevated temperatures.

Unmitigated climate change (i.e., future climate change without efforts to limit greenhouse gas emissions) would, in the long term, be likely to exceed the capacity of natural, managed and human systems to adapt.[57]

It has been found that efforts to enhance adaptive capacity can help to reduce vulnerability to climate change.[58] In many instances, activities to promote sustainable development can also act to enhance people's adaptive capacity to climate change. These activities can include: Improving access to resources, reducing poverty, lowering inequities of resources and wealth among groups, improving education and information, improving infrastructure, improving institutional capacity and efficiency, promoting local indigenous practices, knowledge, and experiences.[59]

Others have suggested that certain forms of gender inequity should be addressed at the same time;[60] for example women may have participation in decision-making, or be constrained by lower levels of education.[61]

Researchers at the Overseas Development Institute found that development interventions to increase adaptive capacity have tended not to result in increased agency for local people.[62] They argue that this should play a more prominent part in future intervention planning because agency is a central factor in all other aspects of adaptive capacity. Asset holdings and the ability to convert these resources through institutional and market processes are central to agency.[63]


Of humansEdit

The Government of Kiribati is addressing the threats of climate change to Kiribati, under the Kiribati Adaptation Program. Island nations in the Pacific are particularly vulnerable to sea level rise.

Migration can be seen as adaptation: people may be able to generate more income, diversify livelihoods, and spread climate risk.[64] This contrasts with two other frames around migration and environmental change: migration as a human rights issue and migration as a security issue. In the human right's frame, normative implications include developing protection frameworks for migrants, whereas increased border security may be an implication of framing migration as a national security issue.[65] Sometimes these approaches are combined for the development of solutions (laws and policies) that aim to be both viable, taking national concerns into account, and in accordance with human rights.[66] Furthermore, there may also be economic aspects of migration – high levels of migration and emigration of skilled workers – that decision-makers in both the – distant or nearby – host country and the country of origin may consider.[67] Vice versa, climate change could also exacerbate economic insecurity or political instability as causes for migration beyond temperatures[42] and extreme weather events.[68][69]

Would-be migrants often need access to social and financial capital, such as support networks in the chosen destination and the funds or physical resources to be able to move. Migration is frequently the last adaptive response households will take when confronted with environmental factors that threaten their livelihoods, and mostly resorted to when other mechanisms to cope have proven unsuccessful.[70]

Migration events are multi-causal, with the environment being just a factor amongst many. Many discussions around migration are based on projections, while relatively few use current migration data.[71] Migration related to sudden events like hurricanes, heavy rains, floods, and landslides is often short-distance, involuntary, and temporary. Slow-impact events, such as droughts and slowly rising temperatures, have more mixed effects. People may lose the means to migrate, leading to a net decrease in migration. The migration that does take place is seen as voluntary and economically motivated.[72]

Focusing on climate change as the issue may frame the debate around migration in terms of projections, causing the research to be speculative. Migration as tool for climate change adaptation is projected to be a more pressing issue in the decade to come.[73] In Africa, specifically, migrant social networks can help to build social capital to increase the social resilience in the communities of origin and trigger innovations across regions by the transfer of knowledge, technology, remittances and other resources.[74]

In Africa, Mozambique and Zimbabwe are clear examples of adaptation strategies because they have implemented relocation policies that have reduced the exposure of populations and migrants to disaster. Tools can be put in place that limit forced displacement after a disaster; promote employment programs, even if only temporary, for internally displaced people or establish funding plans to ensure their security; to minimize the vulnerability of populations from risk areas. This can limit the displacement caused by environmental shocks and better channel the positive spillovers (money transfers, experiences, etc.) from the migration to the origin countries/communities.[75]

Relocation from the effects of climate change has been brought to light more and more over the years from the constant increasing effects of climate change in the world. Coastal homes in the U.S. are in danger from climate change, this is leading residents to relocate to areas that are less affected.[76] Flooding in coastal areas and drought have been the main reasons for relocation.[76]

Climate migrants are a subset of environmental migrants who were forced to flee "due to sudden or gradual alterations in the natural environment related to at least one of three impacts of climate change: sea-level rise, extreme weather events, and drought and water scarcity."[77] Climate change is often described as a threat multiplier that compounds crises over time and space.[78] The United Nations Global Compact on Refugees states that “while not in themselves causes of refugee movements, climate, environmental degradation, and natural disasters increasingly interact with the drivers of refugee movements.”[79] Still, climate migration relates to matters of political instability, conflict, and national security. First, displaced people may be relocated to regions geographically vulnerable to the impacts of climate change.[78] Second, there are both short- and long-term effects of climate change. The cumulative impact of longer-term effects may lead to political conflict, insurrection, poverty, and other socioeconomic disparities.[80]

Of ecosystemsEdit

Assisted migration is the act of moving plants or animals to a different habitat. The destination habitat may or may not have once previously held the species; the only requirement is the destination habitat must provide the bioclimatic requirements to support the species. The goal of assisted migration is to remove the species from a threatening environment and give them a chance to survive and reproduce in an environment that does not pose an existential threat to the species.[81]

In recent years, assisted migration has been presented as a potential solution to the climate change crisis that has changed environments faster than natural selection can adapt to.[82][83] While assisted migration has the potential to allow species that have poor natural dispersal abilities to avoid extinction, it has also sparked intense debate over the possibility of the introduction of invasive species and diseases into previously healthy ecosystems. Despite these debates, scientists and land managers have already begun the process of assisted migration for certain species.[84]

In the North American context, assisted migration is most often discussed in the context of the relocalization of the continent's forests. In the late 2000s and early 2010s, the Canadian provinces of Alberta and British Columbia modified their tree reseeding guidelines to account for the northward movement of forest's optimal ranges.[85] British Columbia even gave the green light for the relocation of a single species, the Western Larch, 1000 km northward.[86]


Insurance spreads the financial impact of flooding and other extreme weather events.[87] Although it can be preferable to take a proactive approach to eliminate the cause of the risk, reactive post-harm compensation can be used as a last resort.[88] Access to reinsurance may be a form of increasing the resiliency of cities.[89] Where there are failures in the private insurance market, the public sector can subsidize premiums.[90] A study identified key equity issues for policy considerations:[90]

  • Transferring risk to the public purse does not reduce overall risk
  • Governments can spread the cost of losses across time rather than space
  • Governments can force home-owners in low risk areas to cross-subsidize the insurance premiums of those in high risk areas
  • Cross-subsidization is increasingly difficult for private sector insurers operating in a competitive market
  • Governments can tax people to pay for tomorrow's disaster.

Government-subsidized insurance, such as the U.S. National Flood Insurance Program, is criticized for providing a perverse incentive to develop properties in hazardous areas, thereby increasing overall risk.[91] It is also suggested that insurance can undermine other efforts to increase adaptation, for instance through property level protection and resilience.[92] This behavioral effect may be countered with appropriate land-use policies that limit new construction where current or future climate risks are perceived and/or encourage the adoption of resilient building codes to mitigate potential damages.[93]

Institutional adaptation optionsEdit

Launching the Coastal City Adaptation Project in Quelimane, Mozambique
Coastal City Adaptation Project, in Quelimane city, Mozambique. It will improve Quelimane's preparation for events like floods, erosion, sea level rise and other weather and climate related events.

Policies have been identified as important tools for integrating issues of climate change adaptation.[94] At national levels, adaptation strategies may be found in National Action Plans (NAPS [95]) and National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA, in developing countries), and/or in national policies and strategies on climate change. These are at different levels of development in different countries.

Cities, states, and provinces often have considerable responsibility in land use planning, public health, and disaster management. Some have begun to take steps to adapt to threats intensified by climate change, such as flooding, bushfires, heatwaves, and rising sea levels.[96][97][98]

Principles for effective policyEdit

Adaptive policy can occur at the global, national, or local scale, with outcomes dependent on the political will in that area.[99] Scheraga and Grambsch[100] identify nine principles to be considered when designing adaptation policy, including the effects of climate change varying by region, demographics, and effectiveness. Scheraga and Grambsch make it clear that climate change policy is impeded by the high level of variance surrounding climate change impacts as well as the diverse nature of the problems they face. James Titus, project manager for sea level rise at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, identifies the following criteria that policy makers should use in assessing responses to global warming: economic efficiency, flexibility, urgency, low cost, equity, institutional feasibility, unique or critical resources, health and safety, consistency, and private versus public sector.[101]

Adaptation can mitigate the adverse impacts of climate change, but it will incur costs and will not prevent all damage.[102] The IPCC points out that many adverse effects of climate change are not changes in the average conditions, but changes in the variation or the extremes of conditions.[103] For example, the average sea level in a port might not be as important as the height of water during a storm surge (which causes flooding); the average rainfall in an area might not be as important as how frequent and severe droughts and extreme precipitation events become.[104] Additionally, effective adaptive policy can be difficult to implement because policymakers are rewarded more for enacting short-term change, rather than long-term planning.[105] Since the impacts of climate change are generally not seen in the short term, policymakers have less incentive to act. Furthermore, climate change is occurring on a global scale, leading to global policy and research efforts such as the Paris Agreement and research through the IPCC, creating a global framework for adapting to and combating climate change.[106] The vast majority of climate change adaptation and mitigation policies are being implemented on a more local scale because different regions must adapt differently and because national and global policies are often more challenging to enact.[107]


The economic costs of adaptation to climate change are likely to cost billions of dollars annually for the next several decades, though the exact amount of money needed is unknown.[108] In addition to the direct costs associated with adaptation, there is also an indirect cost arising from a diversion of resources from productive towards adaptive capital (known as the adaptive investment effect).[109] The adaptation challenge grows with the magnitude and the rate of climate change. Even the most effective climate change mitigation[110] through reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions or enhanced removal of these gases from the atmosphere (through carbon sinks)[111] would not prevent further climate change impacts, making the need for adaptation unavoidable and the adaptation gap is growing.[112]

An extensive research literature assesses options for responses to global warming. Much of this literature addresses the potential economic costs associated with different strategies. The Asian Development Bank has a series of studies on the Economics of Climate Change in the Asia-Pacific region.[113] These studies provide cost analysis of both adaptation and mitigation measures. The WEAP (Water Evaluation And Planning system) assists water resources researchers and planners in assessing impacts of and adaptations to climate change. The United Nations Development Programme's Climate Change Adaptation Portal includes studies on climate change adaptation in Africa, Europe and Central Asia, and Asia and the Pacific.[114]

In addition to the direct costs associated with spending on adaptation and mitigation there is also research indicating the cost associated with diverting resources away from productive sources towards these adaptation purposes. Such a diversion is termed the adaptive investment effect (AIE) and evidence suggests that the impact of investment on economic growth is reduced by around 30% in areas which invest heavily in adaptive technologies. [109]

International financeEdit

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, under Article 11, incorporates a financial mechanism to developing country parties to support them with adaptation.[115] Until 2009, three funds existed under the UNFCCC financial mechanism. The Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF)[116] and the Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF) are administered by the Global Environmental Facility.[117] The Adaptation Fund was established a result of negotiations during COP15 and COP16 and is administered by its own Secretariat. Initially, when the Kyoto Protocol was in operation, the Adaptation Fund was financed by a 2% levy on the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM).

At the 2009 Copenhagen Summit, nations committed to the goal of sending $100 billion per year to developing countries for climate change mitigation and adaptation by 2020.[118] The Green Climate Fund was created in 2010 as one of the channels for mobilizing this climate finance. At the 2015 Paris conference, it was clarified that the $100 billion per year should involve a balanced split between mitigation and adaptation. As of December 2020, the promised $100 billion per year had not been fully delivered, and most developing country finance was still targeted towards mitigation, with adaptation only receiving a 21% share of the public finance provided in 2020.[119][120][121]


A key and defining feature of international adaptation finance is its premise on the concept of additionality. This reflects the linkages between adaptation finance and other levels of development aid.[122] Many developed countries already provide international aid assistance to developing countries to address challenges such as poverty, malnutrition, food insecurity,[123] availability of drinking water, indebtedness, illiteracy, unemployment, local resource conflicts, and lower technological development. Climate change threatens to exacerbate or stall progress on fixing some of these pre-existing problems, and creates new problems. To avoid existing aid being redirected, additionality refers to the extra costs of adaptation.

The four main definitions of additionality are:[122]

  1. Climate finance classified as aid, but additional to (over and above) the 0.7% ODA target;
  2. Increase on previous year's Official Development Assistance (ODA) spent on climate change mitigation;
  3. Rising ODA levels that include climate change finance but where it is limited to a specified percentage; and
  4. Increase in climate finance not connected to ODA.

A criticism of additionality is that it encourages business as usual that does not account for the future risks of climate change. Some advocates have thus proposed integrating climate change adaptation into poverty reduction programs.[124]

From 2010 to 2020, Denmark increased its global warming adaptation aid 33%, from 0.09% of GDP to 0.12% of GDP, but not by additionality. Instead, the aid was subtracted from other foreign assistance funds. Politiken wrote: "Climate assistance is taken from the poorest."[125]


Differing time scalesEdit

Adaptation can occur in anticipation of change (anticipatory adaptation), or be a response to those changes (reactive adaptation).[126] For example, artificial snow-making in the European Alps responds to current climate trends, whereas construction of the Confederation Bridge in Canada at a higher elevation takes into account the effect of future sea-level rise on ship clearance under the bridge.[61]


Much adaptation takes place in relation to short-term climate variability, however this may cause maladaptation to longer-term climatic trends. For example, the expansion of irrigation in Egypt into the Western Sinai desert after a period of higher river flows is a maladaptation when viewed in relation to the longer term projections of drying in the region.[127] Adaptations at one scale can also create externalities at another by reducing the adaptive capacity of other actors. This is often the case when broad assessments of the costs and benefits of adaptation are examined at smaller scales and it is possible to see that whilst the adaptation may benefit some actors, it has a negative effect on others.[126]

Traditional coping strategiesEdit

People have always adapted to climatic changes and some community coping strategies already exist, for example changing sowing times or adopting new water-saving techniques.[127] Traditional knowledge and coping strategies must be maintained and strengthened, otherwise adaptive capacity may be weakened as local knowledge of the environment is lost. Strengthening these local techniques and building upon them also makes it more likely that adaptation strategies will be adopted, as it creates more community ownership and involvement in the process.[61] In many cases this will not be enough to adapt to new conditions which are outside the range of those previously experienced, and new techniques will be needed.[55] The incremental adaptations which have been implemented become insufficient as the vulnerabilities and risks of climate change increase, this causes a need for transformational adaptations which are much larger and costlier.[128] Current development efforts are increasingly focusing on community-based climate change adaptation, seeking to enhance local knowledge, participation and ownership of adaptation strategies.[129]

Synergies with mitigationEdit

IPCC Working Group II,[130] the United States National Academy of Sciences,[131] the United Nations Disaster Risk Reduction Office,[132] and other science policy experts[133] agree that while mitigating the emission of greenhouse gases is important, adaptation to the effects of global warming will still be necessary.

There are some synergies and trade-offs between adaptation and mitigation. Adaptation measures often offer short-term benefits, whereas mitigation has longer-term benefits.[134] Sometimes climate-relevant actions may point in different directions. For instance, compact urban development may lead to reduced transport and building greenhouse gas emissions. Simultaneously, it may increase the urban heat island effect, leading to higher temperatures and increasing exposure, making adaptation more challenging.[135]

Synergies include the benefits of public transport for both mitigation and adaptation. Public transport has lower greenhouse gas emissions per kilometer travelled than cars. A good public transport network also increases resilience in case of disasters: evacuation and emergency access becomes easier. Reduced air pollution from public transport improves health, which in turn may lead to improved economic resilience, as healthy workers perform better.[136]

Global goalsEdit

Sustainable Development Goal 13, which was set in 2015, aims to strengthen countries' resilience and adaptive capacities to climate-related issues.[137] This adjustment includes many areas such as infrastructure,[138] agriculture[139] and education. The Paris Agreement includes several provisions for adaptation. It seeks to promote the idea of global responsibility, improve communication via the adaptation component of the Nationally Determined Contributions, and includes an agreement that developed countries should provide some financial support and technology transfer to promote adaptation in more vulnerable countries.[140]

By countryEdit

A 2020 United Nations report found that while 72% of countries had a high level adaptation instrument – such as a plan, policy or strategy – relatively few had progressed to the tangible implementation of projects. At least not to the point where the climate risk their populations are exposed to had been significantly reduced.[141]

By cityEdit

A May 2021 report based on a survey of 812 global cities found that while 93% reported they are at risk from climate change, 43% did not have an adaptation plan, and 41% of cities had not carried out a climate risk and vulnerability assessment.[142]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b IPCC (2014). "Glossary" (PDF). Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
  2. ^ "Responding to Climate Change". NASA. 21 December 2020. Archived from the original on 4 January 2021.
  3. ^ IPCC. "Adaptation needs and options" (PDF). Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
  4. ^ Green, Donna; Alexander, Lisa; Mclnnes, Kathy; Church, John; Nicholls, Neville; White, Neil (11 December 2009). "An assessment of climate change impacts and adaptation for the Torres Strait Islands, Australia". Climatic Change. 102 (3–4): 405–433. doi:10.1007/s10584-009-9756-2. ISSN 0165-0009. S2CID 39706162.
  5. ^ Sarkodie, Samuel Asumadu; Strezov, Vladimir (15 March 2019). "Economic, social and governance adaptation readiness for mitigation of climate change vulnerability: Evidence from 192 countries". Science of the Total Environment. 656: 150–164. Bibcode:2019ScTEn.656..150S. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.11.349. ISSN 0048-9697. PMID 30504017. S2CID 56149895.
  6. ^ Chidambaram, Ravi; Khanna, Parag (1 August 2022). "It's Time to Invest in Climate Adaptation". Harvard Business Review. ISSN 0017-8012. Retrieved 7 September 2022.
  7. ^ Dolšak, Nives; Prakash, Aseem (17 October 2018). "The Politics of Climate Change Adaptation". Annual Review of Environment and Resources. 43 (1): 317–341. doi:10.1146/annurev-environ-102017-025739. ISSN 1543-5938. Retrieved 7 September 2022.
  8. ^ a b Noble, I.R., S. Huq, Y.A. Anokhin, J. Carmin, D. Goudou, F.P. Lansigan, B. Osman-Elasha, and A. Villamizar, 2014: Adaptation needs and options. In: Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Field, C.B., V.R. Barros, D.J. Dokken, K.J. Mach, M.D. Mastrandrea, T.E. Bilir, M. Chatterjee, K.L. Ebi, Y.O. Estrada, R.C. Genova, B. Girma, E.S. Kissel, A.N. Levy, S. MacCracken, P.R. Mastrandrea, and L.L.White (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 833-868.
  9. ^ Nations, United. "The Health Effects Of Global Warming: Developing Countries Are The Most Vulnerable". United Nations. Retrieved 24 November 2020.
  10. ^ "Unprecedented Impacts of Climate Change Disproportionately Burdening Developing Countries, Delegate Stresses, as Second Committee Concludes General Debate | Meetings Coverage and Press Releases". Retrieved 12 December 2019.
  11. ^ Sarkodie, Samuel Asumadu; Ahmed, Maruf Yakubu; Owusu, Phebe Asantewaa (5 April 2022). "Global adaptation readiness and income mitigate sectoral climate change vulnerabilities". Humanities and Social Sciences Communications. 9 (1): 1–17. doi:10.1057/s41599-022-01130-7. ISSN 2662-9992. S2CID 247956525.
  12. ^ Schneider, S.H., S. Semenov, A. Patwardhan, I. Burton, C.H.D. Magadza, M. Oppenheimer, A.B. Pittock, A. Rahman, J.B. Smith, A. Suarez and F. Yamin (2007). Executive summary. In (book chapter): Chapter 19: Assessing Key Vulnerabilities and the Risk from Climate Change. In: Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (M.L. Parry, O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, P.J. van der Linden and C.E. Hanson, Eds.). Print version: Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. This version: IPCC website. ISBN 978-0-521-88010-7. Archived from the original on 2 May 2010. Retrieved 6 April 2010.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  13. ^ IPCC (2007). 4. Adaptation and mitigation options. In (book section): Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Core Writing Team, Pachauri, R.K and Reisinger, A. (eds.)). Print version: IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland. This version: IPCC website. ISBN 978-92-9169-122-7. Archived from the original on 1 May 2010. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
  14. ^ Pörtner, Hans-O.; Roberts, Debra; Adams, Helen; Adler, Caroline; et al. "Summary for Policymakers" (PDF). Climate Change 2022: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
  15. ^ "The Paris Agreement". Retrieved 24 November 2020.
  16. ^ Farber, Daniel A. (2007). "Adapting to Climate Change: Who Should Pay?". Journal of Land Use & Environmental Law. 23: 1. doi:10.2139/ssrn.980361. ISSN 1556-5068. S2CID 153945185.
  17. ^ IPCC AR5 WG1 Technical Summary 2013, p. 57.
  18. ^ Jackson, Randal. "The Effects of Climate Change". Climate Change: Vital Signs of the Planet. Retrieved 18 June 2022.
  19. ^ Abram, N.; Gattuso, J.-P.; Prakash, A.; Cheng, L.; et al. (2019). "Chapter 1: Framing and Context of the Report" (PDF). The Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate. IPCC. p. 88.
  20. ^ All Climate Is Local: How Mayors Fight Global Warming Archived 25 December 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  21. ^ White, I.; Connelly, A.; Garvin, S.; Lawson, N.; O'Hare, P. (2018). "Flood resilience technology in Europe: identifying barriers and co-producing best practice" (PDF). Journal of Flood Risk Management. 11: S468–S478. doi:10.1111/jfr3.12239. ISSN 1753-318X. S2CID 55098365.
  22. ^ a b c d City Prepares for a Warm Long-Term Forecast Archived 8 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine New York Times 22 May 2011
  23. ^ Revkin, Andrew C. (23 May 2011). "Cities Embrace the Adaptation Imperative". The New York Times.
  24. ^ a b c d e Koch, Wendy (15 August 2011). "Cities combat climate change". USA Today.
  25. ^ Lausche, Barbara, and Luke Maier. "Sea Level Rise Adaptation: Emerging Lessons for Local Policy Development." Mote Marine Laboratory. Technical Report No. 1723. [1]
  26. ^ Huang, I. B.; Keisler, J.; Linkov, I. (2011). "Multi-criteria decision analysis in environmental sciences: Ten years of applications and trends". Science of the Total Environment. 409 (19): 3578–94. Bibcode:2011ScTEn.409.3578H. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.06.022. PMID 21764422.
  27. ^ a b As Waters Rise, Miami Beach Builds Higher Streets And Political Willpower Archived 8 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  28. ^ New Jersey homeowners to get buyout offers after Superstorm Sandy Archived 6 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  29. ^ Menéndez, Pelayo; Losada, Iñigo J.; Torres-Ortega, Saul; Narayan, Siddharth; Beck, Michael W. (10 March 2020). "The Global Flood Protection Benefits of Mangroves". Scientific Reports. 10 (1): 4404. Bibcode:2020NatSR..10.4404M. doi:10.1038/s41598-020-61136-6. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 7064529. PMID 32157114.
  30. ^ NYC Special Initiative for Rebuilding and Resiliency: A Stronger, More Resilient New York Archived 1 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  31. ^ Thomsen, Dana C.; Smith, Timothy F.; Keys, Noni (2012). "Adaptation or Manipulation? Unpacking Climate Change Response Strategies". Ecology and Society. 17 (3). doi:10.5751/es-04953-170320. JSTOR 26269087.
  32. ^ Fletcher, Cameron (2013). "Costs and coasts: an empirical assessment of physical and institutional climate adaptation pathways". Apo.
  33. ^ a b "Climate Adaptation and Sea Level Rise". US EPA, Climate Change Adaptation Resource Center (ARC-X). 2 May 2016.
  34. ^ "Many hydroelectric plants in Himalayas are at risk from glacial lakes - environmentalresearchweb". Archived from the original on 7 March 2018. Retrieved 6 March 2018.
  35. ^ a b Jennings, Paul A. (February 2008). "Dealing with Climate Change at the Local Level" (PDF). Chemical Engineering Progress. American Institute of Chemical Engineers. 104 (2): 40–44. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 December 2008. Retrieved 29 February 2008.
  36. ^ Falkenmark, Malin; Rockstrom, Johan; Rockström, Johan (2004). Balancing Water for Humans and Nature: The New Approach in Ecohydrology. Earthscan. ISBN 978-1-85383-926-9.
  37. ^ Berthouly-Salazar, Cécile; Vigouroux, Yves; Billot, Claire; Scarcelli, Nora; Jankowski, Frédérique; Kane, Ndjido Ardo; Barnaud, Adeline; Burgarella, Concetta (2019). "Adaptive Introgression: An Untapped Evolutionary Mechanism for Crop Adaptation". Frontiers in Plant Science. 10: 4. doi:10.3389/fpls.2019.00004. ISSN 1664-462X. PMC 6367218. PMID 30774638.
  38. ^ Diverse water sources key to food security: report Archived 1 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Reuters, 5 September 2010
  39. ^ "Adapting to climate change to sustain food security". International Livestock Research Institute. 16 November 2020.
  40. ^ Mukherji, A. Revitalising Asia's Irrigation: To sustainably meet tomorrow's food needs 2009, IWMI and FAO
  41. ^ "Climate change: More than 3bn could live in extreme heat by 2070". BBC News. 5 May 2020. Archived from the original on 5 May 2020. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
  42. ^ a b Xu, Chi; Kohler, Timothy A.; Lenton, Timothy M.; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Scheffer, Marten (26 May 2020). "Future of the human climate niche – Supplementary Materials". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 117 (21): 11350–11355. doi:10.1073/pnas.1910114117. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 7260949. PMID 32366654.
  43. ^ "Future of the human climate niche" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 May 2020. Retrieved 25 June 2020.
  44. ^ "Whitest-ever paint could help cool heating Earth, study shows". The Guardian. 15 April 2021. Retrieved 16 April 2021.
  45. ^ Li, Xiangyu; Peoples, Joseph; Yao, Peiyan; Ruan, Xiulin (15 April 2021). "Ultrawhite BaSO4 Paints and Films for Remarkable Daytime Subambient Radiative Cooling". ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. 13 (18): 21733–21739. doi:10.1021/acsami.1c02368. ISSN 1944-8244. PMID 33856776. S2CID 233259255. Retrieved 9 May 2021.
  46. ^ Simire, Michael (16 July 2019). "Climate change: Farm embarks on planting heat-resistant trees". EnviroNews Nigeria -. Retrieved 24 September 2019.
  47. ^ "Sunlight and salt water join forces in electricity-free cooling system". New Atlas. 20 September 2021. Retrieved 20 October 2021.
  48. ^ Wang, Wenbin; Shi, Yusuf; Zhang, Chenlin; Li, Renyuan; Wu, Mengchun; Zhuo, Sifei; Aleid, Sara; Wang, Peng (1 September 2021). "Conversion and storage of solar energy for cooling". Energy & Environmental Science. 15: 136–145. doi:10.1039/D1EE01688A. ISSN 1754-5706. S2CID 239698764.
  49. ^ a b Morecroft, Michael D.; Duffield, Simon; Harley, Mike; Pearce-Higgins, James W.; Stevens, Nicola; Watts, Olly; Whitaker, Jeanette (2019). "Measuring the success of climate change adaptation and mitigation in terrestrial ecosystems". Science. 366 (6471): eaaw9256. doi:10.1126/science.aaw9256. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 31831643. S2CID 209339286.
  50. ^ Corbley, McKinley (31 March 2019). "Dozens of Countries Have Been Working to Plant 'Great Green Wall' – and It's Holding Back Poverty". Good News Network.
  51. ^ Puiu, Tibi (3 April 2019). "More than 20 African countries are planting a 8,000-km-long 'Great Green Wall'". ZME Science. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
  52. ^ Goyal, Nidhi (29 October 2017). "Great Green Wall to Combat Climate Change in Africa". Industry Tap. Retrieved 7 June 2019.
  53. ^ IPCC (2018). "Annex I: Glossary" (PDF). IPCC SR15. pp. 541–562.
  54. ^ Gupta, Joyeeta; Termeer, Catrien; Klostermann, Judith; Meijerink, Sander; van den Brink, Margo; Jong, Pieter; Nooteboom, Sibout; Bergsma, Emmy (1 October 2010). "The Adaptive Capacity Wheel: a method to assess the inherent characteristics of institutions to enable the adaptive capacity of society". Environmental Science & Policy. 13 (6): 459–471. doi:10.1016/j.envsci.2010.05.006. hdl:1765/20798. ISSN 1462-9011.
  55. ^ a b Smit, Barry; Wandel, Johanna (2006). "Adaptation, adaptive capacity and vulnerability" (PDF). Global Environmental Change. 16 (3): 282–292. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2006.03.008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 June 2010. Retrieved 29 August 2010.
  56. ^ Juhola, Sirkku; Peltonen, Lasse; Niemi, Petteri (2013), "Assessing Adaptive Capacity to Climate Change in European Regions", European Climate Vulnerabilities and Adaptation, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, pp. 113–130, doi:10.1002/9781118474822.ch7, ISBN 9781118474822
  57. ^ "Synthesis report". Sec 6.3 Responses to climate change: Robust findings]., in IPCC AR4 SYR 2007
  58. ^ Smit, B. (2001). Executive summary. In (book chapter): Adaptation to Climate Change in the Context of Sustainable Development and Equity. In: Climate Change 2001: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (J.J. McCarthy et al. (eds.)). Print version: Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, and New York, N.Y., U.S.A.. This version: GRID-Arendal website. ISBN 978-0-521-80768-5. Archived from the original on 14 May 2016. Retrieved 10 January 2010.
  59. ^ Smit, B. (2001). 18.6.1. Adaptive Capacity and Sustainable Development. In (book chapter): Adaptation to Climate Change in the Context of Sustainable Development and Equity. In: Climate Change 2001: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (J.J. McCarthy et al. (eds.)). Print version: Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, and New York, N.Y., U.S.A.. This version: GRID-Arendal website. ISBN 978-0-521-80768-5. Archived from the original on 14 May 2016. Retrieved 10 January 2010.
  60. ^ "Gender and Climate Change". Stockholm Environment Institute WikiADAPT. 2 July 2009. Retrieved 29 August 2010.
  61. ^ a b c "Assessment of adaptation practices, options, constraints and capacity" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 August 2010. Retrieved 29 August 2010.
  62. ^ "Changing focus? How to take adaptive capacity seriously. Evidence from Africa shows that development interventions could do more" (PDF). Overseas Development Institute. Briefing paper 71. January 2012. Retrieved 23 January 2020.
  63. ^ Prowse, M., & Scott, L. (2008). Assets and adaptation: an emerging debate. IDS bulletin, 39(4), 42-52.
  64. ^ Ober, Kayly; Sakdapolrak, Patrick (2017). "How do social practices shape policy? Analysing the field of 'migration as adaptation' with Bourdieu's 'Theory of Practice'". The Geographical Journal. 183 (4): 359–369. doi:10.1111/geoj.12225. ISSN 1475-4959.
  65. ^ McAuliffe, Marie; Khadria, Binod, eds. (2019). "Human Mobility and Adaptation to Environmental Change" (PDF). World Migration Report 2020. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Migration (IOM). p. 284. ISBN 978-92-9068-789-4.
  66. ^ "'Climate Change Migrants': Impediments to a Protection Framework and the Need to Incorporate Migration into Climate Change Adaptation Strategies". International Journal of Refugee Law.
  67. ^ Waldinger, Maria; Fankhauser, Samuel (19 October 2015). "Climate change and migration in developing countries: evidence and implications for PRISE countries".
  68. ^ "How does climate change affect migration?". Stanford Earth. 2 June 2021.
  69. ^ Lilleør, Helene Bie; Van den Broeck, Katleen (1 December 2011). "Economic drivers of migration and climate change in LDCs". Global Environmental Change. 21: S70–S81. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2011.09.002. ISSN 0959-3780.
  70. ^ Source: Unescopress. ""Migration and Climate Change" A UNESCO publication on one of the greatest challenges facing our time | United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization". Retrieved 18 November 2011.
  71. ^ Bardsley, Douglas K.; Hugo, Graeme J. (1 December 2010). "Migration and climate change: examining thresholds of change to guide effective adaptation decision-making". Population and Environment. 32 (2–3): 238–262. doi:10.1007/s11111-010-0126-9. ISSN 0199-0039. S2CID 154353891.
  72. ^ Cattaneo, Cristina; Beine, Michel; Fröhlich, Christiane J.; Kniveton, Dominic; Martinez-Zarzoso, Inmaculada; Mastrorillo, Marina; Millock, Katrin; Piguet, Etienne; Schraven, Benjamin (2019). "Human Migration in the Era of Climate Change". Review of Environmental Economics and Policy. 13 (2): 189–206. doi:10.1093/reep/rez008. hdl:10.1093/reep/rez008. ISSN 1750-6816. S2CID 198660593.
  73. ^ Adamo, Susana B. (2008). "Addressing Environmentally Induced Population Displacements. A Delicate Task". Population Environment Research Network. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  74. ^ Scheffran, Jürgen; Marmer, Elina; Sow, Papa (April 2012). "Migration as a contribution to resilience and innovation in climate adaptation: Social networks and co-development in Northwest Africa". Applied Geography. 33: 119–127. doi:10.1016/j.apgeog.2011.10.002.
  75. ^ Ionesco, Dina; Mokhnacheva, Daria; Gemenne, François (2013). Atlas des migrations environnementales. Presses de Sciences Po.[page needed]
  76. ^ a b "Climate Change and the Challenge of Community Relocation". NC State News. 25 August 2020. Retrieved 23 November 2020.
  77. ^ Global Governance Project. (2012). Forum on Climate Refugees. Retrieved on 5 May 2012.
  78. ^ a b Refugees, United Nations High Commissioner for. "Climate change and disaster displacement". UNHCR. Retrieved 24 November 2021.
  79. ^ United States, Congress, High Commissioner for Refugees. Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees: Part II: Global Compact on Refugees, United Nations, 2018.
  80. ^ "Will climate-friendly cities be friendly to climate migrants?". Fix. 25 June 2021. Retrieved 24 November 2021.
  81. ^ McLachlan, J. S.; Hellmann, J. J.; Schwartz, M. W. (2007). "A Framework for Debate of Assisted Migration in an Era of Climate Change". Conservation Biology. 21 (2): 297–302. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2007.00676.x. PMID 17391179.
  82. ^ Allen, C. D.; MacAlady, A. K.; Chenchouni, H.; Bachelet, D.; McDowell, N.; Vennetier, M.; Kitzberger, T.; Rigling, A.; Breshears, D. D.; Hogg, E. H. T.; Gonzalez, P.; Fensham, R.; Zhang, Z.; Castro, J.; Demidova, N.; Lim, J. H.; Allard, G.; Running, S. W.; Semerci, A.; Cobb, N. (2010). "A global overview of drought and heat-induced tree mortality reveals emerging climate change risks for forests" (PDF). Forest Ecology and Management. 259 (4): 660. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2009.09.001. S2CID 4144174.
  83. ^ Zhu, K.; Woodall, C. W.; Clark, J. S. (2012). "Failure to migrate: Lack of tree range expansion in response to climate change". Global Change Biology. 18 (3): 1042. Bibcode:2012GCBio..18.1042Z. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2011.02571.x. S2CID 31248474.
  84. ^ Heller, N. E.; Zavaleta, E. S. (2009). "Biodiversity management in the face of climate change: A review of 22 years of recommendations". Biological Conservation. 142: 14–32. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2008.10.006.
  85. ^ Williams, Mary I.; Dumroese, R. Kasten (2014). "Assisted Migration: What It Means to Nursery Managers and Tree Planters" (PDF). Tree Planters' Notes. 57 (1): 21–26.
  86. ^ Klenk, Nicole L. (1 March 2015). "The development of assisted migration policy in Canada: An analysis of the politics of composing future forests". Land Use Policy. 44: 101–109. doi:10.1016/j.landusepol.2014.12.003. ISSN 0264-8377.
  87. ^ Kousky, Carolyn (5 October 2019). "The Role of Natural Disaster Insurance in Recovery and Risk Reduction". Annual Review of Resource Economics. 11 (1): 399–418. doi:10.1146/annurev-resource-100518-094028. ISSN 1941-1340. Retrieved 7 September 2022.
  88. ^ Duus 2011, p.323
  89. ^ "Mind the risk: cities under threat from natural disasters". SwissRe. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 30 September 2014.
  90. ^ a b McAneney, J, Crompton, R, McAneney, D, Musulin, R, Walker, G & Pielke Jr, R 2013, "Market-based mechanisms for climate change adaptation: Assessing the potential for and limits to insurance and market based mechanisms for encouraging climate change adaptation." National Climate Change Adaptation Research Facility, Gold Coast, p. 99
  91. ^ Holloway, J.M.; Burby, R.J. (1990). "The effects of floodplain development controls on residential land values". Land Economics. 66 (3): 259–271. doi:10.2307/3146728. JSTOR 3146728.
  92. ^ O'Hare, Paul; White, Iain; Connelly, Angela (1 September 2015). "Insurance as maladaptation: Resilience and the 'business as usual' paradox" (PDF). Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy. 34 (6): 1175–1193. doi:10.1177/0263774X15602022. ISSN 0263-774X. S2CID 155016786.
  93. ^ Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Stapleton, K.; D'Agostino, J.R. (2007). "Taxes, subsidies, and insurance as drivers of United States coastal development". Ecological Economics. 63 (2–3): 285–298. doi:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2006.09.019.
  94. ^ "The politics of climate change: national responses to the challenge of global warming (Library resource)". European Institute for Gender Equality. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
  95. ^ "National Adaptation Plans". United Nations Climate Change (UNFCCC). Retrieved 24 January 2020.
  96. ^ Preston, B.L.; Brooke, C.; Measham, T.G.; Smith, T.F.; Gorddard, R. (2009). "Igniting change in local government: Lessons learned from a bushfire vulnerability assessment". Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change. 14 (3): 251–283. doi:10.1007/s11027-008-9163-4. S2CID 154962315.
  97. ^ Kuhl, Laura; Rahman, M. Feisal; McCraine, Samantha; Krause, Dunja; Hossain, Md Fahad; Bahadur, Aditya Vansh; Huq, Saleemul (18 October 2021). "Transformational Adaptation in the Context of Coastal Cities". Annual Review of Environment and Resources. 46 (1): 449–479. doi:10.1146/annurev-environ-012420-045211. ISSN 1543-5938. Retrieved 7 September 2022.
  98. ^ Solecki, William; Friedman, Erin (1 April 2021). "At the Water's Edge: Coastal Settlement, Transformative Adaptation, and Well-Being in an Era of Dynamic Climate Risk". Annual Review of Public Health. 42 (1): 211–232. doi:10.1146/annurev-publhealth-090419-102302. ISSN 0163-7525. Retrieved 7 September 2022.
  99. ^ Urwin, Kate; Jordan, Andrew (1 February 2008). "Does public policy support or undermine climate change adaptation? Exploring policy interplay across different scales of governance". Global Environmental Change. 18 (1): 180–191. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2007.08.002. ISSN 0959-3780.
  100. ^ "Science Inventory | Science Inventory | US EPA" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 September 2014. Retrieved 3 April 2006.
  101. ^ Titus, James. "Strategies for Adaptation to Global Warming" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 May 2012. Retrieved 2 December 2011.
  102. ^ "Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change". World Bank. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
  103. ^ "Climate Change 2001: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability". Archived from the original on 7 January 2010. Retrieved 29 August 2010.
  104. ^ "Climate change impacts | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration". Retrieved 24 April 2018.
  105. ^ Rosenbaum, Walter A. (2017). Environmental Politics and Policy. Thousand Oaks, CA: CQ Press. ISBN 978-1-4522-3996-5.
  106. ^ "Climate Change". 11 January 2016. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
  107. ^ Wood, Robert; Hultquist, Andy; Romsdahl, Rebecca (1 November 2014). "An Examination of Local Climate Change Policies in the Great Plains". Review of Policy Research. 31 (6): 529–554. doi:10.1111/ropr.12103.
  108. ^ World Bank (2010). The Cost to Developing Countries of Adapting to Climate Change: New Methods and Estimates (PDF). World Bank.
  109. ^ a b Mohaddes, Kamiar; Williams, Rhys (2020). "The Adaptive Investment Effect: Evidence from Chinese Provinces". Economics Letters. 193 (1): 109332. doi:10.1016/j.econlet.2020.109332. ISSN 0165-1765. S2CID 219557741.
  110. ^ Verbruggen, A. (2007). Glossary J-P. In (book section): Annex I. In: Climate Change 2007: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (B. Metz et al. (eds.)). Print version: Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, and New York, N.Y., U.S.A.. This version: IPCC website. ISBN 978-0-521-88011-4. Archived from the original on 3 May 2010. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
  111. ^ UNFCCC, UNFCCC Glossary of Climate Change Acronyms, accessed 24 October 2010[permanent dead link]
  112. ^ Klein, R.J.T. (2007). Executive summary. In (book chapter): Inter-relationships between adaptation and mitigation. In: Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (M.L. Parry et al. Eds.). Print version: Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, and New York, N.Y., U.S.A.. This version: IPCC website. ISBN 978-0-521-88010-7. Archived from the original on 21 April 2010. Retrieved 6 April 2010.
  113. ^ Westphal, Michael; Hughes, Gordon; Brömmelhörster, Jörn (1 October 2013). Economics of Climate Change in East Asia. Asian Development Bank. ISBN 978-92-9254-288-7.
  114. ^ "Home | UNDP Climate Change Adaptation". Retrieved 23 March 2021.
  115. ^ "Climate finance". Climate finance.
  116. ^ "The Special Climate Change Fund". UNFCCC. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  117. ^ "Funding". Global Environment Facility. 4 April 2016. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  118. ^ Conference of the Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change. Copenhagen. 7–18 December 2009. un document= FCCC/CP/2009/L.7. Archived from the original on 18 October 2010. Retrieved 24 October 2010.
  119. ^ Cui, Lianbiao; Sun, Yi; Song, Malin; Zhu, Lei (2020). "Co-financing in the green climate fund: lessons from the global environment facility". Climate Policy. 20 (1): 95–108. doi:10.1080/14693062.2019.1690968. ISSN 1469-3062. S2CID 213694904.
  120. ^ "António Guterres on the climate crisis: 'We are coming to a point of no return'". The Guardian. 11 June 2021.
  122. ^ a b Jessica Brown, Neil Bird and Liane Schalatek (2010) Climate finance additionality: emerging definitions and their implications Archived 3 August 2012 at the Wayback Machine Overseas Development Institute
  123. ^ "Chapter 2. Food security: concepts and measurement[21]". Archived from the original on 26 August 2010. Retrieved 29 August 2010.
  124. ^ Poverty in a Changing Climate Archived 13 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine Institute of Development Studies Bulletin 39(4), September 2008
  125. ^ "Klimabistand bliver taget fra de fattigste". 12 November 2019.
  126. ^ a b Neil Adger, W.; Arnell, Nigel W.; Tompkins, Emma L. (2005). "Successful adaptation to climate change across scales" (PDF). Global Environmental Change. 15 (2): 77–86. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2004.12.005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 April 2012. Retrieved 29 August 2010.
  127. ^ a b "Adaptation to Climate Change in the Developing World" (PDF). 16 June 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 September 2008. Retrieved 29 August 2010.
  128. ^ Kates, Robert W.; Travis, William R.; Wilbanks, Thomas J. (14 March 2012). "Transformational adaptation when incremental adaptations to climate change are insufficient". PNAS. 109 (19): 7156–7161. Bibcode:2012PNAS..109.7156K. doi:10.1073/pnas.1115521109. PMC 3358899. PMID 22509036.
  129. ^ McNamara, Karen Elizabeth; Buggy, Lisa (5 August 2016). "Community-based climate change adaptation: a review of academic literature". Local Environment. 22 (4): 443–460. doi:10.1080/13549839.2016.1216954. S2CID 156119057.
  130. ^ "IPCC Working Group II". Archived from the original on 4 December 2018. Retrieved 26 August 2021.
  131. ^ Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering (1992). Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. National Academies Press. p. 944. ISBN 978-0-309-04386-1. Archived from the original on 2 March 2007. Retrieved 14 April 2007.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  132. ^ "Themes and Issues in Disaster Risk Reduction" (PDF). UNISDR. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
  133. ^ "Adaptation To Global Climate Change Is An Essential Response To A Warming Planet". 8 February 2007. Retrieved 6 January 2010.
  134. ^ Berry, Pam M.; Brown, Sally; Chen, Minpeng; Kontogianni, Areti; Rowlands, Olwen; Simpson, Gillian; Skourtos, Michalis (1 February 2015). "Cross-sectoral interactions of adaptation and mitigation measures". Climatic Change. 128 (3): 381–393. Bibcode:2015ClCh..128..381B. doi:10.1007/s10584-014-1214-0. ISSN 1573-1480. S2CID 153904466.
  135. ^ Sharifi, Ayyoob (10 December 2020). "Trade-offs and conflicts between urban climate change mitigation and adaptation measures: A literature review". Journal of Cleaner Production. 276: 122813. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.122813. ISSN 0959-6526. S2CID 225638176.
  136. ^ Sharifi, Ayyoob (1 January 2021). "Co-benefits and synergies between urban climate change mitigation and adaptation measures: A literature review". Science of the Total Environment. 750: 141642. Bibcode:2021ScTEn.750n1642S. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.141642. ISSN 0048-9697. PMID 32858298. S2CID 221365818.
  137. ^ Campbell, Bruce M.; Hansen, James; Rioux, Janie; Stirling, Clare M.; Twomlow, Stephen; (Lini) Wollenberg, Eva (2018). "Urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts (SDG 13): transforming agriculture and food systems". Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability. 34: 13–20. doi:10.1016/j.cosust.2018.06.005. S2CID 158757940.
  138. ^ "The Varsity: Quantifying the climate crisis: how changes could impact road maintenance". 10 November 2019.
  139. ^ "The Guardian: Benefits to farmers of global heating outweighed by losses, says report". The Guardian. 4 September 2019.
  140. ^ Ngwadla, X; El-Bakri, S. (2016). The Global Goal for Adaptation under the Paris Agreement: Putting ideas into action (PDF) (Report). London, UK: Climate and Development Knowledge Network. pp. 11–17.
  141. ^ United Nations Environment Programme (2021). Adaptation Gap Report 2020. Nairobi
  142. ^ "Nearly half of cities lack plans to keep populations safe from climate threats". Carbon Disclosure Project. 12 May 2021. Retrieved 21 May 2021.

External linksEdit