1862 and 1863 United States House of Representatives elections

The 1862 and 1863 United States House of Representatives elections were held during President Abraham Lincoln's first term at various dates in different states from June 1862 to November 1863. Republicans lost 22 seats and the majority, while Democrats gained 28.

1862 and 1863 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1860 & 1861 June 2, 1862 – November 3, 1863[a] 1864 & 1865 →

All 184 seats[b] in the United States House of Representatives
93 seats needed for a majority
  First party Second party
  Galusha A. Grow restored.jpg SSCox.jpg
Leader Galusha Grow Samuel Cox
Party Republican Democratic
Leader's seat Pennsylvania 14th
(lost re-election)
Ohio 7th
Last election 108 seats 45 seats
Seats won 87[1] 72[1]
Seat change Decrease 21 Increase 27

  Third party
 
Party Unionist
Last election 28 seats
Seats won 25[1]
Seat change Decrease 3

Speaker before election

Galusha Grow
Republican

Elected Speaker

Schuyler Colfax
Republican

The Civil War to date had been only weakly successful for the Union, but had wrought major, disruptive change in the size and reach of the Federal Government, which before the war had been small and little seen beyond post offices, customs houses in ports, and scattered military posts. The Republican Party was also relatively new, yet had led the Union down a radical path of rapid industrialization and destructive total war.

Voters turned on the Administration over its failure to deliver a swift victory over the Confederate rebellion (at times verging on military incompetence), along with rising inflation and new taxes to pay for the war effort, the suspension of habeas corpus, and the introduction of conscription.

Expressing a typical sentiment, the Cincinnati Gazette had editorialized that voters "are depressed by the interminable nature of this war, as so far conducted, and by the rapid exhaustion of the national resources without progress."[2]

Short of a majority, Republicans retained control with the support of the Unionist Party. In September 1862, President Lincoln had warned the South that he planned by executive order, and as a war measure, to liberate all slaves in rebelling states as of January 1, 1863. The popularity of emancipation varied by region. It was more popular in New England and areas near the Great Lakes, and less popular in cities with large immigrant populations and in the southern portion of the North.

While Democrats hailed the elections as a repudiation of emancipation, the results did not alter Lincoln's plan or hamper prosecution of the war.[3]

In Lincoln's home district of Springfield, Illinois, John T. Stuart, a Democrat and one of Lincoln's former law partners, defeated the Republican incumbent. A fear of an influx of freed slaves competing for jobs and depressing wages, and a desire by white voters to prevent black suffrage, helped drive this result and others.[4]

The sitting House Speaker, Galusha Grow of Pennsylvania, also lost re-election, but he would return to the House 30 years later in 1894.

Election summariesEdit

The eight Representatives remaining from Tennessee and Virginia in the 37th Congress were absent from the 38th Congress. Other seceded states remained unrepresented, leaving 58 vacancies[5] Upon admission, West Virginia was allotted three Representatives [6] and during the second session one seat was added for the new state of Nevada.[7]

Reapportionment transpired according to the 1860 Census, under the 1850 Apportionment Act[8] providing a total of 233 seats. A later Act added eight seats,[9] increasing the total to 241.

72 2 85 25
Democratic [c] Republican Unionist
State Type Date Total seats
(Reapportionment)
Democratic Independent
Republican
Republican Unionist[d]
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Oregon At-large June 2, 1862 1   0   1 0   1   1 0  
Maine Districts September 8, 1862 5   1 1   1 0   4   2 0  
Indiana Districts October 14, 1862 11   7   3 0   4   3 0  
Iowa Districts 6   4 0   0   6   4 0  
Ohio Districts 19   2 14   6 0   5   8 0  
Pennsylvania Districts 24   1 12   6 2   2 10   9 0  
Delaware At-large November 1, 1862 1   1   1 0   0   0   1
Massachusetts Districts 10   1 0   0   10   0   1
Illinois Districts November 4, 1862
(Election Day)[e]
14   5 9   4 0   5   1 0  
Kansas At-large 1   0   0   1   0  
Michigan Districts 6   2 1   1 0   5   1 0  
Minnesota Districts 2   0   0   2   0  
Missouri Districts 9   2 0   5 0   1   8   7
New Jersey Districts 5   4   1 0   1   1 0  
New York Districts 31   2 17   7 0   14   9 0  
Wisconsin Districts 6   3 3   3 0   3   0  
Late elections (after the March 4, 1863 beginning of the term)
New Hampshire Districts March 10, 1863 3   1   1 0   2   1 0  
Rhode Island Districts April 1, 1863 2   0   0   2   2 0   2
Connecticut Districts April 6, 1863 4   1   1 0   3   1 0  
Kentucky Districts August 3, 1863 9   1 0   1 0   0   9  
Vermont Districts September 1, 1863 3   0   0   3   0  
California At-large September 2, 1863 3   0   0   3   0  
West Virginia[f] Districts October 22, 1863 3   3 0   0   0   3   3
Maryland Districts November 3, 1863 5   1 1   1 0   0   4   2
Secessionist States
Alabama Districts None 6   1
Arkansas Districts None 3   1
Florida At-large None 1  
Georgia Districts None 7   1
Louisiana Districts None 5   1   2
Mississippi Districts None 5  
North Carolina Districts None 7   1
South Carolina Districts None 4   2
Tennessee Districts None 8   2   3
Texas Districts None 4   2
Virginia Districts None 11[g]   2   5
Total[b] 184   3 72   27 2   2 85   25 25   5
58 Vacancies[h] 39.1% 1.1% 46.2% 13.6%
Popular vote
Democratic
45.11%
Republican
23.23%
Unionist
31.02%
Others
0.64%
House seats
Democratic
39.13%
Republican
47.28%
Unionist
13.59%

Special electionsEdit

There were seven special elections during the 37th Congress, and two during the 38th Congress.

37th CongressEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Virginia 1 Joseph Segar Unionist 1861 Incumbent declared not entitled February 11, 1862.
Incumbent re-elected March 15, 1862.
Unionist hold.
  •  Y Joseph Segar (Unionist) 54.91%
  • Athur Watson (Unknown) 43.03%
Pennsylvania 7 Thomas B. Cooper Democratic 1860 Incumbent died April 4, 1862.
New member elected May 24, 1862.
Democratic hold.
Maine 2 Charles W. Walton Republican 1860 Incumbent resigned May 26, 1862.
New member elected September 8, 1862.
Republican hold.
Kentucky 2 James S. Jackson Unionist 1861 Incumbent resigned December 13, 1861.
New member elected October 27, 1862.
Unionist hold.
Massachusetts 9 Goldsmith Bailey Republican 1860 Incumbent died May 8, 1862.
New member elected November 4, 1862.
Republican hold.
Wisconsin 2 Luther Hanchett Republican 1860 Incumbent died November 24, 1862.
New member elected December 30, 1862.
Republican hold.
Successor was also elected to the next term, see below.
Virginia 7 Charles H. Upton Unionist 1861 Incumbent invalidated February 27, 1862.
New member elected January 15, 1863.
Unionist hold.

38th CongressEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Wisconsin 6 Luther Hanchett Republican 1860 Incumbent member-elect died November 23, 1862.
New member elected December 30, 1862.
Republican hold.
Successor was also elected to finish the current term, see above.
New York 14 Erastus Corning Democratic 1860 Incumbent resigned October 5, 1863.
New member elected November 3, 1863.
Democratic hold.
Delaware at-large William Temple Democratic 1862 Incumbent died May 28, 1863.
New member elected November 19, 1863.
Unconditional Unionist gain.

AlabamaEdit

Alabama elected no members to the next Congress due to its withdrawal during the Civil War.

ArkansasEdit

Arkansas elected no members to the next Congress due to its withdrawal during the Civil War.

CaliforniaEdit

Note: From statehood to 1866, California's representatives were elected state-wide at-large, with the top two vote-getters winning election from 1849 to 1858. In 1860, when California gained a seat, the top three vote-getters were elected.

California elected its members September 2, 1863, after the term began but before the Congress convened.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
California at-large
Plural district with 3 seats
Timothy Phelps Republican 1861 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Aaron A. Sargent Republican 1861 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Frederick F. Low Republican 1861 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.

ConnecticutEdit

Connecticut elected its members April 6, 1863, after the term began but before the Congress convened.

Colorado TerritoryEdit

See non-voting delegates, below.

DelawareEdit

Delaware elected its sole member November 1, 1862.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Delaware at-large George P. Fisher Unionist 1860 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.

Dakota TerritoryEdit

See non-voting delegates, below.

FloridaEdit

Florida elected no members to the next Congress due to its withdrawal during the Civil War.

GeorgiaEdit

Georgia elected no members to the next Congress due to its withdrawal during the Civil War.

Idaho TerritoryEdit

See non-voting delegates, below.

IllinoisEdit

Illinois elected its members November 4, 1862.

IndianaEdit

Indiana elected its members October 14, 1862.

IowaEdit

Iowa elected its members October 14, 1862.

KansasEdit

Kansas elected its member November 4, 1862.

KentuckyEdit

Kentucky elected its members August 3, 1863, after the term began but before the Congress convened.

LouisianaEdit

Although Louisiana had withdrawn from the Union during the Civil War, elections were held on December 3, 1863, for the two congressional districts in portions of the state under Union control.[10] The seats had be vacant since the end of the 36th Congress.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Louisiana 1 Vacant Seat expired at end of 36th Congress with the withdrawn of Louisiana from the Union.
New member elected.
Unionist gain.
Louisiana 2 Vacant Seat expired at end of 36th Congress with the withdrawn of Louisiana from the Union.
New member elected.
Unionist gain.

MaineEdit

Maine elected its members September 8, 1862.

MarylandEdit

Maryland elected its members November 3, 1863, after the term began but before the Congress convened.

MassachusettsEdit

Massachusetts elected its members November 1, 1862.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Massachusetts 1 Thomas D. Eliot Republican 1858 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Thomas D. Eliot (Republican) 72.53%
  • Daniel Fisher (People's) 23.21%
  • William R. Easter (Unknown) 6.23%
Massachusetts 2 James Buffington Republican 1854 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
  •  Y Oakes Ames (Republican) 61.08%
  • William D. Swan (People's) 38.92%
Massachusetts 3 Alexander H. Rice
Redistricted from the 4th district.
Republican 1858 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Alexander H. Rice (Republican) 50.12%
  • John S. Sleeper (Democratic) 49.88%
Massachusetts 4 Samuel Hooper
Redistricted from the 5th district.
Republican 1861 (special) Incumbent re-elected.
Massachusetts 5 John B. Alley
Redistricted from the 6th district.
Republican 1858 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y John B. Alley (Republican) 61.17%
  • Benjamin Poole (People's) 38.83%
Massachusetts 6 Daniel W. Gooch
Redistricted from the 7th district.
Republican 1858 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Daniel W. Gooch (Republican) 56.92%
  • Oliver H. Perry Jr. (People's) 43.09%
Massachusetts 7 Benjamin F. Thomas
Redistricted from the 3rd district.
People's 1861 (special) Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Charles R. Train
Redistricted from the 8th district.
Republican 1858 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican loss.
Massachusetts 8 Vacant (new seat) New seat.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
  •  Y John D. Baldwin (Republican) 66.17%
  • Paul Whitin Jr. (People's) 33.83%
Massachusetts 9 Vacant Rep. Goldsmith Bailey died May 8, 1862.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Charles Delano
Redistricted from the 10th district.
Republican 1858 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican loss.
Massachusetts 10 Henry Laurens Dawes
Redistricted from the 11th district.
Republican 1856 Incumbent re-elected.

MichiganEdit

Michigan elected its members November 4, 1862.

MinnesotaEdit

Minnesota elected its members November 4, 1862.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Minnesota 1 William Windom
Redistricted from the at-large district
Republican 1859 Incumbent re-elected.
Minnesota 2 Cyrus Aldrich
Redistricted from the at-large district
Republican 1859 Incumbent retired to run for U.S. senator.
New member elected.
Republican hold.

MississippiEdit

Mississippi elected no members to the next Congress due to its withdrawal during the Civil War.

MissouriEdit

Missouri elected its members November 4, 1862.

Nebraska TerritoryEdit

See non-voting delegates, below.

Nevada TerritoryEdit

See non-voting delegates, below.

New HampshireEdit

New Hampshire elected its members March 10, 1863.

New Mexico TerritoryEdit

See non-voting delegates, below.

New JerseyEdit

New Jersey elected its members November 4, 1862.

New YorkEdit

New York elected its members November 4, 1862. The state lost two seats in reapportionment, going from 33 members to 31.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
New York 1 Edward H. Smith Democratic 1860 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
New York 2
New York 3
New York 4
New York 5
New York 6
New York 7
New York 8
New York 9
New York 10
New York 11
New York 12
New York 13
New York 14
New York 15
New York 16
New York 17
New York 18
New York 19
New York 20
New York 21
New York 22
New York 23
New York 24
New York 25
New York 26
New York 27
New York 28
New York 29
New York 30
New York 31

North CarolinaEdit

North Carolina elected no members to the next Congress due to its withdrawal during the Civil War.

OhioEdit

Ohio elected its members October 14, 1862.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates[14]
Ohio 1 George H. Pendleton Democratic 1856 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 2 John A. Gurley Republican 1858 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 3 Clement Vallandigham Democratic 1858 (Contested) Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 4 William Allen Democratic 1858 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Ohio 5 New district New district.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 6 Chilton A. White Democratic 1860 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Chilton A. White (Democratic) 52.0%
  • Robert M. Briggs (Republican) 48.0%
Ohio 7 Richard A. Harrison Unionist 1861 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Unionist loss.
Samuel S. Cox
Redistricted from the 12th district
Democratic 1856 Incumbent re-elected.
Samuel Shellabarger
Redistricted from the 8th district
Republican 1860 Incumbent lost renomination.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 8 New district New district.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 9 Warren P. Noble Democratic 1860 Incumbent re-elected.
Samuel T. Worcester
Redistricted from the 13th district
Republican 1861 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican loss.
Ohio 10 James M. Ashley
Redistricted from the 5th district
Republican 1858 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 11 Valentine B. Horton Republican 1860 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 12 Carey A. Trimble
Redistricted from the 10th district
Republican 1858 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 13 New district New district.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
  •  Y John O'Neill (Democratic) 56.8%
  • George B. Wright (Republican) 43.2%
Ohio 14 Harrison G. O. Blake Republican 1859 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 15 Robert H. Nugen Democratic 1860 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
James R. Morris
Redistricted from the 17th district
Democratic 1860 Incumbent re-elected.
William P. Cutler
Redistricted from the 16th district
Republican 1860 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican loss.
Ohio 16 New district New district.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 17 New district New district.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 18 Sidney Edgerton Republican 1858 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
  •  Y Rufus P. Spalding (Republican) 69.0%
  • David R. Paige Sr. (Democratic) 31.0%
Ohio 19 Albert G. Riddle Republican 1860 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.

OregonEdit

Oregon elected its members June 2, 1862.

PennsylvaniaEdit

Pennsylvania elected its members October 14, 1862.

Rhode IslandEdit

Rhode Island elected its members April 1, 1863, after the term began but before the Congress convened.

South CarolinaEdit

South Carolina elected no members to the next Congress due to its withdrawal during the Civil War.

TennesseeEdit

Tennessee elected no members to the next Congress due to its withdrawal during the Civil War.

TexasEdit

Texas elected no members to the next Congress due to its withdrawal during the Civil War.

Utah TerritoryEdit

See non-voting delegates, below.

VermontEdit

Vermont elected its members September 1, 1863, after the term began but before the Congress convened.

VirginiaEdit

Virginia elected its members May 28, 1863, but they were all disqualified.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Virginia 1 Joseph Segar Unionist 1861
1862 Disqualified[15]
1862 (Special)
Incumbent re-elected but disqualified May 17, 1864.[15]
Unionist loss.
Virginia 2 Vacant New member elected but disqualified May 17, 1864.
Virginia 3 Vacant
Virginia 4 Vacant
Virginia 5 Vacant
Virginia 6 Vacant
Virginia 7 Lewis McKenzie Unionist 1863 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected but disqualified.
Unionist loss.
Virginia 8 Vacant New member elected January 5, 1863 but disqualified March 2, 1863.

Washington TerritoryEdit

See non-voting delegates, below.

West VirginiaEdit

West Virginia elected three representatives on October 22, 1863 after becoming a state on June 20, 1863 but before the Congress convened. It was made up of three districts that previously belonged to Virginia, all of which were vacant before the elections. They were seated on December 7, 1863.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
West Virginia 1 Vacant New seat.
New member elected.
Unconditional Unionist gain.
  •  Y Jacob B. Blair (Unconditional Unionist) 93.02%
  • Willis Dehaas (Unconditional Unionist) 6.98%
West Virginia 2 Vacant New seat.
New member elected.
Unconditional Unionist gain.
West Virginia 3 Vacant New seat.
New member elected.
Unconditional Unionist gain.
  •  Y Kellian Whaley (Unconditional Unionist) 55.72%
  • Frost (Unconditional Unionist) 44.28%

WisconsinEdit

Wisconsin elected six members of congress on Election Day, November 4, 1862, picking up two Democratic gains.

Three of seats were newly apportioned. One incumbent was redistricted and won re-election, but died three weeks after the general election. A special election was held December 30, 1862, to replace him.[20]

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Wisconsin 1 John F. Potter Republican 1856 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Wisconsin 2 New district. New seat.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Wisconsin 3 A. Scott Sloan Republican 1860 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Wisconsin 4 New district. New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Wisconsin 5 New district. New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Wisconsin 6 Luther Hanchett
Redistricted from the 2nd district
Republican 1860 Incumbent re-elected.
Member-elect died November 23, 1862, leading to two special elections, see above.

Non-voting delegatesEdit

District Incumbent This race
Delegate Party First elected Results Candidates
Colorado Territory at-large Hiram Pitt Bennet Conservative Republican 1861 Incumbent re-elected.
Dakota Territory at-large John Blair Smith Todd Democratic 1861 Incumbent lost re-election.
New delegate elected.
Republican gain.
Election was later overturned.
Idaho Territory at-large New seat Territory established.
New delegate elected October 31, 1863 in anticipation of territorial status.
Unionist gain.
Delegate seated February 1, 1864.
Nebraska Territory at-large Samuel Gordon Daily Republican 1860 (Won contest) Incumbent re-elected in 1862.
Nevada Territory at-large John Cradlebaugh Independent 1861 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
New delegate elected in 1862.
Republican gain.
New Mexico Territory at-large John Sebrie Watts Republican 1860 or 1861 Incumbent retired.
New delegate elected.
Republican hold.
Utah Territory at-large John M. Bernhisel Independent 1850 or 1851
1858 or 1859 (Lost)
1860 and 1861
Incumbent re-elected.
Washington Territory at-large William H. Wallace Republican 1860 or 1861 Incumbent retired.
New delegate elected.
Democratic gain.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Regular elections only; excluding specials and states admitted after the start of Congress.
  2. ^ a b Including late elections.
  3. ^ There were 2 Independent Republicans
  4. ^ Including Unconditional Unionists.
  5. ^ In 1845, Congress passed a law providing for a uniform date for choosing presidential electors (see: Statutes at Large, 28th Congress, 2nd Session, p. 721). Congressional elections were unaffected by this law, but the date was gradually adopted by the states for congressional elections as well.
  6. ^ New state.
  7. ^ Subsequently, 3 seats were transferred to the new state of West Virginia.
  8. ^ After 3 seats were reassigned from Virginia to West Virginia.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c "38th Congress (1863–1865)". U.S. House of Representatives. Retrieved June 19, 2020.
  2. ^ Nevins (1960), 6:318-22, quote on p. 322.
  3. ^ Voegeli (1963).
  4. ^ Tap (1993).
  5. ^ Dubin, p. 197.
  6. ^ 12 Stat. 633
  7. ^ 13 Stat. 32
  8. ^ Stat. 432
  9. ^ 12 Stat. 353
  10. ^ "Important from New-Orleans: Result of the Congressional Elections". The New York Times. December 12, 1862. Retrieved February 7, 2022.
  11. ^ "MN - District 01 Race - Nov 04, 1862". Our Campaigns. July 22, 2008. Retrieved February 3, 2022.
  12. ^ "MN - District 02 Race - Nov 04, 1862". Our Campaigns. July 22, 2008. Retrieved February 3, 2022.
  13. ^ "Our Campaigns - NY District 1 Race - Nov 04, 1862".
  14. ^ Smith, Joseph P, ed. (1898). History of the Republican Party in Ohio. Vol. I. Chicago: the Lewis Publishing Company. pp. 150, 151.
  15. ^ a b "Biographical Directory of the U.S. Congress - Retro Member details". bioguideretro.congress.gov.
  16. ^ "Our Campaigns - VA - District 01 Race - May 28, 1863". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  17. ^ "Our Campaigns - VA - District 02 Race - May 28, 1863". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  18. ^ "Our Campaigns - VA - District 07 Race - May 28, 1863". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  19. ^ "Our Campaigns - VA - District 08 Race - Jan 05, 1863". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved June 19, 2020.
  20. ^ "Wisconsin U.S. House Election Results" (PDF). Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 5, 2012. Retrieved August 27, 2014.
  21. ^ "Our Campaigns - CO Territorial Delegate Race - Nov 04, 1862". OurCampaigns.com. Retrieved December 20, 2020.
  22. ^ "Our Campaigns - DK Territorial Delegate Race - Nov 04, 1862". OurCampaigns.com. Retrieved December 20, 2020.
  23. ^ "Our Campaigns - ID Territorial Delegate Race - Oct 31, 1863". OurCampaigns.com. Retrieved December 20, 2020.
  24. ^ "Collections of the NSHS - Volume 18". www.usgennet.org.

BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit