Louisiana's 1st congressional district
Louisiana's 1st congressional district is a congressional district in the U.S. state of Louisiana. The district comprises land from the northern shore of Lake Pontchartrain south to the Mississippi River delta.
|Louisiana's 1st congressional district|
'Louisiana's 1st congressional district since January 3, 2013
Prior to 1974, the 1st congressional district was entirely south of Lake Pontchartrain. As a result of population changes reflected in the 1970 U.S. Census and a concern to ensure that the 2nd congressional district was majority African American, the district was redrawn to include the Northshore.[Source Needed] This was done to comply with the Voting Rights Act,[Source Needed] passed in 1965 to enforce constitutional rights of minorities in voting, including the opportunity to elect a representative of their choosing and to redistrict after censuses.
In 1974, the state legislature redefined the 1st congressional district, dropping its precincts south of the lake and adding St. Tammany Parish, which borders Lake Pontchartrain on the north, from the 6th congressional district. Subsequently, the 1st congressional district acquired Tangipahoa and Washington parishes, both north of the lake, from the 6th congressional district.
Correspondingly, the 1st congressional district shed conservative St. Bernard Parish and other areas south of the lake to the 3rd congressional district from 1984 through 2013. Overall, the 1st congressional district has become a very safe district for the Republican Party. Before the 1960s, it was controlled by Democrats, but conservative whites realigned with the Republican Party.[Source Needed]
The number of registered voters north of the lake is, as of 2008, slightly higher than south of the lake; however, the 1st congressional district has yet to be represented by a resident from north of Lake Pontchartrain. The reformulation of the 1st congressional district so that it virtually surrounds "the nation's second-largest saltwater lake" has generated a local joke that in the 1st congressional district of Louisiana, the voters are outnumbered by the fish.
The seat was previously held by former governor Bobby Jindal, who was elected after David Vitter retired to successfully run for the U.S. Senate. Republicans have held the seat since 1977. That year Bob Livingston won a special election after Richard Alvin Tonry, who won the seat in 1976, was forced to resign the seat and lost the Democratic primary in the special election.
From 2003 to 2013, the district comprised mostly land on the North Shore and South Shore of Lake Pontchartrain, although it also contained areas west of Lake Pontchartrain. The district included some or all of the following parishes: Washington, St. Tammany, Tangipahoa, Jefferson, Orleans and St. Charles. It also included the cities of Hammond and Slidell and most of the western suburbs of New Orleans, including Metairie and Kenner, along with a small portion of the city itself. The district had the lowest percentage of African-American residents among the state's six-district Congressional delegation.
In 2013, St. Bernard and neighboring Plaquemines Parishes were returned to the first district after nearly 30 years in the Third. The First also picked up much of Lafourche Parish and the southernmost portion of Terrebonne Parish for the first time.
Recent presidential electionsEdit
|Election results from presidential races|
|2000||President||Bush 67 - 31%|
|2004||President||Bush 71 - 28%|
|2008||President||McCain 73 - 26%|
|2012||President||Romney 71 - 27%|
|2016||President||Trump 69 - 27%|
List of members representing the districtEdit
|District created||March 4, 1823|
|Jackson Democratic-Republican||March 4, 1823 –
March 3, 1825
|Elected in 1822.
Re-elected in 1824.
Re-elected in 1826.
|1823 – 1833|
Ascension, Assumption, Saint Charles, Saint John, Lafourche, Orleans, Saint Bernard, Saint James, and Terrebonne parishes
|Jacksonian||March 4, 1825 –|
March 3, 1829
Edward Douglass White Sr.
|Anti-Jacksonian||March 4, 1829 –
March 3, 1833
|March 4, 1833 –
November 15, 1834
|1833 – 1843|
|Vacant||November 15, 1834 –|
December 1, 1834
|Anti-Jacksonian||December 1, 1834 –
March 3, 1837
|Whig||March 4, 1837 –|
March 3, 1839
Edward Douglass White Sr.
|Whig||March 4, 1839 –
March 3, 1843
|Democratic||March 4, 1843 –
November 10, 1845
|1843 – 1853|
|Emile La Sére||Democratic||January 29, 1846 –
March 3, 1851
|Louis St. Martin||Democratic||March 4, 1851 –
March 3, 1853
|William Dunbar||Democratic||March 4, 1853 –
March 3, 1855
|33rd||[data unknown/missing]||1853 – 1863|
George Eustis Jr.
|Know Nothing||March 4, 1855 –
March 3, 1859
J. E. Bouligny
|Know Nothing||March 4, 1859 –
March 3, 1861
|36th||Bouligny opposed Louisiana's secession and remained in Washington, D.C. during the Civil War. He never retook residency in Louisiana.|
|Vacant||March 4, 1861 –
December 3, 1862
|Unionist||December 3, 1862 –
March 3, 1863
|37th||Remained seated for his term during War.|
|Vacant||March 3, 1863 –
July 18, 1868
|Civil War – Louisiana under occupation||1863 – 1873|
Jacob Hale Sypher
|Republican||July 18, 1868 –
March 3, 1869
|Vacant||March 3, 1869 –
November 7, 1870
|Contested election of Louis St. Martin and Jacob Hale Sypher, House decided neither candidate entitled to seat.|
J. Hale Sypher
|Republican||November 7, 1870 –
March 3, 1875
|Sypher's 1872 re-election was successfully contested by Effingham Lawrence. Sypher lost, but only after the original returns were certified in his favor. After protracted court intervention, Lawrence was declared elected, but just one day (March 3, 1875) remained in the term, and in the meantime Lawrence had lost the 1874 election to Democrat Randall Lee Gibson.|
|Effingham Lawrence||Democratic||March 3, 1875 –
March 3, 1875
|43rd||Successfully contested Sypher's election, then retired after one day in office—the shortest service ever by a member of the House of Representatives.|
Randall Lee Gibson
|Democratic||March 4, 1875 –
March 3, 1883
Resigned from House on election to U.S. Senate.
|Carleton Hunt||Democratic||March 4, 1883 –
March 3, 1885
|48th||[data unknown/missing]||1883 – 1893|
|Louis St. Martin||Democratic||March 4, 1885 –
March 3, 1887
|Theodore Stark Wilkinson||Democratic||March 4, 1887 –
March 3, 1891
|Democratic||March 4, 1891 –
March 8, 1908
|Vacant||March 8, 1908 –|
November 3, 1908
|Democratic||November 3, 1908 –
April 28, 1919
|Vacant||April 28, 1919 –|
June 5, 1919
|James O'Connor||Democratic||June 5, 1919 –
March 3, 1931
|Elected to finish Estopinal's term.|
Joachim O. Fernandez
|Democratic||March 4, 1931 –
January 3, 1941
Felix Edward Hébert
|Democratic||January 3, 1941 –
January 3, 1977
Richard Alvin Tonry
|Democratic||January 3, 1977 –
May 4, 1977
Resigned after conviction for vote-buying.
|Vacant||May 4, 1977 –|
August 27, 1977
|Republican||August 27, 1977 –
March 1, 1999
|Elected to finish Tonry's term.|
Re-elected in 1978.
Re-elected in 1980.
Re-elected in 1982.
Re-elected in 1984.
Re-elected in 1986.
Re-elected in 1988.
Re-elected in 1990.
Re-elected in 1992.
Re-elected in 1994.
Re-elected in 1996.
Re-elected in 1998.
|Vacant||March 2, 1999 –|
May 29, 1999
|Republican||May 29, 1999 –
January 3, 2005
|Elected to finish Livingston's term.|
Re-elected in 2000.
Re-elected in 2002.
Retired to run for U.S. Senator.
|2003 – 2013|
|Republican||January 3, 2005 –
January 14, 2008
|Elected in 2004.|
Re-elected in 2006.
Resigned to become Governor of Louisiana.
|Vacant||January 14, 2008 –|
May 3, 2008
|Republican||May 3, 2008 –
|Elected to finish Jindal's term.|
Re-elected later in 2008.
Re-elected in 2010.
Re-elected in 2012.
Re-elected in 2014.
Re-elected in 2016.
Re-elected in 2018.
|2013 – Present|
Recent Election ResultsEdit
|Republican||Monica L. Monica||20,268||11.22|
|Libertarian||Ian P. Hawxhurst||5,956||3.30|
|Libertarian||Peter L. Beary||1,676||1.13|
|Independent||R.A. "Skip" Galan||786||1.74|
|Democratic||Lee Ann Dugas||41,840||12.80|
|Republican||Steve Scalise (incumbent)||192,526||71.5|
|Democratic||Lee Ann Dugas||18,552||6.9|
|Independent||Frederick "Ferd" Jones||2,442||0.9|
- "Partisan Voting Index – Districts of the 115th Congress" (PDF). The Cook Political Report. April 7, 2017. Retrieved April 7, 2017.
- Cook Partisan Voting Index
- Several residents of the northlake area (eastern Florida Parishes) served in Congress to represent the 6th congressional district before it ceded territory to the 1st congressional district.
- Martis, Kenneth C. (1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
- Martis, Kenneth C. (1982). The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
- Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present