Louisiana's 1st congressional district

Louisiana's 1st congressional district is a congressional district in the U.S. state of Louisiana. The district comprises land from the northern shore of Lake Pontchartrain south to the Mississippi River delta. It covers most of New Orleans' suburbs, as well as a sliver of New Orleans itself.

Louisiana's 1st congressional district
Louisiana US Congressional District 1 (since 2013).tif
'Louisiana's 1st congressional district since January 3, 2013
Representative
  Steve Scalise
RJefferson
Distribution
  • 86.02% urban[1]
  • 13.98% rural
Population (2019)799,917[2]
Median household
income
$61,431[2]
Ethnicity
Cook PVIR+22[3]

The district is currently represented by Republican House minority whip Steve Scalise. It has a Cook Partisan Voting Index rating of R+22, making it the most Republican district in Louisiana.[3]

HistoryEdit

Prior to 1974, the 1st congressional district was entirely south of Lake Pontchartrain. As a result of population changes reflected in the 1970 U.S. Census and a concern to ensure that the 2nd congressional district was majority African American, the district was redrawn to include the Northshore.[Source Needed] This was done to comply with the Voting Rights Act,[Source Needed] passed in 1965 to enforce constitutional rights of minorities in voting, including the opportunity to elect a representative of their choosing and to redistrict after censuses.

In 1974, the state legislature redefined the 1st congressional district, dropping its precincts south of the lake and adding St. Tammany Parish, which borders Lake Pontchartrain on the north, from the 6th congressional district. Subsequently, the 1st congressional district acquired Tangipahoa and Washington parishes, both north of the lake, from the 6th congressional district.

Correspondingly, the 1st congressional district shed conservative St. Bernard Parish and other areas south of the lake to the 3rd congressional district from 1984 through 2013. Overall, the 1st congressional district has become a very safe district for the Republican Party.[4] Before the 1960s, it was controlled by Democrats, but conservative whites realigned with the Republican Party.[Source Needed]

The number of registered voters north of the lake is, as of 2008, slightly higher than south of the lake; however, the 1st congressional district has yet to be represented by a resident from north of Lake Pontchartrain.[5] The reformulation of the 1st congressional district so that it virtually surrounds "the nation's second-largest saltwater lake" has generated a local joke that in the 1st congressional district of Louisiana, the voters are outnumbered by the fish.

The seat was previously held by former governor Bobby Jindal, who was elected after David Vitter retired to successfully run for the U.S. Senate. Republicans have held the seat since 1977. That year Bob Livingston won a special election after Richard Alvin Tonry, who won the seat in 1976, was forced to resign the seat and lost the Democratic primary in the special election.

From 2003 to 2013, the district comprised mostly land on the North Shore and South Shore of Lake Pontchartrain, although it also contained areas west of Lake Pontchartrain. The district included some or all of the following parishes: Washington, St. Tammany, Tangipahoa, Jefferson, Orleans and St. Charles. It also included the cities of Hammond and Slidell and most of the western suburbs of New Orleans, including Metairie and Kenner, along with a small portion of the city itself. The district had the lowest percentage of African-American residents among the state's six-district Congressional delegation.

In 2013, St. Bernard and neighboring Plaquemines Parishes were returned to the first district after nearly 30 years in the Third. The First also picked up much of Lafourche Parish and the southernmost portion of Terrebonne Parish for the first time.

Recent presidential electionsEdit

Election results from presidential races
Year Office Results
2000 President Bush 67–31%
2004 President Bush 71–28%
2008 President McCain 73–26%
2012 President Romney 71–27%
2016 President Trump 69–27%
2020 President Trump 68–30%

List of members representing the districtEdit

Member Party Years Cong
ress
Electoral history District Location
District created March 4, 1823
 
Edward Livingston
Democratic-Republican March 4, 1823 –
March 3, 1825
18th
19th
20th
Elected in 1822.
Re-elected in 1824.
Re-elected in 1826.
Retired to run for U.S. senator.
1823 – 1833
Ascension, Assumption, Saint Charles, Saint John, Lafourche, Orleans, Saint Bernard, Saint James, and Terrebonne parishes
Jacksonian March 4, 1825 –
March 3, 1829
 
Edward Douglass White Sr.
Anti-Jacksonian March 4, 1829 –
November 15, 1834
21st
22nd
23rd
Elected in 1828.
Re-elected in 1830.
Re-elected in 1832.
Retired to run for governor and resigned when elected.
March 4, 1833 –
November 15, 1834
1833 – 1843
[data unknown/missing]
Vacant November 15, 1834 –
December 1, 1834
23rd
 
Henry Johnson
Anti-Jacksonian December 1, 1834 –
March 3, 1837
23rd
24th
25th
Elected to finish White's term.
Also elected to the next full term.
Re-elected in 1836.
Retired to run for governor.
Whig March 4, 1837 –
March 3, 1839
 
Edward Douglass White Sr.
Whig March 4, 1839 –
March 3, 1843
26th
27th
Elected in 1838.
Re-elected in 1840.
Retired.
 
John Slidell
Democratic March 4, 1843 –
November 10, 1845
28th
29th
Elected in 1842.
Re-elected in 1844.
Resigned.
1843 – 1853
[data unknown/missing]
Vacant November 10, 1845 –
January 29, 1846
29th
Emile La Sére Democratic January 29, 1846 –
March 3, 1851
29th
30th
31st
Elected to finish Slidell's term.
Re-elected in 1846.
Re-elected in 1848.
Retired.
Louis St. Martin Democratic March 4, 1851 –
March 3, 1853
32nd Elected in 1850.
Retired.
William Dunbar Democratic March 4, 1853 –
March 3, 1855
33rd Elected in 1852.
Lost re-election.
1853 – 1863
Plaquemines and Saint Bernard parishes, as well as the portion of Orleans Parish on the right (west) bank of the Mississippi River and on the left (east) bank below Canal Street in the city of New Orleans
 
George Eustis Jr.
Know Nothing March 4, 1855 –
March 3, 1859
34th
35th
Elected in 1854.
Re-elected in 1856.
Retired.
 
J. E. Bouligny
Know Nothing December 3, 1859 –
March 3, 1861
36th Elected in 1859.
Bouligny opposed Louisiana's secession and remained in Washington, D.C. during the Civil War. He never retook residency in Louisiana.
Vacant March 4, 1861 –
December 3, 1862
37th Civil War
 
Benjamin Flanders
Unionist December 3, 1862 –
March 3, 1863
Elected in 1860.[a]
Retired.
Vacant March 3, 1863 –
July 18, 1868
Civil War – Louisiana under occupation 1863 – 1873
[data unknown/missing]
 
Jacob Hale Sypher
Republican July 18, 1868 –
March 3, 1869
40th Elected to finish the vacant term.
Term expired during election contest.
Vacant March 3, 1869 –
November 7, 1870
Contested election of Louis St. Martin and Jacob Hale Sypher, House decided neither candidate entitled to seat.
 
Jacob Hale Sypher
Republican November 7, 1870 –
March 3, 1875
41st
42nd
43rd
Elected to finish the vacant term.[b]
Re-elected in 1870.
Re-elected in 1872.
Lost re-election.[c]
1873 – 1883
[data unknown/missing]
Effingham Lawrence Democratic March 3, 1875 –
March 3, 1875
43rd Successfully contested Sypher's election, then retired after one day in office—the shortest service ever by a member of the House of Representatives.
 
Randall Lee Gibson
Democratic March 4, 1875 –
March 3, 1883
44th
45th
46th
47th
Elected in 1874.
Re-elected in 1876.
Re-elected in 1878.
Re-elected in 1880.
Retired to run for U.S. senator.
Carleton Hunt Democratic March 4, 1883 –
March 3, 1885
48th Elected in 1882.
Retired.
1883 – 1893
[data unknown/missing]
Louis St. Martin Democratic March 4, 1885 –
March 3, 1887
49th Elected in 1884.
Retired.
 
Theodore Stark Wilkinson
Democratic March 4, 1887 –
March 3, 1891
50th
51st
Elected in 1886.
Re-elected in 1888.
Retired.
 
Adolph Meyer
Democratic March 4, 1891 –
March 8, 1908
52nd
53rd
54th
55th
56th
57th
58th
59th
60th
Elected in 1890.
Re-elected in 1892.
Re-elected in 1894.
Re-elected in 1896.
Re-elected in 1898.
Re-elected in 1900.
Re-elected in 1902.
Re-elected in 1904.
Re-elected in 1906.
Died.
1893 – 1903
[data unknown/missing]
1903 – 1913
[data unknown/missing]
Vacant March 8, 1908 –
November 3, 1908
60th
 
Albert Estopinal
Democratic November 3, 1908 –
April 28, 1919
60th
61st
62nd
63rd
64th
65th
66th
Elected to finish Meyer's term.
Also elected to the next full term.
Re-elected in 1910.
Re-elected in 1912.
Re-elected in 1914.
Re-elected in 1916.
Re-elected in 1918.
Died.
1913 – 1923
[data unknown/missing]
Vacant April 28, 1919 –
June 5, 1919
66th
 
James O'Connor
Democratic June 5, 1919 –
March 3, 1931
66th
67th
68th
69th
70th
71st
Elected to finish Estopinal's term.
Re-elected in 1920.
Re-elected in 1922.
Re-elected in 1924.
Re-elected in 1926.
Re-elected in 1928.
Lost renomination.
1923 – 1933
[data unknown/missing]
 
Joachim O. Fernandez
Democratic March 4, 1931 –
January 3, 1941
72nd
73rd
74th
75th
76th
Elected in 1930.
Re-elected in 1932.
Re-elected in 1934.
Re-elected in 1936.
Re-elected in 1938.
Lost renomination.
1933 – 1943
[data unknown/missing]
 
Felix Edward Hébert
(New Orleans)
Democratic January 3, 1941 –
January 3, 1977
77th
78th
79th
80th
81st
82nd
83rd
84th
85th
86th
87th
88th
89th
90th
91st
92nd
93rd
94th
Elected in 1940.
Re-elected in 1942.
Re-elected in 1944.
Re-elected in 1946.
Re-elected in 1948.
Re-elected in 1950.
Re-elected in 1952.
Re-elected in 1954.
Re-elected in 1956.
Re-elected in 1958.
Re-elected in 1960.
Re-elected in 1964.
Re-elected in 1966.
Re-elected in 1968.
Re-elected in 1970.
Re-elected in 1972.
Re-elected in 1974.
Retired.
1943 – 1953
[data unknown/missing]
1953 – 1963
[data unknown/missing]
1963 – 1973
[data unknown/missing]
1973 – 1983
[data unknown/missing]
 
Richard Alvin Tonry
(Chalmette)
Democratic January 3, 1977 –
May 4, 1977
95th Elected in 1976.
Resigned after conviction for vote-buying.
Vacant May 4, 1977 –
August 27, 1977
95th
 
Bob Livingston
(New Orleans 1977-83; Metairie 1984-99)
Republican August 27, 1977 –
March 1, 1999
95th
96th
97th
98th
99th
100th
101st
102nd
103rd
104th
105th
106th
Elected to finish Tonry's term.
Re-elected in 1978.
Re-elected in 1980.
Re-elected in 1982.
Re-elected in 1984.
Re-elected in 1986.
Re-elected in 1988.
Re-elected in 1990.
Re-elected in 1992.
Re-elected in 1994.
Re-elected in 1996.
Re-elected in 1998.
Resigned following revelations of his extramarital affair.
1983 – 1993
[data unknown/missing]
1993 – 2003
[data unknown/missing]
Vacant March 2, 1999 –
May 29, 1999
108th
 
David Vitter
(Metairie)
Republican May 29, 1999 –
January 3, 2005
106th
107th
108th
Elected to finish Livingston's term.
Re-elected in 2000.
Re-elected in 2002.
Retired to run for U.S. senator.
2003 – 2013
 
 
Bobby Jindal
(Metairie)
Republican January 3, 2005 –
January 14, 2008
109th
110th
Elected in 2004.
Re-elected in 2006.
Resigned to become Governor of Louisiana.
Vacant January 14, 2008 –
May 3, 2008
110th
 
Steve Scalise
(Jefferson)
Republican May 3, 2008 –
Present
110th
111th
112th
113th
114th
115th
116th
117th
Elected to finish Jindal's term.
Re-elected later in 2008.
Re-elected in 2010.
Re-elected in 2012.
Re-elected in 2014.
Re-elected in 2016.
Re-elected in 2018.
Re-elected in 2020.
2013 – Present
 
  1. ^ He was elected along with Michael Hahn, assuming the seat left vacant after J. E. Bouligny's term expired in 1861. Flanders and Hahn were not seated in Congress until the last fifteen days of their terms in February 1863.
  2. ^ There were so many irregularities in the 1868 election that Congress threw it out. Sypher won the second round.
  3. ^ Sypher's 1872 re-election was successfully contested by Effingham Lawrence. Sypher lost, but only after the original returns were certified in his favor. After protracted court intervention, Lawrence was declared elected, but just one day (March 3, 1875) remained in the term, and in the meantime Lawrence had lost the 1874 election to Democrat Randall Lee Gibson.

Recent Election ResultsEdit

2002Edit

Louisiana's 1st Congressional District Election (2002)
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican David Vitter (Incumbent) 147,117 81.47
Republican Monica L. Monica 20,268 11.22
Republican Robert Namer 7,229 4.00
Libertarian Ian P. Hawxhurst 5,956 3.30
Total votes 180,570 100.00
Republican hold

2004Edit

Louisiana's 1st Congressional District Election (2004)
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Bobby Jindal 225,708 78.40
Democratic Roy Armstrong 19,266 6.69
Democratic Vinny Mendoza 12,779 4.44
Democratic Daniel Zimmerman 12,135 4.22
Democratic Jerry Watts 10,034 3.49
Republican Mike Rogers 7,975 2.77
Total votes 287,897 100.00
Republican hold

2006Edit

Louisiana's 1st Congressional District Election (2006)
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Bobby Jindal (Incumbent) 130,508 88.11
Democratic David Gereighty 10,919 7.37
Democratic Stacey Tallitsch 5,025 3.39
Libertarian Peter L. Beary 1,676 1.13
Total votes 148,128 100.00
Republican hold

2008Edit

Louisiana's 1st Congressional District Special Election (May 3, 2008)
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Steve Scalise 33,867 75.14
Democratic Gilda Reed 10,142 22.50
Independent R.A. "Skip" Galan 786 1.74
Independent Anthony Gentile 280 0.62
Total votes 45,075 100.00
Republican hold
Louisiana's 1st Congressional District General Election (2008)
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Steve Scalise (Incumbent) 189,168 65.68
Democratic Jim Harlan 98,839 34.32
Total votes 288,007 100.00
Republican hold

2010Edit

Louisiana's 1st Congressional District Election (2010)
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Steve Scalise (Incumbent) 157,182 78.52
Democratic Myron Katz 38,416 19.19
Independent Arden Wells 4,578 2.29
Total votes 200,176 100.00
Republican hold

2012Edit

Louisiana's 1st Congressional District Election (2012)
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Steve Scalise (Incumbent) 193,496 66.63
Democratic Vinny Mendoza 61,703 21.25
Republican Gary King 24,844 8.55
Independent David Turknett 6,079 2.09
Independent Arden Wells 4,578 1.48
Total votes 290,410 100.00
Republican hold

2014Edit

Louisiana's 1st Congressional District Election (2014)
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Steve Scalise (Incumbent) 189,250 77.56
Democratic Vinny Mendoza 24,761 10.15
Democratic Lee Dugas 21,286 8.72
Libertarian Jeff Sanford 8,707 3.57
Total votes 244,004 100.00
Republican hold

2016Edit

Louisiana's 1st Congressional District Election (2016)
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Steve Scalise (Incumbent) 243,645 74.56
Democratic Lee Ann Dugas 41,840 12.80
Democratic Danil Faust 12,708 3.89
Libertarian Howard Kearney 9,405 2.88
Democratic Joe Swider 9,237 2.83
Green Eliot Barron 6,717 2.06
Independent Chuemal Yang 3,236 0.99
Total votes 326,788 100.00
Republican hold

2018Edit

Louisiana's 1st congressional district, 2018
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Steve Scalise (Incumbent) 192,526 71.5
Democratic Tammy Savoie 44,262 16.4
Democratic Lee Ann Dugas 18,552 6.9
Democratic Jim Francis 8,685 3.2
Libertarian Howard Kearney 2,806 1.0
Independent Frederick "Ferd" Jones 2,442 0.9
Total votes 269,325 100.0
Republican hold

2020Edit

Louisiana's 1st congressional district, 2020
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Steve Scalise (incumbent) 270,330 72.21
Democratic Lee Ann Dugas 94,730 25.30
Libertarian Howard Kearney 9,309 2.49
Total votes 374,369 100.0
Republican hold

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ https://www.census.gov/geo/maps-data/data/cd_state.html[bare URL]
  2. ^ a b "My Congressional District".
  3. ^ a b "Introducing the 2021 Cook Political Report Partisan Voter Index". The Cook Political Report. April 15, 2021. Retrieved April 15, 2021.
  4. ^ Cook Partisan Voting Index
  5. ^ Several residents of the northlake area (eastern Florida Parishes) served in Congress to represent the 6th congressional district before it ceded territory to the 1st congressional district.

Coordinates: 29°39′59″N 89°53′34″W / 29.66639°N 89.89278°W / 29.66639; -89.89278