The Cree (Cree: néhinaw, néhiyaw, etc.; French: Cri) are a North American Indigenous people. They live primarily in Canada, where they form one of the country's largest First Nations.

Cree
néhinaw ᓀᐦᐃᓇᐤ
néhiyaw ᓀᐦᐃᔭᐤ
etc.
Cree Indians in camp, probably Montana, ca 1893 (LAROCHE 56).jpeg
A Cree camp, likely in Montana, photographed circa 1893
Total population
356,655 (2016 census)[1]
Including Atikamekw and Innu
Regions with significant populations
Canada
Alberta95,300 (2016)[2]
Saskatchewan89,990 (2016)[2]
Manitoba66,895 (2016)[2]
Ontario36,750 (2016)[2]
British Columbia35,885 (2016)[2]
Quebec27,245 (2016)[2]
Languages
Cree, Cree Sign Language, English, French
Religion
Anglicanism, Cree tribal religion, Pentecostalism, Roman Catholicism
Related ethnic groups
Métis, Oji-Cree, Ojibwe, Innu

In Canada, over 350,000 people are Cree or have Cree ancestry.[3] The major proportion of Cree in Canada live north and west of Lake Superior, in Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and the Northwest Territories.[4] About 27,000 live in Quebec.[5]

In the United States, Cree people historically lived from Lake Superior westward. Today, they live mostly in Montana, where they share the Rocky Boy Indian Reservation with Ojibwe (Chippewa) people.[6]

The documented westward migration over time has been strongly associated with their roles as traders and hunters in the North American fur trade.[7]

Sub-groups / GeographyEdit

The Cree are generally divided into eight groups based on dialect and region. These divisions do not necessarily represent ethnic sub-divisions within the larger ethnic group:

  • Naskapi and Montagnais (together known as the Innu) are inhabitants of an area they refer to as Nitassinan. Their territories comprise most of the present-day political jurisdictions of eastern Quebec and Labrador. Their cultures are differentiated, as some of the Naskapi are still caribou hunters and more nomadic than many of the Montagnais. The Montagnais have more settlements. The total population of the two groups in 2003 was about 18,000 people, of which 15,000 lived in Quebec. Their dialects and languages are the most distinct from the Cree spoken by the groups west of Lake Superior.
  • Atikamekw are inhabitants of the area they refer to as Nitaskinan (Our Land), in the upper St. Maurice River valley of Quebec (about 300 km or 190 mi north of Montreal). Their population is around 8,000.
  • East CreeGrand Council of the Crees; approximately 18,000 Cree (Iyyu in Coastal Dialect / Iynu in Inland Dialect) of Eeyou Istchee and Nunavik regions of Northern Quebec.[8]
  • Moose CreeMoose Factory[9] in the Northeastern Ontario; this group lives on Moose Factory Island, near the mouth of the Moose River, at the southern end of James Bay. ("Factory" used to refer to a trading post.)[10]
  • Swampy Cree – this group lives in northern Manitoba along the Hudson Bay coast and adjacent inland areas to the south and west, and in Ontario along the coast of Hudson Bay and James Bay. Some also live in eastern Saskatchewan around Cumberland House. Their dialect has 4,500 speakers.
  • Woods Cree – a group in northern Alberta and Saskatchewan.
  • Plains Cree – a total of 34,000 people in Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and Montana.

Due to the many dialects of the Cree language, the people have no modern collective autonym. The Plains Cree and Attikamekw refer to themselves using modern forms of the historical nêhiraw, namely nêhiyaw and nêhirawisiw, respectively. Moose Cree, East Cree, Naskapi, and Montagnais all refer to themselves using modern dialectal forms of the historical iriniw, meaning 'man.' Moose Cree use the form ililiw, coastal East Cree and Naskapi use iyiyiw (variously spelled iiyiyiu, iiyiyuu, and eeyou), inland East Cree use iyiniw (variously spelled iinuu and eenou), and Montagnais use ilnu and innu, depending on dialect. The Cree use "Cree," "cri," "Naskapi, or "montagnais" to refer to their people only when speaking French or English.[11]

A group of Cree sun dancers, photographed circa 1893 by Frank La Roche

Political aboriginal organizationEdit

HistoricalEdit

 
Nēhiyaw camp near Vermilion, Alberta, in 1871

As hunter-gatherers, the basic unit of organization for Cree peoples was the lodge, a group of perhaps eight or a dozen people, usually the families of two separate but related married couples, who lived together in the same wigwam (domed tent) or tipi (conical tent), and the band, a group of lodges who moved and hunted together. In the case of disagreement, lodges could leave bands and bands could be formed and dissolved with relative ease. However, as there is safety in numbers, all families would want to be part of some band, and banishment was considered a very serious punishment. Bands would usually have strong ties to their neighbours through intermarriage and would assemble together at different parts of the year to hunt and socialize together. Besides these regional gatherings, there was no higher-level formal structure, and decisions of war and peace were made by consensus with allied bands meeting together in council. People could be identified by their clan, which is a group of people claiming descent from the same common ancestor; each clan would have a representative and a vote in all important councils held by the band (compare: Anishinaabe clan system).[12]

Each band remained independent of each other. However, Cree-speaking bands tended to work together and with their neighbours against outside enemies. Those Cree who moved onto the Great Plains and adopted bison hunting, called the Plains Cree, were allied with the Assiniboine, the Metis Nation, and the Saulteaux in what was known as the "Iron Confederacy", which was a major force in the North American fur trade from the 1730s to the 1870s. The Cree and the Assiniboine were important intermediaries in the Indian trading networks on the northern plains.[4]

When a band went to war, they would nominate a temporary military commander, called a okimahkan. loosely translated as "war chief". This office was different from that of the "peace chief", a leader who had a role more like that of diplomat. In the run-up to the 1885 North-West Rebellion, Big Bear was the leader of his band, but once the fighting started Wandering Spirit became war leader.

 
Chippewa Cree Tribal Chairman Raymond Parker, Jr. signs an agreement with the FEMA in Rocky Boy's Indian Reservation, Montana on August 17, 2010.

ContemporaryEdit

There have been several attempts to create a national political organization that would represent all Cree peoples, at least as far back as a 1994 gathering at the Opaskwayak Cree First Nation reserve.[13]

NameEdit

The name "Cree" is derived from the Algonkian-language exonym Kirištino˙, which the Ojibwa used for tribes around Hudson Bay. The French colonists and explorers, who spelled the term Kilistinon, Kiristinon, Knisteneaux,[14][15] Cristenaux, and Cristinaux, used the term for numerous tribes which they encountered north of Lake Superior, in Manitoba, and west of there.[16] The French used these terms to refer to various groups of peoples in Canada, some of which are now better distinguished as Severn Anishinaabe (Ojibwa), who speak dialects different from the Algonquin.[17]

Depending on the community, the Cree may call themselves by the following names: the nēhiyawak, nīhithaw, nēhilaw, and nēhinaw; or ininiw, ililiw, iynu (innu), or iyyu. These names are derived from the historical autonym nēhiraw (of uncertain meaning) or from the historical autonym iriniw (meaning "person"). Cree using the latter autonym tend to be those living in the territories of Quebec and Labrador.[11]

LanguageEdit

 
Cree language.

The Cree language (also known in the most broad classification as Cree-Montagnais, Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi, to show the groups included within it) is the name for a group of closely related Algonquian languages,[4] the mother tongue (i.e. language first learned and still understood) of approximately 96,000 people, and the language most often spoken at home of about 65,000 people across Canada, from the Northwest Territories to Labrador. It is the most widely spoken aboriginal language in Canada.[18] The only region where Cree has official status is in the Northwest Territories, together with eight other aboriginal languages.[19][20]

The two major groups: Nehiyaw and Innu, speak a mutually intelligible Cree dialect continuum, which can be divided by many criteria. In a dialect continuum, "It is not so much a language, as a chain of dialects, where speakers from one community can very easily understand their neighbours, but a Plains Cree speaker from Alberta would find a Quebec Cree speaker difficult to speak to without practice."[21]

One major division between the groups is that the Eastern group palatalizes the sound /k/ to either /ts/ (c) or to /tʃ/ (č) when it precedes front vowels. There is also a major difference in grammatical vocabulary (particles) between the groups. Within both groups, another set of variations has arisen around the pronunciation of the Proto-Algonquian phoneme *l, which can be realized as /l/, /r/, /y/, /n/, or /ð/ (th) by different groups. Yet in other dialects, the distinction between /eː/ (ē) and /iː/ (ī) has been lost, merging to the latter. In more western dialects, the distinction between /s/ and /ʃ/ (š) has been lost, both merging to the former. "Cree is a not a typologically harmonic language. Cree has both prefixes and suffixes, both prepositions and postpositions, and both prenominal and postnominal modifiers (e.g. demonstratives can appear in both positions)."[22]

Golla counts Cree dialects as eight of 55 North American languages that have more than 1,000 speakers and which are being actively acquired by children.[23]

Identity and ethnicityEdit

In CanadaEdit

 
Cree Indian, taken by G. E. Fleming, 1903

The Cree are the largest group of First Nations in Canada, with 220,000 members and 135 registered bands.[24] Together, their reserve lands are the largest of any First Nations group in the country.[24] The largest Cree band and the second largest First Nations Band in Canada after the Six Nations Iroquois is the Lac La Ronge Band in northern Saskatchewan.

Given the traditional Cree acceptance of mixed marriages, it is acknowledged by academics that all bands are ultimately of mixed heritage and multilingualism and multiculturalism was the norm. In the West, mixed bands of Cree, Saulteaux and Assiniboine, all partners in the Iron Confederacy, are the norm. However, in recent years, as indigenous languages have declined across western Canada where there were once three languages spoken on a given reserve, there may now only be one. This has led to a simplification of identity, and it has become "fashionable" for bands in many parts of Saskatchewan to identify as "Plains Cree" at the expense of a mixed Cree-Salteaux history. There is also a tendency for bands to recategorize themselves as "Plains Cree" instead of Woods Cree or Swampy Cree. Neal McLeod argues this is partly due to the dominant culture's fascination with Plains Indian culture as well as the greater degree of written standardization and prestige Plains Cree enjoys over other Cree dialects.[13]

The Métis[25] (from the French, Métis – of mixed ancestry) are people of mixed ancestry, such as Cree (or Anishinaabe) and French, English, or Scottish heritage. According to Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada, the Métis were historically the children of French fur traders and Cree women or, from unions of English or Scottish traders and northern Dene women (Anglo-Métis). The Métis National Council defines a Métis as "a person who self-identifies as Métis, is distinct from other Aboriginal peoples, is of historic Métis Nation Ancestry and who is accepted by the Métis Nation".[26]

In the United StatesEdit

At one time the Cree lived in northern Minnesota, North Dakota and Montana. Today, American Cree are enrolled in the federally recognized Chippewa Cree tribe, located on the Rocky Boy Indian Reservation, and in minority as "Landless Cree" on the Fort Peck Indian Reservation and as "Landless Cree" and "Rocky Boy Cree" on the Fort Belknap Indian Reservation, all in Montana. The Chippewa Cree share the reservation with the Pembina Band of Chippewa Indians, who form the "Chippewa" (Ojibwa) half of the Chippewa Cree tribe. On the other Reservations, the Cree minority share the Reservation with the Assiniboine, Gros Ventre and Sioux tribes. Traditionally, the southern limits of the Cree territory in Montana were the Missouri River and the Milk River.[27]

First contactEdit

In Manitoba, the Cree were first contacted by Europeans in 1682, at the mouth of the Nelson and Hayes rivers by a Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) party traveling about 100 miles (160 km) inland. In the south, contact was later. In 1732 in what is now northwestern Ontario, Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, sieur de La Vérendrye, met with an assembled group of 200 Cree warriors near present-day Fort Frances, as well as with the Monsoni,[28] (a branch of the Ojibwe). Both groups had donned war paint in preparation to an attack on the Dakota and another group of Ojibwe.[29]

After acquiring firearms from the HBC, the Cree moved as traders into the plains, acting as middlemen with the HBC.[citation needed]

First Nation communitiesEdit

[a]

NaskapiEdit

The Naskapi are the Innu First Nations inhabiting a region of northeastern Quebec and Labrador, Canada. The Naskapi are traditionally nomadic peoples, in contrast with the territorial Montagnais, the other segment of Innu. The Naskapi language and culture is quite different from the Montagnais, in which the dialect changes from y to n as in "Iiyuu" versus "Innu". Iyuw Iyimuun is the Innu dialect spoken by the Naskapi.[30] Today, the Naskapi are settled into two communities: Kawawachikamach Quebec and Natuashish, Newfoundland and Labrador.

The Naskapi Nation of Kawawachikamach is located in the Naskapi village of Kawawachikamach, 15 km (9.3 mi) northeast of Schefferville, Quebec. The village is in the reserve of the same name.[31][32]

The Mushuau Innu First Nation, located in the community of Natuashish, Newfoundland and Labrador, is located in the Natuashish 2 reserve on the coast of Labrador.[33][34]

MontagnaisEdit

Eastern MontagnaisEdit

Innus of Ekuanitshit live on their reserve of Mingan, Quebec, at the mouth of the Mingan River of the Saint Lawrence River in the Côte-Nord (north shore) region.[35]

Innu Takuaikan Uashat Mak Mani-Utenam based in Sept-Îles, Quebec, in the Côte-Nord region on the Saint Lawrence River.[36] They own two reserves: Maliotenam 27A, 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) east of Sept-Îles, and Uashat 27, within Sept-Îles.[37]

Innu Nation of Matimekush-Lac John is based out of Schefferville, Quebec.[38] One reserve, Matimekosh, is an enclave of Schefferville. The other, Lac-John, is 2 km (1.2 mi) outside the town.[39]

Première Nation des Innus de Nutashkuan is based on their reserve of Natashquan 1 or Nutashkuan. The reserve is located on the north shore of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence at the mouth of the Natashquan River.[40]

Montagnais de Pakua Shipi [fr] located in the community of Pakuashipi, Quebec, on the western shore of the mouth of the Saint-Augustin River on the north shore of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence in the Côte-Nord region.[41] The community is adjacent to the settlement of Saint-Augustin.

Montagnais de Unamen Shipu [fr] are located at La Romaine, Quebec at the mouth of the Olomane River on the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. They have one reserve; Romaine 2.[42][43]

Sheshatshiu Innu First Nation located in the community of Sheshatshiu in Labrador and is located approximately 45 km (28 mi) north of Happy Valley-Goose Bay.[33] Sheshatshiu is located adjacent to the Inuit community of North West River. The Sheshatshiu Nation has one reserve, Sheshatshiu 3.[44]

Western MontagnaisEdit

Pekuakamiulnuatsh First Nation is located on the reserve of Mashteuiatsh in the Saguenay–Lac-Saint-Jean region, 8 km (5.0 mi) north of Roberval, Quebec, on the western shore of Lac Saint-Jean.[45]

Bande des Innus de Pessamit based in Pessamit, Quebec, is located about 58 km (36 mi) southwest of Baie-Comeau along the north shore of the Saint Lawrence River at the mouth of the Betsiamites River. It is across the river directly north of Rimouski, Quebec. Pessamit is 358 km (222 mi) northeast of Quebec City.[46]

Innue Essipit are based in their reserve of Essipit, adjacent to the village of Les Escoumins, Quebec. The community is on the north shore of the Saint Lawrence River at the mouth of the Escoumins River in the Côte-Nord region, 40 km (25 mi) northeast of Tadoussac and 250 km (160 mi) northeast of Québec.[47]

Atikamekw (Nehiraw)Edit

 
Map of Nitaskinan

Conseil de la Nation Atikamekw, officially named Atikamekw Sipi – Conseil de la Nation Atikamekw, is a tribal council in Quebec, Canada. It is composed of three Atikamekw First Nations. The council is based in La Tuque, Quebec. The Atikamekw are inhabitants of the area they refer to as Nitaskinan ("Our Land"), in the upper Saint-Maurice River valley.[48][49] The First Nations:

James Bay CreeEdit

Eeyou Istchee is a territory equivalent to a regional county municipality (TE) of Nord-du-Québec represented by the Grand Council of the Crees.[54] On 24 July 2012, the Quebec government signed an accord with the Cree Nation that resulted in the abolition of the neighbouring municipality of Baie-James and the creation of the new Eeyou Istchee James Bay Regional Government, providing for the residents of surrounding Jamésie TE and Eeyou Istchee to jointly govern the territory formerly governed by the municipality of Baie-James. Eeyou Istchee is a territory of eight enclaves within Jamésie plus one enclave (Whapmagoostui) within Kativik TE. Each enclave is a combination of a Cree reserved land (TC) and a Cree village municipality (VC), both with the same name.

 
Location of Eeyou Istchee within Québec

Moose CreeEdit

Moose Cree (Cree: Mōsonī or Ililiw), also known as Moosonee are located in Northeastern Ontario.

Constance Lake First Nation is the only Cree member of Matawa First Nations.[73] They are located on their reserves, Constance Lake 92 and English River 66, in the Cochrane District, Ontario.[74]

Mushkegowuk Council, based in Moose Factory, Ontario, represents chiefs from seven First Nations across Ontario. Moose Cree members are: Chapleau Cree First Nation, Kashechewan First Nation, Missanabie Cree First Nation, Moose Cree First Nation, and Taykwa Tagamou Nation.[75] The Chapleau Cree First Nation and their two reserves, Chapleau Cree Fox Lake and Chapleau 75, are located outside of Chapleau, Ontario in the Sudbury District.[76] The Kashechewan First Nation community is located on the northern shore of the Albany River on James Bay. The Hudson's Bay Company established a post, Fort Albany, at this location between 1675 and 1679.[77] Kashechewan First Nation is one of two communities that were established from Old Fort Albany, the other being Fort Albany First Nation. The two Nations share the Fort Albany 67 reserve.[78] The Missanabie Cree First Nation signed Treaty 9 in 1906 but did not receive any reserved lands until 2018.[79] The Missanabie reserve is in the Missanabie, Ontario area.[80] The Moose Cree First Nation is based in Moose Factory in the Cochrane District.[81] Moose Factory was founded in 1672–1673 by Charles Bayly, the first overseas governor of the Hudson's Bay Company, and was the company's second post. It was the first English settlement in what is now Ontario.[82] The Nation has two reserves: Factory Island 1 on Moose Factory Island, an island in the Moose River, about 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) from its mouth at James Bay; and Moose Factory 68, a tract of land about 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) upstream on the Moose River.[83] The Taykwa Tagamou Nation has two reserves, New Post 69, and their main reserve, New Post 69A outside Cochrane, Ontario along the Abitibi River.[84]

Wabun Tribal Council is a regional chief's council based in Timmins, Ontario representing Ojibway and Cree First Nations in northern Ontario. Moose Cree members are: Brunswick House First Nation and Matachewan First Nation.[85] Brunswick House's reserves are Mountbatten 76A and Duck Lake 76B located in the Sudbury District near Chapleau, Ontario.[86] The Matachewan First Nation is on the Matachewan 72 reserve near Matachewan township in the Timiskaming District.[87]

Swampy CreeEdit

Located in OntarioEdit

Swampy Cree communities

Fort Severn First Nation and their reserve, Fort Severn 89,[88] located on the mouth of the Severn River on Hudson Bay, is the most northern community in Ontario. It is a member of Keewaytinook Okimakanak Council.[89]

Mushkegowuk Council, based in Moose Factory, Ontario, represents chiefs from seven First Nations across Ontario. Swampy Cree members are: Fort Albany First Nation and Attawapiskat First Nation.[75] Fort Albany First Nation is located at Fort Albany, Ontario, on the southern shore of the Albany River at James Bay.[90] The reserve, Fort Albany 67, is shared with the Kashechewan First Nation.[91] The Attawapiskat First Nation is located at mouth of the Attawapiskat River on James Bay.[92] The community is on the Attawapiskat 91A reserve. The Attawapiskat 91 reserve is 27,000 hectares (67,000 acres) on both shores of the Ekwan River, 165 kilometres (103 mi) upstream from the mouth on James Bay.[93]

Independent from a Tribal Council is the Weenusk First Nation located in Peawanuck in the Kenora District.[94] The community was located on their reserve of Winisk 90 on the mouth of the Winisk River on James Bay[95] but the community was destroyed in the 1986 Winisk flood and the community had to be relocated to Peawanuck.[96]

Located in ManitobaEdit

Keewatin Tribal Council is a Tribal Council based in Thompson, Manitoba that represents eleven First Nations, of which five are Swampy Cree, across northern Manitoba.[97] Fox Lake Cree Nation is based in Gillam, 248 kilometres (154 mi) northeast of Thompson via Provincial Road 280 (PR 280), and has several reserves along the Nelson River.[98] Shamattawa First Nation is located on their reserve, Shamattawa 1,[99] on the banks of the Gods River where the Echoing River joins. The community is very remote; only connected via air or via winter ice roads to other First Nation communities. The Tataskweyak Cree Nation is located in the community of Split Lake, Manitoba within the Split Lake 171 reserve, 144 kilometres (89 mi) northeast of Thompson on PR 280, on the lake of the same name on the Nelson River system.[100] War Lake First Nation possess several reserves but are located on the Mooseocoot reserve in the community of Ilford, Manitoba, 35 kilometres (22 mi) east of York Landing.[101] York Factory First Nation is based on the reserve of York Landing, 30 kilometres (19 mi) south of Split Lake via ferry.[102] York Factory was a settlement and Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) trading post, established in 1684, on the shore of Hudson Bay, at the mouth of the Hayes River.[103] In 1956, the trading post was closed and the community was moved inland to the current site.[104]

Swampy Cree Tribal Council is, as the name suggests, a Tribal Council of seven Swampy Cree First Nations across northern Manitoba and is based in The Pas.[105] The Chemawawin Cree Nation (also Rocky Cree) are based on their reserve Chemawawin 2, adjacent to Easterville, Manitoba, 200 kilometres (120 mi) southeast of The Pas.[106] Mathias Colomb First Nation (also Rocky Cree) is located in the community of Pukatawagan on the Pukatawagan 198 reserve.[107] Misipawistik Cree Nation (also Rocky Cree) is located near Grand Rapids, Manitoba, 400 kilometres (250 mi) north of Winnipeg at the mouth of the Saskatchewan River as it runs into Lake Winnipeg.[108] Mosakahiken Cree Nation (also Rocky Cree) is located around the community of Moose Lake about 63 kilometres (39 mi) southeast of The Pas on their main reserve, Moose Lake 31A.[109] Opaskwayak Cree Nation (also Rocky Cree) has several reserves but most of the population lives on the Opaskwayak 21E reserve, immediately north of and across the Saskatchewan River from The Pas.[110] The Sapotaweyak Cree Nation is located in the Shoal River 65A reserve adjacent to the community of Pelican Rapids, about 82 kilometres (51 mi) south of The Pas.[111] Wuskwi Sipihk First Nation has several reserves but the main reserve is Swan Lake 65C which contains the settlement of Indian Birch, about 150 kilometres (93 mi) south of The Pas.[112]

Not affiliated with any Tribal Council: Fisher River Cree Nation,[113] Marcel Colomb First Nation,[114] and Norway House Cree Nation.[115] Fisher River Cree Nation, located approximately 177 kilometres (110 mi) north of Winnipeg in Koostatak on Lake Winnipeg, control the Fisher River 44 and 44A reserves.[116] Marcel Colomb First Nation is located outside of Lynn Lake on the Black Sturgeon reserve on Hughes Lake, 289 kilometres (180 mi) northwest of Thompson via Provincial Road 391.[117] Norway House Cree Nation is located in Norway House which is located on the Playgreen Lake section of the Nelson River system on the north side of Lake Winnipeg.[115] In 1821, Norway House became the principal inland fur trading depot for the Hudson Bay Company.[118] Norway House was also where Treaty 5 was signed.[119] They control more than 80 reserves from less than 2 hectares (4.9 acres) to their largest, Norway House 17, at over 7,600 hectares (19,000 acres).[120] The Nation is one of the most populous in Canada with 8,599 people as of November 2021.[121]

Located in SaskatchewanEdit

Prince Albert Grand Council is based in Prince Albert, Saskatchewan and is owned by twelve First Nations of which three are Swampy Cree.[122] Cumberland House Cree Nation is based in Cumberland House, Saskatchewan on the Cumberland House Cree Nation 20 reserve, 97 kilometres (60 mi) southwest of Flin Flon, Manitoba.[123] Cumberland House, founded in 1774 by Samuel Hearne, was the site of the HBC's first inland fur-trading post.[124] The Red Earth First Nation is located in the community of Red Earth, on the banks of the Carrot River, on the Carrot River 29A reserve. Close by is the Red Earth 29 reserve, about 75 kilometres (47 mi) east of Nipawin.[125] Shoal Lake Cree Nation is located in Pakwaw Lake, on the Shoal Lake 28A reserve, 92 kilometres (57 mi) east of Nipawin.[126]

Woodland CreeEdit

Rocky Cree (Asinīskāwiyiniwak)Edit

The Keewatin Tribal Council, described under Swampy Cree, also represents Rocky Cree First Nations in Manitoba.[97] The Barren Lands First Nation is located on the north shore of Reindeer Lake close to the Saskatchewan border. It has one reserve, Brochet 197, 256 kilometres (159 mi) northwest of Thompson, adjoining the village of Brochet.[127] The Bunibonibee Cree Nation is located along the eastern shoreline of Oxford Lake at the headwaters of the Hayes River. The Nation controls several reserves with the main reserve being Oxford House 24 adjacent to the community of Oxford House, Manitoba, 160 kilometres (99 mi) southeast of Thompson.[128] God's Lake First Nation is located in the God's Lake Narrows area on the shore of God's Lake. The main reserve is God's Lake 23, 240 kilometres (150 mi) southeast of Thompson.[129] The Manto Sipi Cree Nation also live on God's Lake in the community of God's River on the God's River 86A reserve,[130] about 42 kilometres (26 mi) northeast of God's Lake Narrows. All of the Rocky Cree communities of Keewatin Tribal Council are remote; only connected via air and ice road during winter months.

Five of the Swampy Cree Tribal Council First Nations contain Rocky Cree populations: Chemawawin Cree Nation, Mathias Colomb First Nation, Misipawistik Cree Nation, Mosakahiken Cree Nation, Opaskwayak Cree Nation.[105]

In Saskatchewan, the Prince Albert Grand Council, described under Swampy Cree, also has Rocky Cree members.[122] The Lac La Ronge First Nation is one of the most populous First Nations in Canada with a registered population of 11,604 as of November 2021.[131] The Nation is based in La Ronge on the Lac la Ronge 156 reserve but has other communities on other reserves.[132] La Ronge is 250 kilometres (160 mi) north of Prince Albert at the north end of Saskatchewan Highway 2. The Montreal Lake First Nation, on their reserves of Montreal Lake 106, is on the southern shore of Montreal Lake, 93 kilometres (58 mi) north of Prince Albert.[133] Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation is also a populous First Nation with 11,563 people as of November 2021.[134] The Nation has eight communities and controls a large number of reserves; the administrative center is Pelican Narrows, Saskatchewan, 80 kilometres (50 mi) northeast of Flin Flon, Manitoba.[135] The Sturgeon Lake First Nation is located on the Sturgeon Lake 101 reserve on the eastern shore of Sturgeon Lake about 29 kilometres (18 mi) northwest of Prince Albert.[136]

Not affiliated with any Tribal Council are Cross Lake First Nation,[137] Nisichawayasihk Cree Nation,[138] and O-Pipon-Na-Piwin Cree Nation.[139] The Cross Lake First Nation is a populous Nation with a registered population of 9,138 people as of November 2021.[140] The Nation is in Cross Lake, Manitoba on the Cross Lake 19 reserve, 80 kilometres (50 mi) north of Lake Winnipeg.[141] The Nisichawayasihk Cree Nation is based in Nelson House, Manitoba on the Nelson House 170 reserve located 19 kilometres (12 mi) south of Thompson.[142] The O-Pipon-Na-Piwin Cree Nation is located in the settlement of South Indian Lake, 130 kilometres (81 mi) northwest of Thompson.[143] Marcel Colomb First Nation, listed under Swampy Cree, also has a Rocky Cree population.

Woods Cree (Sakāwithiniwak / nīhithawak)Edit

The Canoe Lake Cree First Nation is based in Canoe Narrows, Saskatchewan on the Canoe Lake 165 reserve.[144] The Nation is a member of the Meadow Lake Tribal Council.[145]

The Bigstone Cree Nation is based in Wabasca, Alberta, about 100 kilometres (62 mi) northeast of Slave Lake, on the Wabasca 166A reserve.[146] The Nation is not associated with a Tribal Council.[147] The Bigstone Cree Nation was divided into two bands in 2010, with one group continuing under the former name, and the other becoming the Peerless Trout First Nation.[148]

The Fort McMurray First Nation is located on the reserves Gregoire Lake 176 and 176A located about 35 kilometres (22 mi) southeast of Fort McMurray near Anzac, Alberta on Gregoire Lake.[149] They are the only Cree member of the Athabasca Tribal Council.[150]

Kee Tas Kee Now Tribal Council is based in Atikameg, Alberta with five members:[151] The Loon River First Nation is headquartered in Red Earth Creek with reserves to the immediate west near Loon Lake.[152] The Lubicon Lake Band is based in the settlement of Little Buffalo, approximately 80 kilometres (50 mi) east of Peace River.[153] The Peerless Trout First Nation is located in Peerless Lake on the Peerless Trout 238 reserve, about 45 kilometres (28 mi) west of Red Earth Creek.[154] Whitefish Lake First Nation is based in Atikameg, on the western shore of Utikuma Lake on the Utikoomak Lake 155 reserve, 61 kilometres (38 mi) north of High Prairie.[155] The Woodland Cree First Nation is located in the hamlet of Cadotte Lake on the Woodland Cree 226 reserve, 48 kilometres (30 mi) northeast of Peace River.[156]

Lesser Slave Lake Indian Regional Council, based out of the town of Slave Lake, Alberta is, as the name suggests, a Tribal Council of First Nations surrounding Lesser Slave Lake. Member Nations include:[157] The Driftpile First Nation, based in Driftpile, on the Drift Pile River 150 reserve, 70 kilometres (43 mi) west of Slave Lake.[158] The Kapawe'no First Nation is headquartered at Grouard, which is near High Prairie. They have six reserves, predominately located west of Lesser Slave Lake.[159] The Sawridge First Nation is based in Slave Lake and the two reserves, Sawridge 150G and 150H, are adjacent to the town.[160] The Sucker Creek First Nation is based in Enilda, 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) east of High Prairie, on the Sucker Creek 150A reserve.[161] Finally, the Swan River First Nation, near Kinuso, 40 kilometres (25 mi) west of Slave Lake, controls the Swan River 150E and Assineau River 150F reserves.[162]

The Little Red River Cree Nation is based out of the settlement of John D'Or Prairie, Alberta, 48 kilometres (30 mi) east of Fort Vermilion, on the John D'Or Prairie 215 reserve.[163] They are a member of the North Peace Tribal Council based out of High Level, Alberta.[164]

The Mikisew Cree First Nation is based in the community of Fort Chipewyan on the western tip of Lake Athabasca, approximately 225 kilometres (140 mi) north of Fort McMurray.[165] They are not a member of a Tribal Council.[166] Fort Chipewyan, one of the oldest European settlements in Alberta, was established in 1788 by the North West Company as a fur trading post.[167]

Western Cree Tribal Council is based out of Valleyview, Alberta. Cree member Nations are:[168] Duncan's First Nation is based in Brownvale, adjacent to the reserve Duncan's 151A, 39 kilometres (24 mi) southwest of Peace River.[169] The Sturgeon Lake Cree Nation is on the Sturgeon Lake 154 reserve, 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) west of Valleyview.[170]

Plains Cree (Paskwāwiyiniwak / nēhiyawak)Edit

Downstream people (Māmihkiyiniwak)Edit

Battlefords Agency Tribal Chiefs is a Tribal Council located in North Battleford, Saskatchewan. Members are: Ahtahkakoop First Nation, Moosomin First Nation, Mosquito-Grizzly Bear's Head-Lean Man, Red Pheasant First Nation, Saulteaux First Nation, and Sweetgrass First Nation.[171][172]

File Hills Qu'Appelle Tribal Council is a Tribal Council based in Fort Qu'Appelle, Saskatchewan. Kātēpwēwi-sīpīwiyiniwak Cree member Nations are: Little Black Bear First Nation, Muscowpetung Saulteaux Nation, Nekaneet Cree Nation, Okanese First Nation, Pasqua First Nation, Peepeekisis Cree Nation, Piapot Cree Nation, and Star Blanket Cree Nation[173]

Meadow Lake Tribal Council is a Tribal Council based in Meadow Lake, Saskatchewan with nine member First Nations. The members with Plains Cree populations are Flying Dust First Nation, Makwa Sahgaiehcan First Nation, Ministikwan Lake Cree Nation, and Waterhen Lake First Nation[145]

Saskatoon Tribal Council is, as the name suggests, a Tribal Council-based out of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Cree member Nations are: Mistawasis Nêhiyawak, Muskeg Lake Cree Nation, Muskoday First Nation, and One Arrow First Nation.[174]

Touchwood Agency Tribal Council, based in Punnichy, Saskatchewan, is a Tribal Council of four First Nations, collectively known as the Touchwood Hills Cree (Pasākanacīwiyiniwak). The Cree Nations are: Day Star First Nation, George Gordon First Nation, Kawacatoose First Nation, and Muskowekwan First Nation.[175][176]

Yorkton Tribal Council is a Tribal Council based in Yorkton, Saskatchewan. Cree members are: Kahkewistahaw First Nation and Ocean Man First Nation.[177]

Without affiliation with any Tribal Council: Beardy's and Okemasis' Cree Nation,[178] Cowessess First Nation,[179] Ochapowace Nation,[180] Onion Lake Cree Nation,[181] Pheasant Rump Nakota First Nation,[182] White Bear First Nations.[183]

Upstream people (Natimiyininiwak)Edit

Agency Chiefs Tribal Council is a Tribal Council located in Spiritwood, Saskatchewan representing three First Nations: Pelican Lake First Nation, Big River First Nation, and Witchekan Lake First Nation.[184]

Battlefords Tribal Council is based in North Battleford, Saskatchewan, The three member Nations are Lucky Man Cree Nation, Little Pine First Nation, and Poundmaker First Nation.[185]

Interlake Reserves Tribal Council is a Tribal Council based in Fairford, Manitoba. The council has six Nations as members but the only Cree member is Peguis First Nation.[186]

Without affiliation with any Tribal Council: Big Island Lake Cree Nation,[187] Thunderchild First Nation.[188]

Tribal Chiefs Ventures is a Tribal council based in Edmonton with the following Cree members: Beaver Lake Cree Nation, Heart Lake First Nation, Frog Lake First Nation, and Kehewin Cree Nation.

Beaver Hills Cree (Amiskwacīwiyiniwak)Edit

Maskwacis Cree Tribal Council is based in the unincorporated community of Maskwacis, (formerly Hobbema) Alberta, located 70 kilometres (43 mi) south of Edmonton. The members are Ermineskin Cree Nation, Louis Bull Tribe, Montana First Nation, and Samson Cree Nation.[189] All four members have individual reserves that surround the community of Maskwacis: Ermineskin 138, Louis Bull 138B, Montana 139, Samson 137, and Samson 137A. And all four share the reserve of Pigeon Lake 138A, about 50 kilometres (31 mi) to the northwest.[190]

Yellowhead Tribal Council is based in Morinville, Alberta. Member nations are: Alexander First Nation, Alexis Nakota Sioux First Nation, O'Chiese First Nation, and Sunchild First Nation.[191] The Alexander First Nation is located on the reserve of Alexander 134, west of Morinville and 40 kilometres (25 mi) northwest of Edmonton.[192] Alexis Nakota Sioux First Nation is based on the Alexis 133 reserve, outside Glenevis, 70 kilometres (43 mi) northwest of Edmonton.[193] The O'Chiese First Nation and Sunchild First Nation control the reserves O'Chiese 203 and Sunchild 202 which are adjacent to each other 40 kilometres (25 mi) northwest of Rocky Mountain House.[194][195]

Not affiliated with any Tribal Council: Enoch Cree Nation,[196] Paul First Nation,[197] and Saddle Lake Cree Nation[198] Enoch Cree Nation is located on their main reserve, Enoch Cree Nation 135, adjacent to the western boundary of the city of Edmonton.[199] The Paul First Nation is based on the Wabamun 133A reserve, 58 kilometres (36 mi) west of Edmonton.[200] Saddle Lake Cree Nation is one of the most populous Nations in Canada with 11,235 people as of November 2021.[201] The Nation is located in Saddle Lake, Alberta on the Saddle Lake 125 reserve, 24 kilometres (15 mi) west of St. Paul, Alberta.[202]

United StatesEdit

 
Montana Indian Reservations

Fort Peck Indian Reservation located near Fort Peck, Montana

Chippewa Cree on the Rocky Boy's Indian Reservation in northern Montana

Fort Belknap Indian Reservation located at Fort Belknap Agency, Montana

Other First NationsEdit

Papaschase First Nation, removed from land that now makes up southeast Edmonton, were a party to Treaty 6 but are not recognized by the Canadian government.

EthnobotanyEdit

The Cree use the pitch of Abies balsamea for menstrual irregularity, and take an infusion of the bark and sometimes the wood for coughs. They use the pitch and grease used as an ointment for scabies and boils. They apply a poultice of pitch applied to cuts. They also use a decoction of pitch and sturgeon oil used for tuberculosis, and take an infusion of bark for tuberculosis. They also use the boughs to make brush shelters and use the wood to make paddles.[203]

Hudson Bay Cree subgroupEdit

The Hudson Bay Cree use a decoction of the leaves of Kalmia angustifolia for diarrhea, but they consider the plant to be poisonous.[204]

Woods Cree subgroupEdit

The Woods Cree make use of Ribes glandulosum using a decoction of the stem, either by itself or mixed with wild red raspberry, to prevent clotting after birth, eat the berries as food, and use the stem to make a bitter tea.[205] They make use of Vaccinium myrtilloides, using a decoction of leafy stems used to bring menstruation and prevent pregnancy, to make a person sweat, to slow excessive menstrual bleeding, to bring blood after childbirth, and to prevent miscarriage. They also use the berries to dye porcupine quills, eat the berries raw, make them into jam and eat it with fish and bannock, and boil or pound the sun-dried berries into pemmican.[206] They use the berries of the minus subspecies of Vaccinium myrtilloides to colour porcupine quills, and put the firm, ripe berries on a string to wear as a necklace.[207] They also incorporate the berries of the minus subspecies of Vaccinium myrtilloides into their cuisine. They store the berries by freezing them outside during the winter, mix the berries with boiled fish eggs, livers, air bladders and fat and eat them, eat the berries raw as a snack food, and stew them with fish or meat.[207]

Cree peopleEdit

 
Mähsette Kuiuab, chief of the Cree, 1840–1843, Karl Bodmer.
 
Buffy Sainte-Marie, Cree singer-songwriter, performing in Norway, 2012.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Main references used for the Cree First Nation communities: "Welcome to First Nation Profiles". 7 December 2021. and "Welcome to the First Nation Profiles Interactive Map". from Crown–Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs Canada

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "2016 Canadian Census". Statistics Canada. 21 June 2018. Retrieved 28 April 2019.
  2. ^ a b c d e f "Aboriginal Population Profile, 2016 Census". Statistics Canada. 21 June 2018. Retrieved 26 May 2022.
  3. ^ "2016 Canadian Census". Statistics Canada. 21 June 2018. Retrieved 28 April 2019.
  4. ^ a b c "Cree". The Canadian Encyclopedia (online ed.). Historica Canada. 9 October 2018.
  5. ^ "2016 Canada Census". Statistics Canada. 21 June 2018. Retrieved 28 April 2019.
  6. ^ "Gateway to Aboriginal Heritage". Canadian Museum of Civilization Corporation.
  7. ^ Mackenzie, Alexander (1903). Voyages from Montreal Through the Continent of North America to the Frozen and Pacific Oceans in 1789 and 1793. New York: A. S. Barnes & Company at Project Gutenberg
  8. ^ "Les Amérindiens du Canada" [Amerindians of Canada] (in French). Authentik Canada.
  9. ^ "Moose Cree First Nation community profile". Archived from the original on 10 December 2008.
  10. ^ First Nations (Map). Government of Ontario.
  11. ^ a b Honigmann, John J. (1981). "West Main Cree". In June Helm; William C. Sturtevant (eds.). Handbook of North American Indians. Vol. 6: Subarctic. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian. p. 227. ISBN 978-0-16-004578-3. David H. Pentland, "Synonymy"
  12. ^ Dorian, Jon (30 October 2012). "Traditional Cree Nation Custom Council". Kaministikominahiko-skak Cree Nation.
  13. ^ a b Maclead, Neal (2000). "Plains Cree Identity: Borderlands, Ambiguous Genealogies and Narratives Irony" (PDF). Canadian Journal of Native Studies. 20 (2): 437–454. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 June 2017. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  14. ^ McLeod, Neal. "Cree". Indigenous Saskatchewan Encyclopedia. University of Saskatchewan. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  15. ^ Mackenzie, Alexander (1931). Milo Quaife (ed.). Alexander Mackenzie's voyage to the Pacific ocean in 1793. The Lakeside Press, R. R. Donnelley & Sons Co.
  16. ^ Thompson, David (1971). "Life with the Nahathaways". Travels in western North America, 1784–1812. Macmillan of Canada. p. 109. ISBN 9780770512125. The French Canadians...call them 'Krees', a name which none of the Indians can pronounce ...
  17. ^ Greeberg, Adolph M.; Morrison, James (1982). "Group Identities in the Boreal Forest: The Origin of the Northern Ojibwa". Ethnohistory. 29 (2): 75–102. doi:10.2307/481370. JSTOR 481370.
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  22. ^ Bakker, Peter (2013). "Diachrony and typology in the history of Cree (Algonquian, Algic)". In Folke Josephson; Ingmar Söhrman (eds.). Diachronic and Typological Perspectives on Verbs. Studies in Language Companion Series. Vol. 134. John Benjamins Publishing. p. 223. ISBN 978-90-272-7181-5.
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  24. ^ a b "Source". canadiangeographic.ca. Canadian Geographic. Archived from the original on 14 April 2006. Retrieved 28 October 2005.
  25. ^ "The Métis". Canada's First People. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  26. ^ "Métis Nation Citizenship". Métis National Council. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  27. ^ "Cree". Crystalinks.com.
  28. ^ Theresa, Schenck (1994). "Identifying The Ojibwe". Algonquian Papers. 25: 396.
  29. ^ Hlady, Walter M. (1960). "Indian Migrations in Manitoba and the West". MHS Transactions. Series 3. Manitoba Historical Society. 17.
  30. ^ Tanner, Adrian (16 October 2018). "Innu (Montagnais-Naskapi)". The Canadian Encyclopedia (online ed.). Historica Canada.
  31. ^ "Our Community". Naskapi Nation of Kawawachikamach. Archived from the original on 31 October 2019. Retrieved 31 October 2019.
  32. ^ "Naskapi Nation of Kawawachikamach". First Nation Detail. 14 November 2008.
  33. ^ a b "Welcome". Innu Nation.
  34. ^ "Mushuau Innu First Nation". First Nation Detail. 14 November 2008.
  35. ^ "Les Innus de Ekuanitshit". First Nation Detail. 3 November 2008.
  36. ^ "Innu Takuaikan Uashat Mak Mani-Utenam". First Nation Detail. 3 November 2008.
  37. ^ "Innu Takuaikan Uashat Mak Mani-Utenam". Reserves/Settlements/Villages. 3 November 2008.
  38. ^ "La Nation Innu Matimekush-Lac John". First Nation Detail. 3 November 2008.
  39. ^ "La Nation Innu Matimekush-Lac John". Reserves/Settlements/Villages. 3 November 2008.
  40. ^ "Première Nation des Innus de Nutashkuan". First Nation Detail. 3 November 2008.
  41. ^ "Montagnais de Pakua Shipi". First Nation Detail. 3 November 2008.
  42. ^ "Montagnais de Unamen Shipu". First Nation Detail. 3 November 2008.
  43. ^ "Bienvenue!". Unamen-Shipu. Retrieved 1 November 2019.
  44. ^ "Sheshatshiu Innu First Nation". First Nation Detail. 3 November 2008.
  45. ^ "Première Nation des Pekuakamiulnuatsh". First Nation Detail. 3 November 2008.
  46. ^ "Bande des Innus de Pessamit". First Nation Detail. 3 November 2008.
  47. ^ "Innue Essipit". First Nation Detail. 3 November 2008.
  48. ^ "Atikamekw Sipi – Conseil de la Nation Atikamekw". Tribal Council Detail. 3 November 2008.
  49. ^ "Les conseils de bande atikamekw" [Atikamekw Band Councils]. Atikamekw Sipi (in French).
  50. ^ "Atikamekw d'Opitciwan". First Nation Detail. 3 November 2008.
  51. ^ "Les Atikamekw de Manawan". First Nation Detail. 3 November 2008.
  52. ^ "Conseil des Atikamekw de Wemotaci". First Nation Detail. 3 November 2008.
  53. ^ "Conseil des Atikamekw de Wemotaci". Reserves/Settlements/Villages. 3 November 2008.
  54. ^ "The Eeyou of Eeyou Istchee". Grand Council of the Crees. 2019.
  55. ^ "Cree Nation of Chisasibi". First Nation Detail. 14 November 2008.
  56. ^ "Chisasibi & LG-1 Road". James Bay Road. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  57. ^ "Eastmain". First Nation Detail. 14 November 2008.
  58. ^ "Eastmain". James Bay Road. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  59. ^ "Cree Nation of Mistissini". First Nation Detail. 14 November 2008.
  60. ^ "Cree Nation of Nemaska". First Nation Detail. 14 November 2008.
  61. ^ "Contact". Grand Council of the Crees. 2019.
  62. ^ "Nemaska (Nemiscau)". James Bay Road. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  63. ^ "Oujé-Bougoumou Cree Nation". First Nation Detail. 14 November 2008.
  64. ^ "The Crees of the Waskaganish First Nation". First Nation Detail. 14 November 2008.
  65. ^ Moriarty, G. Andrews (1979) [1966]. "Gillam, Zachariah". In Brown, George Williams (ed.). Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Vol. I (1000–1700) (online ed.). University of Toronto Press.
  66. ^ "Waswanipi". First Nation Detail. 14 November 2008.
  67. ^ "About Waswanipi". Cree First Nation of Waswanipi.
  68. ^ "Cree Nation of Wemindji". First Nation Detail. 14 November 2008.
  69. ^ "Première nation de Whapmagoostui". First Nation Detail. 14 November 2008.
  70. ^ "Washaw Sibi". Grand Council of the Crees. 2019.
  71. ^ Bonspiel, Steve (14 May 2004). "The Lost Cree of Washaw Sibi: The Tenth Cree Community of Eeyou Istchee finds its Identity". Nation. 11 (13).
  72. ^ Loon, Joshua (28 February 2014). "Washaw Sibi Cree Nation finds home, after decades scattered". CBC News.
  73. ^ "Constance Lake". First Nation Detail. 14 November 2008.
  74. ^ "Constance Lake". Reserves/Settlements/Villages. 14 November 2008.
  75. ^ a b "Mushkegowuk Council". Tribal Council Detail. 14 November 2008.
  76. ^ "Chapleau Cree First Nation". Reserves/Settlements/Villages. 14 November 2008.
  77. ^ Kudelik, Gail (27 July 2015). "Albany River". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada.
  78. ^ "Fort Albany 67". Reserve/Settlement/Village Detail. 14 November 2008.
  79. ^ "History". Missanabie Cree First Nation. Retrieved 24 December 2021.
  80. ^ "Missanabie Cree First Nation". Reserve/Settlement/Village Detail. 14 November 2008.
  81. ^ "Moose Cree First Nation". First Nation Detail. 14 November 2008.
  82. ^ "Moose Factory". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. 15 October 2021.
  83. ^ "Moose Cree First Nation". Reserves/Settlements/Villages. 14 November 2008.
  84. ^ "Taykwa Tagamou Nation". Reserves/Settlements/Villages. 14 November 2008.
  85. ^ "Wabun Tribal Council". Tribal Council Detail. 14 November 2008.
  86. ^ "Brunswick House". Reserves/Settlements/Villages. 14 November 2008.
  87. ^ "Matachewan 72". Reserve/Settlement/Village Detail. 14 November 2008.
  88. ^ "Fort Severn". Reserves/Settlements/Villages. 14 November 2008.
  89. ^ "Fort Severn". First Nation Detail. 14 November 2008.
  90. ^ "Albany". First Nation Detail. 14 November 2008.
  91. ^ "Fort Albany 67". Reserve/Settlement/Village Detail. 14 November 2008.
  92. ^ "Attawapiskat". First Nation Detail. 14 November 2008.
  93. ^ "Attawapiskat". Reserves/Settlements/Villages. 14 November 2008.
  94. ^ "Weenusk". First Nation Detail. 7 December 2021.
  95. ^ "Weenusk". Reserves/Settlements/Villages. 14 November 2008.
  96. ^ Cram, Stephanie (20 May 2016). "First Nation remembers devastating flood in northern Ontario, 30 years later". CBC News.
  97. ^ a b "Keewatin Tribal Council". Tribal Council Detail. 14 November 2008.
  98. ^ "Fox Lake". Reserves/Settlements/Villages. 14 November 2008.
  99. ^ "Shamattawa 1". Reserve/Settlement/Village Detail. 14 November 2008.
  100. ^ "Tataskweyak Cree Nation". Reserves/Settlements/Villages. 14 November 2008.
  101. ^ "War Lake First Nation". Reserves/Settlements/Villages. 14 November 2008.
  102. ^ "York Factory First Nation". Reserves/Settlements/Villages. 14 November 2008.
  103. ^ York Factory National Historic Site of Canada. Canadian Register of Historic Places.
  104. ^ "Our History: The Relocation". York Factory First Nation. Retrieved 30 December 2021.
  105. ^ a b "Swampy Cree Tribal Council Incorporated". Tribal Council Detail. 3 November 2008.
  106. ^ "Chemawawin Cree Nation". Reserves/Settlements/Villages. 14 November 2008.
  107. ^ "Pukatawagan 198". Reserve/Settlement/Village Detail. 14 November 2008.
  108. ^ "Grand Rapids 33". Reserve/Settlement/Village Detail. 14 November 2008.
  109. ^ "Moose Lake 31A". Reserve/Settlement/Village Detail. 14 November 2008.
  110. ^ "Opaskwayak Cree Nation 21E". Reserve/Settlement/Village Detail. 14 November 2008.
  111. ^ "Shoal River 65A". Reserve/Settlement/Village Detail. 14 November 2008.
  112. ^ "Swan Lake 65C". Reserve/Settlement/Village Detail. 14 November 2008.
  113. ^ "Fisher River". First Nation Detail. 14 November 2008.
  114. ^ "Marcel Colomb First Nation". First Nation Detail. 14 November 2008.
  115. ^ a b "Norway House Cree Nation". First Nation Detail. 14 November 2008.
  116. ^ "Fisher River". Reserves/Settlements/Villages. 14 November 2008.
  117. ^ "Black Sturgeon". Reserve/Settlement/Village Detail. 14 November 2008.
  118. ^ Lyon, D.M. (16 April 2015). "Norway House". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada.
  119. ^ Norway House National Historic Site of Canada. Canadian Register of Historic Places.
  120. ^ "Norway House Cree Nation". Reserves/Settlements/Villages. 14 November 2008.
  121. ^ "Norway House Cree Nation". Registered Population. 14 November 2008.
  122. ^ a b "First Nations". Prince Albert Grand Council. 2014.
  123. ^ "Cumberland House Cree Nation". Reserves/Settlements/Villages. 14 November 2008.
  124. ^ Cumberland House National Historic Site of Canada. Canadian Register of Historic Places.
  125. ^ "Red Earth". Reserves/Settlements/Villages. 14 November 2008.
  126. ^ "Shoal Lake Cree Nation". Reserves/Settlements/Villages. 14 November 2008.
  127. ^ "Barren Lands". Reserves/Settlements/Villages. 14 November 2008.
  128. ^ "Bunibonibee Cree Nation". Reserves/Settlements/Villages. 14 November 2008.
  129. ^ "God's Lake 23". Reserve/Settlement/Village Detail. 14 November 2008.
  130. ^ "Manto Sipi Cree Nation". Reserves/Settlements/Villages. 14 November 2008.
  131. ^ "Lac La Ronge". Registered Population. 14 November 2008.
  132. ^ "Lac La Ronge". Reserves/Settlements/Villages. 14 November 2008.
  133. ^ "Montreal Lake". Reserves/Settlements/Villages. 14 November 2008.
  134. ^ "Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation". Registered Population. 14 November 2008.
  135. ^ "Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation". Reserves/Settlements/Villages. 14 November 2008.
  136. ^ "Sturgeon Lake First Nation". Reserves/Settlements/Villages. 14 November 2008.
  137. ^ "Cross Lake Band of Indians". First Nation Detail. 14 November 2008.
  138. ^ "Nisichawayasihk Cree Nation". First Nation Detail. 14 November 2008.
  139. ^ "O-Pipon-Na-Piwin Cree Nation". First Nation Detail. 14 November 2008.
  140. ^ "Cross Lake Band of Indians". Registered Population. 14 November 2008.
  141. ^ "Cross Lake Band of Indians". Reserves/Settlements/Villages. 14 November 2008.
  142. ^ "Nisichawayasihk Cree Nation". Reserves/Settlements/Villages. 14 November 2008.
  143. ^ "O-Pipon-Na-Piwin Cree Nation". Reserves/Settlements/Villages. 14 November 2008.
  144. ^ "Canoe Lake Cree First Nation". Reserves/Settlements/Villages. 14 November 2008.
  145. ^ a b "MLTC Program Services Inc". Tribal Council Detail. 14 November 2008.
  146. ^ "Bigstone Cree Nation". Reserves/Settlements/Villages. 14 November 2008.
  147. ^ "Bigstone Cree Nation". First Nation Detail. 14 November 2008.
  148. ^ Buehler, Clint (19 March 2010). "Bigstone Cree Overwhelmingly Ratify Major Treaty Settlement". First Nations Drum.
  149. ^ "Fort McMurray #468 First Nation". Reserves/Settlements/Villages. 14 November 2008.
  150. ^ "Athabasca Tribal Council Limited". Tribal Council Detail. 14 November 2008.
  151. ^ "Kee Tas Kee Now Tribal Council". First Nation Detail. 14 November 2008.
  152. ^ "Loon River Cree". Reserves/Settlements/Villages. 14 November 2008.
  153. ^ "Lubicon Lake". Reserves/Settlements/Villages. 14 November 2008.
  154. ^ "Peerless Trout First Nation". Reserves/Settlements/Villages. 14 November 2008.
  155. ^ "Whitefish Lake". Reserves/Settlements/Villages. 14 November 2008.
  156. ^ "Woodland Cree First Nation". Reserves/Settlements/Villages. 14 November 2008.
  157. ^ "Lesser Slave Lake Indian Regional Council". Tribal Council Detail. 14 November 2008.
  158. ^ "Driftpile Cree Nation". Reserves/Settlements/Villages. 14 November 2008.
  159. ^ "Kapawe'no First Nation". Reserves/Settlements/Villages. 14 November 2008.
  160. ^ "Sawridge First Nation". Reserves/Settlements/Villages. 14 November 2008.
  161. ^ "Sucker Creek". Reserves/Settlements/Villages. 14 November 2008.
  162. ^ "Swan River First Nation". Reserves/Settlements/Villages. 14 November 2008.
  163. ^ "Little Red River Cree Nation". Reserves/Settlements/Villages. 14 November 2008.
  164. ^ "North Peace Tribal Council". Tribal Council Detail. 14 November 2008.
  165. ^ "Mikisew Cree First Nation". Reserves/Settlements/Villages. 14 November 2008.
  166. ^ "Mikisew Cree First Nation". First Nation Detail. 14 November 2008.
  167. ^ Fort Chipewyan National Historic Site of Canada. Canadian Register of Historic Places.
  168. ^ "Western Cree Tribal Council". Tribal Council Detail. 14 November 2008.
  169. ^ "Duncan's 151A". Reserve/Settlement/Village Detail. 14 November 2008.
  170. ^ "Sturgeon Lake Cree Nation". Reserves/Settlements/Villages. 14 November 2008.
  171. ^ "Battlefords Agency Tribal Chiefs". Tribal Council Detail. 3 November 2008.
  172. ^ "Battlefords Agency Tribal Chiefs". batc.ca.
  173. ^ "File Hills Qu'Appelle Tribal Council". Tribal Council Detail. 3 November 2008.
  174. ^ "Saskatoon Tribal Council". Tribal Council Detail. 3 November 2008.
  175. ^ "Touchwood Agency Tribal Council". Tribal Council Detail. 3 November 2008.
  176. ^ "Touchwood Agency Tribal Council". TouchwoodAgency.ca.
  177. ^ "Yorkton Tribal Council". Tribal Council Detail. 3 November 2008.
  178. ^ "Beardy's and Okemasis". First Nation Detail. 14 November 2008.
  179. ^ "Cowessess". First Nation Detail. 7 December 2021.
  180. ^ "Ochapowace". First Nation Detail. 7 December 2021.
  181. ^ "Onion Lake Cree Nation". First Nation Detail. 14 November 2008.
  182. ^ "Pheasant Rump Nakota". First Nation Detail. 14 November 2008.
  183. ^ "White Bear". First Nation Detail. 7 December 2021.
  184. ^ "Agency Chiefs Tribal Council". Tribal Council Detail. 3 November 2008.
  185. ^ "Northwest Professional Services Corp". Tribal Council Detail. 14 November 2008.
  186. ^ "Peguis". First Nation Detail. 14 November 2008.
  187. ^ "Big Island Lake Cree Nation". First Nation Detail. 14 November 2008.
  188. ^ "Thunderchild First Nation". First Nation Detail. 14 November 2008.
  189. ^ "Maskwacis Cree Tribal Council". Tribal Council Detail. 14 November 2008.
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