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1904 United States House of Representatives elections

Elections to the United States House of Representatives were held in 1904 to elect members of the 59th Congress, and coincided with the election to a full term of President Theodore Roosevelt.

1904 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1902 November 1, 1904[Note 1] 1906 →

All 386 seats to the United States House of Representatives
194 seats were needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  JGCannon.jpg John Sharp Williams.jpg
Leader Joseph Cannon John Sharp Williams
Party Republican Democratic
Leader's seat Illinois 18th Mississippi 8th
Last election 210 seats[Note 2] 176 seats
Seats won 251[1][2] 135[1][2]
Seat change Increase 41 Decrease 41

Speaker before election

Joseph Cannon
Republican

Elected Speaker

Joseph Cannon
Republican

Roosevelt's popularity swept many Republican house candidates into office, cementing their majority over the opposition Democratic Party. Because Roosevelt came from a liberal wing of the Republican Party, his ideology was prevalent among freshman representatives. Progressive Republicanism mobilized a new base of support and proved to be especially popular among the Protestant middle-class workers who held jobs in business or in the front offices of industrial facilities.

Election summariesEdit

251 135
Republican Democratic
State Type Total
seats
Republican Democratic
Seats Change Seats Change
Alabama District 9 0   9  
Arkansas District 7 0   7  
California District 8 8   3 0   3
Colorado District
+at-large
3 3   1 0  
Connecticut District
+at-large
5 5   0  
Delaware At-large 1 1   1 0   1
Florida District 3 0   3  
Georgia District 11 0   11  
Idaho At-large 1 1   0  
Illinois District 25 24   7 1   7
Indiana District 13 11   2 2   2
Iowa District 11 11   1 0  
Kansas District
+at-large
8 8   0  
Kentucky District 11 2   1 9   1
Kentucky District 7 0   7  
Maine[Note 3] District 4 4   0  
Maryland District 6 3   1 3   1
Massachusetts District 14 11   1 3   1
Michigan District 12 12   1 0   1
Minnesota District 9 9   1 0   1
Mississippi District 8 0   8  
Missouri District 16 10   9 6   9
Montana At-large 1 1   0  
Nebraska District 6 6   1 0   1
Nevada At-large 1 0   1  
New Hampshire District 2 2   0  
New Jersey District 10 9   2 1   2
New York District 37 26   6 11   6
North Carolina District 10 1   1 9   1
North Dakota District 2 2   0  
Ohio District 21 20   3 1   3
Oregon[Note 3] District 2 2   0  
Pennsylvania District 32 31   3 1   3
Rhode Island District 2 1   1  
South Carolina District 7 0   7  
South Carolina At-large 2 2   0  
Tennessee District 10 2   8  
Texas District 16 0   16  
Utah At-large 1 1   0  
Vermont[Note 3] District 2 2   0  
Virginia District 10 1   9  
Washington At-large 3 3   0  
West Virginia District 5 5   0  
Wisconsin District 11 10   1  
Wyoming At-large 1 1   0  
Total 386 251
65.0%
  41 135
35.0%
  41
House seats
Republican
65.03%
Democratic
34.97%

The previous election of 1902 saw 3 Independent Republicans elected in the Pittsburgh area of Pennsylvania.

 
House seats by party holding plurality in state
  80.1-100% Democratic
  80.1-100% Republican
  60.1-80% Democratic
  60.1-80% Republican
  Up to 60% Democratic
  Up to 60% Republican
 
Net gain in party representation
  6+ Democratic gain
  6+ Republican gain
  3-5 Democratic gain
  3-5 Republican gain
  1-2 Democratic gain
  1-2 Republican gain
  no net change

Early election datesEdit

In 1904, three states, with 8 seats among them, held elections early:

Special elections to the 58th CongressEdit

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
California 3 Vacant, as Victor H. Metcalf (Republican) resigned July 1, 1904 to become U.S. Secretary of Commerce and Labor. New member elected November 8, 1904.
Republican gain.
Winner was also elected to the next term, see below.
Joseph R. Knowland (Republican) 77.5%
Henry C. McPike (Democratic) 22.5%[3]

CaliforniaEdit

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
California 1 James Gillett Republican 1902 Incumbent re-elected. James N. Gillett (Republican) 54.1%
Anthony Caminetti (Democratic) 39.3%
A. J. Gaylord (Socialist) 5.5%
Jarrot Laban Rollins (Prohibition) 1.1%
California 2 Theodore A. Bell Democratic 1902 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Duncan E. McKinlay (Republican) 49.2%
Theodore A. Bell (Democratic) 46.6%
J. H. White (Socialist) 3.3%
Eli P. LaCell (Prohibition) 0.9%
California 3 Vacant, as Victor H. Metcalf (Republican) resigned July 1, 1904 to become U.S. Secretary of Commerce and Labor. New member elected.
Republican gain.
Winner was also elected to finish the current term, see above.
Joseph R. Knowland (Republican) 68.6%
Henry C. McPike (Democratic) 20.1%
M. Lesser (Socialist) 10.1%
Bates Morris (Prohibition) 1.3%
California 4 Edward J. Livernash Democratic 1902 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Julius Kahn (Republican) 56.8%
Edward J. Livernash (Democratic) 36.4%
William Costley (Socialist) 6.4%
Hubert R. Chapin (Prohibition) 0.4%
California 5 William J. Wynn Democratic 1902 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Everis A. Hayes (Republican) 52.3%
William J. Wynn (Democratic) 39.7%
Frank R. Whitney (Socialist) 5%
Charles J. Williams (Union Labor) 2%
George B. Pratt (Prohibition) 1%
California 6 James C. Needham Republican 1898 Incumbent re-elected. James C. Needham (Republican) 55.1%
William M. Conley (Democratic) 38.3%
J. L. Cobb (Socialist) 4.5%
Joel H. Smith (Prohibition) 2.2%
California 7 James McLachlan Republican 1900 Incumbent re-elected. James McLachlan (Republican) 44.8%
Benjamin J. Cloes (P) 30.3%
W. O. Morton (Democratic) 16.2%
Frank I. Wheat (Socialist) 5.2%
John Sobieski (Prohibition) 3.6%
California 8 Milton J. Daniels Republican 1902 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Sylvester C. Smith (Republican) 55.6%
Charles A. Barlow (Democratic) 34.5%
Noble A. Richardson (Socialist) 9.9%

FloridaEdit

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Florida 1 Stephen M. Sparkman Democratic 1894 Incumbent re-elected. Stephen M. Sparkman (Democratic) 75.1%
E. R. Gunby (Republican) 20.1%
Z. A. Middlebrooks (Socialist) 4.7%
Florida 2 Robert Wyche Davis Democratic 1896 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Frank Clark (Democratic) 77.2%
John M. Cheney (Republican) 19.9%
W. B. Wood (Socialist) 2.9%
Florida 3 William B. Lamar Democratic 1902 Incumbent re-elected. William B. Lamar (Democratic) 100%

South CarolinaEdit

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
South Carolina 1 George Swinton Legaré Democratic 1902 Incumbent re-elected. George Swinton Legaré (Democratic) 91.3%
J. N. Noland (Republican) 5.2%
Aaron P. Prioleau (Republican)3.5%
South Carolina 2 George W. Croft Democratic 1902 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
James O'H. Patterson (Democratic) 94.7%
Isaac Myers (Republican) 5.3%
South Carolina 3 Wyatt Aiken Democratic 1902 Incumbent re-elected. Wyatt Aiken (Democratic) 98.2%
John Scott (Republican) 1.8%
South Carolina 4 Joseph T. Johnson Democratic 1900 Incumbent re-elected. Joseph T. Johnson (Democratic) 97.5%
J. D. Adams (Republican) 2.5%
South Carolina 5 David E. Finley Democratic 1898 Incumbent re-elected. David E. Finley (Democratic) 98.5%
C. P. White (Republican) 1.5%
South Carolina 6 Robert B. Scarborough Democratic 1900 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
J. Edwin Ellerbe (Democratic) 95.8%
E. H. Deas (Republican) 4.2%
South Carolina 7 Asbury F. Lever Democratic 1901 (special) Incumbent re-elected. Asbury F. Lever (Democratic) 93.8%
C. C. Jacobs 6.0%
Others 0.2%

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Three states held earlier elections between June 6 and September 12.
  2. ^ Included 3 Independent Republicans.
  3. ^ a b c Elections held early.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Party Divisions of the House of Representatives* 1789–Present". Office of the Historian, United States House of Representatives. Retrieved May 18, 2015.
  2. ^ a b Martis, pp. 158–159.
  3. ^ https://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=170033

BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit