1908 United States House of Representatives elections

The 1908 United States House of Representatives elections were held, coinciding with the 1908 United States presidential election, which William Howard Taft won.

1908 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1906 June 1, September 1, September 14, and November 3, 1908[a] 1910 →

All 391 seats in the United States House of Representatives
196 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  JGCannon.jpg ChampClark.jpg
Leader Joseph Cannon Champ Clark
Party Republican Democratic
Leader's seat Illinois 18th Missouri 9th
Last election 223 seats 167 seats
Seats won 219[1][2] 172[1][2]
Seat change Decrease 4 Increase 5
Popular vote 7,227,470 6,552,986
Percentage 50.05% 45.38%
Swing Increase 0.01% Increase 1.81%

  Third party
 
Party Independent
Last election 1 seat[b]
Seats won 0
Seat change Decrease1
Popular vote 61,499
Percentage 0.43%
Swing Steady

Speaker before election

Joseph Cannon
Republican

Elected Speaker

Joseph Cannon
Republican

Taft was not as popular as his predecessor, Theodore Roosevelt,[citation needed] but won with Roosevelt's backing, and his Republican Party lost only a handful of seats to the opposition Democrats. Without any striking national issues, the Republicans were able to remain in control. Regional issues led to some changes in House membership, but new Democrats who were elected by dissatisfied industrial workers were balanced out by new Republicans who gained seats in districts with a strong middle class presence.

Election summariesEdit

172 219
Democratic Republican
State Type Total
seats
Democratic Republican
Seats Change Seats Change
Alabama District 9 9   0  
Arkansas District 7 7   0  
California District 8 0   8  
Colorado District
+at-large
3 3   3 0   3
Connecticut District
+at-large
5 0   5  
Delaware At-large 1 0   1  
Florida District 3 3   0  
Georgia District 11 11   0  
Idaho At-large 1 0   1  
Illinois District 25 6   1 19   1
Indiana District 13 11   7 2   7
Iowa District 11 1   10  
Kansas District 8 0   8  
Kentucky District 11 8   1 3   1
Louisiana District 7 7   0  
Maine[c] District 4 0   4  
Maryland District 6 3   3  
Massachusetts District 14 3   11  
Michigan District 12 0   12  
Minnesota District 9 1   8  
Mississippi District 8 8   0  
Missouri District 16 10   2 6   2
Montana At-large 1 0   1  
Nebraska District 6 3   2 3   2
Nevada At-large 1 1   0  
New Hampshire District 2 0   2  
New Jersey District 10 3   1 7   1
New York District 37 11   26  
North Carolina District 10 7   3 3   3
North Dakota District 2 0   2  
Ohio District 21 8   3 13   3
Oklahoma District 5 2   2 3   2
Oregon[c] District 2 0   2  
Pennsylvania District 32 5   2 27   2
Rhode Island District 2 0   1 2   1
South Carolina District 7 7   0  
South Dakota At-large 2 0   2  
Tennessee District 10 8   2  
Texas District 16 16   0  
Utah At-large 1 0   1  
Vermont[c] District 2 0   2  
Virginia District 10 9   1  
Washington District[d] 3 0   3  
West Virginia District 5 0   5  
Wisconsin District 11 1   1 10   1
Wyoming At-large 1 0   1  
Total 391 172
44.0%
  5 219
56.0%
  5
Popular vote
Democratic
45.38%
Independent
0.43%
Others
4.14%
Republican
50.05%
House seats
Democratic
43.99%
Independent
0.26%
Republican
55.75%
 
House seats by party holding plurality in state
  80+% Democratic
  80+% Republican
  60+ to 80% Democratic
  60+ to 80% Republican
  Up to 60% Democratic
  Up to 60% Republican
 
Net gain in party representation
  6+ Democratic gain
  6+ Republican gain
  3-5 Democratic gain
  3-5 Republican gain
  1-2 Democratic gain
  1-2 Republican gain
  no net change

Special electionsEdit

There were nine special elections in 1908.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Illinois 25 George W. Smith Republican 1888 Incumbent died November 30, 1907.
New member elected February 15, 1908.
Republican hold.
Alabama 2 Ariosto A. Wiley Democratic 1900 Incumbent died June 17, 1908.
New member elected November 3, 1908 to finish his brother's term.
Democratic hold.
Indiana 13 Abraham L. Brick Republican 1898 Incumbent died April 7, 1908.
New member elected November 3, 1908.
Democratic gain.
Successor was also elected the same day to the next term, see below.
Louisiana 1 Adolph Meyer Democratic 1890 Incumbent died March 8, 1908.
New member elected November 3, 1908.
Democratic hold.
Successor was also elected the same day to the next term, see below.
Maine 2 Charles E. Littlefield Republican 1899 (Special) Incumbent died September 30, 1908.
New member elected November 3, 1908.
Republican hold.
Successor had already been elected to the next term, see below.
Maine 4 Llewellyn Powers Republican 1876
1878 (Lost)
1901 (Special)
Incumbent died July 28, 1908.
New member elected November 3, 1908.
Republican hold.
Successor had already been elected to the next term, see below.
New York 3 Charles T. Dunwell Republican 1902 Incumbent died June 12, 1908.
New member elected November 3, 1908.
Republican hold.
Successor was also elected the same day to the next term, see below.
South Dakota at-large William H. Parker Republican 1906 Incumbent died June 26, 1908.
New member elected November 3, 1908.
Republican hold.
Successor was also elected the same day to the next term, see below.

Regular election datesEdit

All the states held their regular elections November 3, 1908 except for three, which, held elections:

AlabamaEdit

Alaska TerritoryEdit

See Non-voting delegates, below.

Arizona TerritoryEdit

See Non-voting delegates, below.

ArkansasEdit

CaliforniaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
California 1 William F. Englebright Republican 1906 Incumbent re-elected.
California 2 Duncan E. McKinlay Republican 1904 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Duncan E. McKinlay (Republican) 57.5%
  • W. K. Hays (Democratic) 38.5%
  • A. J. Gaylord (Socialist) 4%
California 3 Joseph R. Knowland Republican 1904 Incumbent re-elected.
California 4 Julius Kahn Republican 1898 Incumbent re-elected.
California 5 Everis A. Hayes Republican 1904 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Everis A. Hayes (Republican) 49.1%
  • George A. Tracy (Democratic) 42.8%
  • E. H. Misner (Socialist) 6.3%
  • Walter E. Vail (Prohibition) 1.8%
California 6 James C. Needham Republican 1898 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y James C. Needham (Republican) 52%
  • Fred P. Feliz (Democratic) 38.7%
  • W. M. Pattison (Socialist) 5.6%
  • James W. Webb (Prohibition) 3.7%
California 7 James McLachlan Republican 1900 Incumbent re-elected.
California 8 Sylvester C. Smith Republican 1904 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Sylvester C. Smith (Republican) 55.7%
  • W. E. Shepherd (Democratic) 34.7%
  • Noble A. Richardson (Socialist) 9.6%

ColoradoEdit

ConnecticutEdit

DelawareEdit

FloridaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Florida 1 Stephen M. Sparkman Democratic 1894 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Stephen M. Sparkman (Democratic) 75.2%
  • George W. Allen (Republican) 15.0%
  • C. C. Allen (Socialist) 9.8%
Florida 2 Frank Clark Democratic 1904 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Frank Clark (Democratic) 75.9%
  • William R. O'Neal (Republican) 18.0%
  • A. N. Jackson (Socialist) 6.1%
Florida 3 William B. Lamar Democratic 1902 Incumbent retired to run for U.S. senator.
New member elected.
Democratic hold

GeorgiaEdit

IdahoEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Idaho at-large Burton L. French Republican 1902 Incumbent lost renomination.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
  •  Y Thomas R. Hamer (Republican) 53.27%
  • James L. McClear (Democratic) 40.08%
  • Halbert Barton (Socialist) 6.66%[10]

IllinoisEdit

IndianaEdit

IowaEdit

KansasEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Kansas 1 Daniel R. Anthony Jr. Republican 1907 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
Kansas 2 Charles F. Scott Republican 1900 Incumbent re-elected.
Kansas 3 Philip P. Campbell Republican 1902 Incumbent re-elected.
Kansas 4 James Monroe Miller Republican 1898 Incumbent re-elected.
Kansas 5 William A. Calderhead Republican 1894
1896 (Lost)
1898
Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y William A. Calderhead (Republican)
  • R.A. Lovitt (Democratic) 45.36%
  • W. L. Nixon (Socialist) 2.01%
  • William H. Eaton (Prohibition) 1.07%[11]
Kansas 6 William A. Reeder Republican 1898 Incumbent re-elected.
Kansas 7 Edmond H. Madison Republican 1900 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Edmond H. Madison (Republican)
  • Samuel I. Hale (Democratic) 42.85%
  • J.N. Brown (Socialist) 2.83%
  • Harry R. Ross (Prohibition) 1.78%[13]
Kansas 8 Victor Murdock Republican 1902 Incumbent re-elected.

KentuckyEdit

LouisianaEdit

MaineEdit

MarylandEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Maryland 1 William H. Jackson Republican 1906 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Maryland 2 J. Frederick C. Talbott Democratic 1902 Incumbent re-elected.
Maryland 3 Harry Benjamin Wolf Democratic 1906 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Maryland 4 John Gill Jr. Democratic 1904 Incumbent re-elected.
Maryland 5 Sydney Emanuel Mudd I Republican 1896 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Sydney Emanuel Mudd I (Republican) 49.2%
  • George M. Smith (Democratic) 48.2%
  • S.W. James (Prohibition) 1.7%
  • B.E. Davis (Socialist) 1.0%
Maryland 6 George A. Pearre Republican 1898 Incumbent re-elected.

MassachusettsEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Massachusetts 1 George P. Lawrence Republican 1897 (special) Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y George P. Lawrence (Republican) 60.2%
  • David T. Clark (Democratic) 36.40%
  • Walter S. Hutchins (Socialist) 3.8%
Massachusetts 2 Frederick H. Gillett Republican 1892 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Frederick H. Gillett (Republican) 62.0%
  • John L. Rice (Democratic) 27.7%
  • George W. Curtis (Independence) 5.8%
  • Joseph Orr (Socialist) 4.5%
Massachusetts 3 Charles G. Washburn Republican 1906 (special) Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Charles G. Washburn (Republican) 62.2%
  • William I. McLoughlin (Democratic) 32.8%
  • Theodore P. Sturtevant (Independence) 4.9%
Massachusetts 4 Charles Q. Tirrell Republican 1900 Incumbent re-elected.
Massachusetts 5 Butler Ames Republican 1902 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Butler Ames (Republican) 56.0%
  • Joseph J. Flynn (Democratic) 41.1%
  • George Conley (Independence) 2.9%
Massachusetts 6 Augustus Peabody Gardner Republican 1902 (special) Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Augustus Peabody Gardner (Republican) 69.4%
  • Arthur Withington (Democratic) 23.0%
  • Franklin H. Wenworth (Socialist) 7.6%
Massachusetts 7 Ernest W. Roberts Republican 1898 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Ernest W. Roberts (Republican) 68.8%
  • George Brickett (Democratic) 24.7%
  • Clarence L. McIver (Independence) 6.5%
Massachusetts 8 Samuel W. McCall Republican 1892 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Samuel W. McCall (Republican) 63.6%
  • Frederick S. Deitrick (Democratic) 32.0%
  • George W. Jennings (Independence) 4.4%
Massachusetts 9 John A. Keliher Democratic 1902 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y John A. Keliher (Democratic) 62.3%
  • John A. Campbell (Republican) 26.6%
  • Junius T. Auerback (Independence) 11.1%
Massachusetts 10 Joseph F. O'Connell Democratic 1906 Incumbent re-elected.
Massachusetts 11 Andrew James Peters Democratic 1906 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Andrew James Peters (Democratic) 48.7%
  • Daniel W. Lane (Republican) 47.4%
  • Edwin M. White (Independence) 3.9%
Massachusetts 12 John W. Weeks Republican 1904 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y John W. Weeks (Republican) 66.0%
  • Jesse C. Ivey (Democratic) 28.4%
  • Albert E. George (Independence) 5.6%
Massachusetts 13 William S. Greene Republican 1898 (special) Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y William S. Greene (Republican) 72.5%
  • John F. McGuinness (Democratic) 21.4%
  • Charles W. Copeland (Independence) 6.2%
Massachusetts 14 William C. Lovering Republican 1896 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y William C. Lovering (Republican) 66.8%
  • Eliot Packard (Democratic) 21.4%
  • Charles B. Drew (Independence) 5.9%
  • George J. Alcott (Socialist) 5.9%

MichiganEdit

MinnesotaEdit

MississippiEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Mississippi 1 Ezekiel S. Candler Jr. Democratic 1900 Incumbent re-elected.
Mississippi 2 Thomas Spight Democratic 1898 (special) Incumbent re-elected.
Mississippi 3 Benjamin G. Humphreys II Democratic 1902 Incumbent re-elected.
Mississippi 4 Wilson S. Hill Democratic 1902 Incumbent lost renomination.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Mississippi 5 Adam M. Byrd Democratic 1902 Incumbent re-elected.
Mississippi 6 Eaton J. Bowers Democratic 1902 Incumbent re-elected.
Mississippi 7 Frank A. McLain Democratic 1898 (special) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Mississippi 8 John S. Williams Democratic 1892 Incumbent retired to run for U.S. senator.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.

MissouriEdit

MontanaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Montana at-large Charles N. Pray Republican 1906 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Charles N. Pray (Republican) 48.86%
  • Thomas D. Long (Democratic) 43.22%
  • Lewis J. Duncan (Socialist) 7.92%[22]

NebraskaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Nebraska 1 Ernest M. Pollard Republican 1905 (special) Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Nebraska 2 Gilbert Hitchcock Democratic 1906 Incumbent re-elected.
Nebraska 3 John F. Boyd Republican 1906 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Nebraska 4 Edmund H. Hinshaw Republican 1902 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Edmund H. Hinshaw (Republican) 49.98%
  • Charles F. Gilbert (Democratic) 48.10%
  • Thomas Birmingham (Prohibition) 1.92%[26]
Nebraska 5 George W. Norris Republican 1902 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y George W. Norris (Republican) 49.41%
  • F. W. Ashton (Democratic) 49.36%
  • J. J. Larkey (Socialist) 1.23%[27]
Nebraska 6 Moses Kinkaid Republican 1902 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Moses Kinkaid (Republican) 50.67%
  • W. H. Westover (Democratic) 45.82%
  • Lucien Stebbins (Socialist) 1.95%
  • G. H. Hornby (Prohibition) 1.55%[28]

NevadaEdit

New HampshireEdit

New JerseyEdit

New Mexico TerritoryEdit

See Non-voting delegates, below.

New YorkEdit

North CarolinaEdit

North DakotaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
North Dakota at-large
2 seats on a general ticket
Thomas F. Marshall Republican 1900 Incumbent retired to run for U.S. senator.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
  •  Y Asle Gronna (Republican) 33.35%
  •  Y Louis B. Hanna (Republican) 32.34%
  • Tobias D. Casey (Democratic) 17.11%
  • O. G. Major (Democratic) 16.54%
  • Francis Cooper (Socialist) 0.34%
  • E. D. Herring (Socialist) 0.31%[29]
Asle Gronna Republican 1904 Incumbent re-elected.

OhioEdit

OklahomaEdit

OregonEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Oregon 1 Willis C. Hawley Republican 1906 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Willis C. Hawley (Republican) 58.76%
  • J. J. Whitney (Democratic) 27.35%
  • W. S. Richards (Socialist) 8.01%
  • Daniel Staver (Prohibition) 5.88%[30]
Oregon 2 William R. Ellis Republican 1906 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y William R. Ellis (Republican) 63.55%
  • John A. Jeffrey (Democratic) 24.77%
  • G. E. Sanders (Socialist) 6.89%
  • H. C. Shaffer (Prohibition) 4.80%[31]

PennsylvaniaEdit

Rhode IslandEdit

South CarolinaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
South Carolina 1 George Swinton Legaré Democratic 1902 Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 2 James O'H. Patterson Democratic 1904 Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 3 Wyatt Aiken Democratic 1902 Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 4 Joseph T. Johnson Democratic 1900 Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 5 David E. Finley Democratic 1898 Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 6 J. Edwin Ellerbe Democratic 1904 Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 7 Asbury F. Lever Democratic 1901 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.

South DakotaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
South Dakota at-large
(2 seats elected on a general ticket)
Philo Hall Republican 1906 Incumbent lost renomination.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
  •  Y Eben Martin (Republican) 29.99%
  •  Y Charles H. Burke (Republican) 29.91%
  • Robert E. Dowdell (Democratic) 17.20%
  • Andrew H. Olson (Democratic) 17.14%
  • E. S. Chappell (Prohibition) 1.68%
  • L. R. Erskine (Prohibition) 1.66%
  • T. G. Deffebach (Socialist) 1.19%
  • S. H. Goodfellow (Socialist) 1.18%
  • W. S. Bray (Scales of Justice) 0.02%
  • L. V. Schneider (Scales of Justice) 0.02%[32]
Vacant (incumbent died June 26, 1908) New member elected.
Republican hold.

TennesseeEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Tennessee 1 Walter P. Brownlow Republican 1896 Incumbent re-elected.
Tennessee 2 Nathan W. Hale Republican 1904 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Tennessee 3 John A. Moon Democratic 1896 Incumbent re-elected.
Tennessee 4 Cordell Hull Democratic 1906 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Cordell Hull (Democratic) 54.87%
  • R. Q. Lillard (Republican) 44.85%
  • W. D. Fisk (Socialist) 0.29%[36]
Tennessee 5 William C. Houston Democratic 1904 Incumbent re-elected.
Tennessee 6 John W. Gaines Democratic 1896 Incumbent lost renomination.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
  •  Y Jo Byrns (Democratic) 97.29%
  • James L. Hardaway (Socialist) 2.71%[38]
Tennessee 7 Lemuel P. Padgett Democratic 1900 Incumbent re-elected.
Tennessee 8 Thetus W. Sims Democratic 1896 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Thetus W. Sims (Democratic) 57.53%
  • R. H. Thrasher (Republican) 42.21%
  • F. W. Earnshaw (Socialist) 0.21%
  • M. McCampbell (Independence League) 0.05%[40]
Tennessee 9 Finis J. Garrett Democratic 1904 Incumbent re-elected.
Tennessee 10 George Gordon Democratic 1906 Incumbent re-elected.

TexasEdit

UtahEdit

VermontEdit

VirginiaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Virginia 1
Virginia 2
Virginia 3
Virginia 4
Virginia 5
Virginia 6 Carter Glass Democratic 1902 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 7
Virginia 8
Virginia 9 C. Bascom Slemp Republican 1907 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 10

Non-voting delegatesEdit

District Incumbent This race
Delegate Party First elected Results Candidates
Alaska Territory at-large Thomas Cale Independent 1906 Incumbent retired.
New delegate elected August 11, 1908.
Democratic gain.
Arizona Territory at-large
New Mexico Territory at-large William Henry Andrews Republican 1904 Incumbent re-elected November 3, 1908.

WashingtonEdit

West VirginiaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
West Virginia 1 William P. Hubbard Republican 1906 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y William P. Hubbard (Republican) 51.28%
  • E. L. Robinson (Democratic) 44.21%
  • Thomas N. Barnes (Prohibition) 2.61%
  • E. B. Hibbs (Socialist) 1.89%[45]
West Virginia 2 George C. Sturgiss Republican 1906 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y George C. Sturgiss (Republican) 51.06%
  • B. H. Hines (Democratic) 45.92%
  • George W. Herring (Prohibition) 2.06%
  • W. H. Woodley (Socialist) 0.96%[46]
West Virginia 3 Joseph H. Gaines Republican 1900 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Joseph H. Gaines (Republican) 53.19%
  • Andrew Price (Democratic) 42.45%
  • Charles Hill (Prohibition) 2.27%
  • E. C. Bennett (Socialist) 2.10%[47]
West Virginia 4 Harry C. Woodyard Republican 1902 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Harry C. Woodyard (Republican) 51.85%
  • William O. Parsons (Democratic) 45.47%
  • G. R. Williamson (Prohibition) 1.93%
  • T. J. McDougle (Socialist) 0.75%[48]
West Virginia 5 James A. Hughes Republican 1900 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y James A. Hughes (Republican) 55.55%
  • L. H. Clarke (Democratic) 43.07%
  • Willoughby Miller (Prohibition) 0.72%
  • Charles M. Crouch (Socialist) 0.66%[49]

WisconsinEdit

WyomingEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Wyoming at-large Frank W. Mondell Republican 1898 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Frank W. Mondell (Republican) 57.06%
  • Hayden M. White (Democratic) 36.32%
  • James Morgan (Socialist) 6.62%[50]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Regulars only, not including specials
  2. ^ One Independent Republican, Peter Porter from the 34th District of New York.
  3. ^ a b c Elections held early
  4. ^ Changed from at-large.
  5. ^ This was the last year that Oregon held its congressional elections early.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Party Divisions of the House of Representatives* 1789–Present". Office of the Historian, United States House of Representatives. Retrieved May 18, 2015.
  2. ^ a b Martis, pp. 162–163.
  3. ^ "Our Campaigns - IL - District 25 Special Election Race - Feb 15, 1908".
  4. ^ "Our Campaigns - AL - District 02 - Special Election Race - Nov 03, 1908".
  5. ^ "Our Campaigns - IN - District 13 Special Election Race - Nov 03, 1908".
  6. ^ "Our Campaigns - LA - District 01 - Special Election Race - Nov 03, 1908".
  7. ^ "Our Campaigns - ME District 2 - Special Election Race - Nov 03, 1908".
  8. ^ "Our Campaigns - ME District 4 - Special Election Race - Nov 03, 1908".
  9. ^ "Our Campaigns - NY District 3 - Special Election Race - Nov 03, 1908".
  10. ^ "ID At Large". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 4 April 2021.
  11. ^ "Our Campaigns - KA District 05 Race - Nov 03, 1908". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved 2021-04-20.
  12. ^ "Our Campaigns - KA District 06 Race - Nov 03, 1908". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved 2021-04-20.
  13. ^ "Our Campaigns - KA District 05 Race - Nov 03, 1908". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved 2021-04-20.
  14. ^ "MS - District 01". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 16 March 2021.
  15. ^ "MS - District 02". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 16 March 2021.
  16. ^ "MS - District 03". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 16 March 2021.
  17. ^ "MS - District 04". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 16 March 2021.
  18. ^ "MS - District 05". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 16 March 2021.
  19. ^ "MS - District 06". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 16 March 2021.
  20. ^ "MS - District 07". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 16 March 2021.
  21. ^ "MS - District 08". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 16 March 2021.
  22. ^ "MT At-Large". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 5 April 2021.
  23. ^ "Our Campaigns - NE - District 01 Race - Nov 3, 1908". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved 7 October 2021.
  24. ^ "Our Campaigns - NE - District 02 Race - Nov 3, 1908". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved 7 October 2021.
  25. ^ "Our Campaigns - NE - District 03 Race - Nov 3, 1908". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved 7 October 2021.
  26. ^ "Our Campaigns - NE - District 04 Race - Nov 3, 1908". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved 7 October 2021.
  27. ^ "Our Campaigns - NE - District 05 Race - Nov 3, 1908". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved 7 October 2021.
  28. ^ "Our Campaigns - NE - District 06 Race - Nov 3, 1908". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved 7 October 2021.
  29. ^ "ND At Large". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 7 April 2021.
  30. ^ "OR - District 01 Race - Jun 01, 1908". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  31. ^ "OR - District 02 Race - Jun 01, 1908". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  32. ^ "SD At Large". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 10 April 2021.
  33. ^ "TN - District 01". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 4 March 2021.
  34. ^ "TN - District 02". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 4 March 2021.
  35. ^ "TN - District 03". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 4 March 2021.
  36. ^ "TN - District 04". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 4 March 2021.
  37. ^ "TN - District 05". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 4 March 2021.
  38. ^ "TN - District 06". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 4 March 2021.
  39. ^ "TN - District 07". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 4 March 2021.
  40. ^ "TN - District 08". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 4 March 2021.
  41. ^ "TN - District 09". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 4 March 2021.
  42. ^ "TN - District 10". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 4 March 2021.
  43. ^ "Our Campaigns - AK Territorial Delegate Race - Aug 11, 1908".
  44. ^ "Our Campaigns - NM Territorial Delegate Race - Nov 03, 1908". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  45. ^ "WV District 01". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 22 April 2021.
  46. ^ "WV District 02". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 22 April 2021.
  47. ^ "WV District 03". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 22 April 2021.
  48. ^ "WV District 04". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 22 April 2021.
  49. ^ "WV District 05". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 22 April 2021.
  50. ^ "WY At-Large". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 12 April 2021.

BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit