Politics and conflictsEdit
Conflicts and peaceEdit
The prominent wars of the decade include:
|Name||Start date||End date||Description|
|Israeli–Palestinian conflict||14 May 1948||Ongoing||The conflict between Jewish and Arab communities in Israel and the West Bank has been ongoing since 1948. After Israel occupied the West Bank, it began making settlements there, which has been an obstacle to the peace process. Tensions remained high as Hamas, which controls the Gaza Strip, launched rockets and cross-border raids into Israeli territory, to which Israel responded with military force.|
|Kurdish-Turkish conflict||27 November 1978||Ongoing||Numerous Kurdish groups, including the Kurdistan Workers' Party (the PKK) have fought for an independent Kurdistan incorporating parts of Turkey. In 2016, Turkey has occupied parts of Northern Syria and in 2019, invaded Kurdish-held areas of Northern Syria. In 2020, Turkey launched an insurgency in Iraqi Kurdistan.|
|Nagorno-Karabakh conflict||February 1988||Ongoing||The region of Karabakh has been disputed over the Republic of Artsakh, which is supported by the Armenian government. A ceasefire was held in 1994. In July 2020, a series of border skirmishes left at least 15 dead. From 27 September until 10 November 2020, a second war broke out in the region.|
|War on terror||11 September 2001
||Ongoing||Motivated by the September 11 attacks, the United States and other governments started a large scale effort to eliminate terrorism. With support from NATO, the United States invaded Taliban-controlled Afghanistan and overthrew the government, however remained in the country to stabilise the situation. Two years later, on the pretext that the government of Saddam Hussein had weapons of mass destruction, the United States and a coalition of partners invaded Iraq and overthrew Hussein's regime, after which the U.S. occupied the country, officially leaving in 2011. However, insurgencies remained active in both countries, long after the invasions.|
|Russian military intervention in Ukraine||20 February 2014||Ongoing||After the fall of Ukrainian president Viktor Yanukovych, Russian soldiers took control of strategic positions in the Ukrainian territory of Crimea and subsequently annexed the region after a controversial referendum. In the months that followed, demonstrations in Donbass escalated into an armed conflict between the government of Ukraine and Russia-backed separatist forces.|
|Military intervention against ISIL||13 June 2014||Ongoing||In late-2013, a terrorist organisation called the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant began making rapid advances and territorial gains in Iraq and Syria. It captured Mosul in June and made Raqqa its capital. Various international coalitions were formed to help fight the militants. By December 2017, ISIL had lost much of its former territory.|
|Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen||26 March 2015||Ongoing||During the Yemeni Civil War, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and other countries part of a coalition invaded parts of Yemen in order to depose the Houthi-controlled government.|
|Turkish occupation of northern Syria||24 August 2016||Ongoing||During the Syrian Civil War, Turkey invaded parts of northern Syria in order to combat the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, Syrian Democratic Forces, and the PKK.|
|Name||Start date||End date||Description|
|War in Darfur||26 February 2003||Ongoing|
|Mexican drug war||11 December 2006||Ongoing||Following a rise in criminal violence as a result of drug trafficking in the country, Mexican President Felipe Calderón declared a war on drugs in December 2006. Since the start of the war, the death toll from drug violence had sharply increased. Arrests of key cartel leaders led to increasing violence as cartels fought for control of trafficking routes into the United States.|
|War in Somalia||31 January 2009||Ongoing||In 2009, Al-Shabaab, an Islamist militant group, began waging an insurgency against the newly formed Transitional Federal Government. In 2011, the federal government captured Mogadishu and subsequently retook several towns across the country. Since then, the government has attempted to clean out the remaining Al-Shabaab strongholds with help from AMISOM soldiers.|
|Mali War||16 January 2012||Ongoing||In January 2012, a rebellion by Tuaregs in Northern Mali began. After Malian president Amadou Toumani Touré was ousted in a coup d'état, Tuaregs captured Northern Mali, and declared it to be the independent state of Azawad. However, shortly afterward, various Islamists groups took over Northern Mali from the Tuaregs and imposed sharia law on the region.|
|South Sudanese Civil War||15 December 2013||22 February 2020|
|Second Libyan Civil War||16 May 2014||23 October 2020||Following the factional violence that engulfed Libya after the fall of Muammar al-Gaddafi, a second civil war broke out among rival factions seeking control of the territory and oil of Libya. The conflict at the beginning was mostly between the House of Representatives (HoR) government that was controversially elected in 2014, also known as the "Tobruk government"; and the rival General National Congress (GNC) government, also called the "National Salvation Government", based in the capital Tripoli, established after Operation Odyssey Dawn and the failed military coup.|
|Yemeni Civil War||19 March 2015||Ongoing||Preceded by a decade-long Houthi insurgency, the Yemeni Civil War began between two factions: the then-incumbent Yemeni government, led by Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi, and the Houthi militia, along with their supporters and allies. Both claim to constitute the Yemeni government.|
|Philippine drug war||30 June 2016||Ongoing||Following a rise in criminal violence as a result of drug trafficking in the country, the Philippines has been engaged in a drug war since Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte was inaugurated on 30 June 2016. It has caused 3,000 deaths.|
|Iraqi insurgency||9 December 2017||Ongoing||A part of the larger Iraqi conflict that has been waged since 2003, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant has been engaged in an insurgency against the Iraqi government and CJTF-OIR since the loss of territorial control in the Iraqi Civil War in 2017.|
Prominent political eventsEdit
|2020 Malian coup d'état||18 August 2020||Mali|
|Myanmar coup d'état||1 February 2021||Myanmar|
|Armenian coup d'état attempt||25 February 2021||Armenia|
|Nigerien coup d'état attempt||31 March 2021||Niger|
|2021 Malian coup d'état||24 May 2021||Mali|
|First impeachment of Donald Trump||24 September 2019 – 5 February 2020||Under Article I, Section 3, Clause 6, of the U.S. Constitution, President Donald Trump was impeached for abuse of power and obstruction of Congress on 18 December 2019 by the United States House of Representatives. The United States Senate trial began on 16 January 2020 and ended on 5 February 2020, concluding with an acquittal on both charges.|||
|George Floyd Protests||25 May 2020 – 2021||Protests and riots due to the murder of George Floyd spread throughout the US and lasted many months. The stated goal was to end systemic racism and police brutality. These protests and riots caused caused more than $1 billion in damage.|
|2020 United States presidential election and subsequent events||3 November 2020 – 13 February 2021||The 59th United States presidential election was held on 3 November 2020. Democrat and former Vice-President Joe Biden defeated Republican and then-incumbent President Donald Trump, with the Electoral College formally declaring Biden the winner on 14 December 2020. Trump refused to concede, and filed lawsuits challenging the results in several states, though most of the legal challenges were either dismissed or dropped, with judges citing lack of evidence to suggest voter fraud occurred. Trump had also unsuccessfully attempted to undo the election results by forcing government officials to stop Pennsylvania, Nevada, Arizona, Wisconsin, Michigan, and Georgia from certifying Biden as the winner, and urging his supporters to "walk" to the United States capitol to demand Trump be declared the winner of the election. This was one of the reasons for the decision of a group of his supporters to gather in Washington, D.C on 6 January 2021 and break into the Capitol building during a Joint session of Congress. In relation to this, Trump was impeached for the second time by the House of Representatives and became the first U.S. President to be impeached twice. Meanwhile, Joe Biden was sworn in as the United States President on 20 January 2021. The impeachment trial ended on 13 February 2021, one month after its start. Trump was found not guilty of inciting the Storming of the Capitol.|
|8th Congress of the Communist Party||16–19 April 2021||At the 8th Congress of the Communist Party, Raúl Castro officially resigned as the First Secretary, the most powerful position in Cuba. Cuban President Miguel Díaz-Canel is officially named First Secretary of the Communist Party following the resignation of Raúl Castro. He is the first person not of the Castro family to hold the top position since the 1959 Cuban revolution.|
|2019–2021 Persian Gulf crisis||5 May 2019||The Persian Gulf region saw tensions between the United States and the Islamic Republic of Iran escalate in mid-2019. The crisis saw oil tankers in the Strait of Hormuz sabotaged and seized, drone shootdowns, and efforts by the U.S. and United Kingdom to pursue military patrols to protect shipping in the gulf, known as the International Maritime Security Construct. On 31 December 2019 tensions reached a breaking point as Iranian-backed Shiite militia stormed into the U.S. Embassy in Baghdad, Iraq, leading to the targeted killing of Iranian General Qasem Soleimani in a U.S. drone strike on 3 January 2020.|||
|2020–2021 China–India skirmishes||5 May 2020||Since 5 May 2020, Chinese and Indian troops have engaged in aggressive melee, face-offs and skirmishes at locations along the Sino-Indian border, including near the disputed Pangong Lake in Ladakh and the Tibet Autonomous Region, and near the border between Sikkim and the Tibet Autonomous Region. Additional clashes also took place at locations in eastern Ladakh along the Line of Actual Control (LAC).|||
|2020 Nagorno-Karabakh war||27 September 2020||Starting on 27 September fierce clashes erupted along the line of contact between the armed forces of Azerbaijan and Joint Artsakh and Armenian forces. Both sides neglected ceasefire demands from France, Russia and the US and continued fighting with claims from both sides that they are prepared to fight a long war to grapple control over the long contested Nagorno-Karabakh region. On 9 November a Russian-brokered peace treaty was signed by both sides.|||
|2021 Israel–Palestine crisis||6–21 May 2021|
|Brexit||31 January 2020||The United Kingdom and Gibraltar formally withdrew from the European Union at 11PM (GMT).|||
Assassinations and attemptsEdit
Prominent assassinations, targeted killings, and assassination attempts include:
|3 January 2020||Qasem Soleimani, Iranian general, and leader in the Islamic Revolutionary Guard, was killed in a United States airstrike near Baghdad International Airport.|
|27 November 2020||Mohsen Fakhrizadeh, a senior official in the nuclear program in Iran, was killed by explosive trucks that ambushed him near Tehran.|
|22 February 2021||Luca Attanasio, Italian ambassador to the Democratic Republic of the Congo, was killed by an armed commando.|
|6 May 2021||Attempted assassination of Mohamed Nasheed|
|1 June 2021||Attempted assassination of Katumba Wamala|
|Sriwijaya Air Flight 182||9 January 2021||Sriwijaya Air Flight 182 crashed into the Java Sea shortly after take-off from Soekarno-Hatta International Airport, Jakarta, killing all 62 people on board.|
|2020 Beirut explosion||4 August 2020||Massive explosion occurred in the port of Beirut. Reportedly, the blast was so loud that it was even claimed to be heard in Cyprus, which is 240 km from the location of the explosion. The windows of major buildings in a 6-mile radius were shattered and roads were filled with debris. According to initial findings, it was estimated that a warehouse with 2,750 tonnes of ammonium nitrate exploded, which was confiscated by the Lebanese government from the abandoned ship MV Rhosus and then stored in the port without proper safety measures for six years. There had been confirmed 220 deaths, more than 110 people were missing and at least more than 7,000 were reported injured. Beirut governor Marwan Abboud estimated that up to 300,000 people were left homeless by the explosions and there was a US$10–15 billion in property damage.|
Earthquakes and tsunamisEdit
Note: This table is a chronological list of earthquakes reported with 7.5Mw or greater or that have reported at least 100 fatalities.
|2020 Caribbean earthquake||28 January 2020||Caribbean Sea||A 7.7Mw struck in the Caribbean Sea between Jamaica and Cuba at 14:10 local time on 28 January 2020. The earthquake was also felt in the United States, Mexico, Honduras, Dominican Republic, and the Cayman Islands. This was the strongest earthquake reported in 2020. No damages were reported. A small (12.2 cm) tsunami was reported in the Cayman Islands.|
|Cyclone Amphan||16–21 May 2020||118 people were killed and millions made homeless in the strongest storm in two decades. Damage was estimated at US$13.2 billion.|
|Hurricane Laura||20–29 August 2020||Lesser Antilles, Greater Antilles, Gulf Coast of the United States, Midwestern United States||77 people were killed and thousands made homeless during one of the strongest storms to make landfall in the United States. Damages estimated at US$19.1 billion.|
|Typhoon Vamco (Ulysses)||8–15 November 2020||102 people were killed, and the typhoon contributed to the 2020 Central Vietnam Floods. Damages totaled up to US$440.8 million.|
|Hurricane Eta and Hurricane Iota||31 October–18 November 2020||A total of 278+ people were killed during both Hurricane Eta and Hurricane Iota in Nicaragua and Honduras. Damages totaled up to US$9.3 billion from both hurricanes.|
Floods, avalanches, and mudslidesEdit
Note: This section reports only floods with 200 or more deaths and avalanches and landslides involving 30 or more deaths.
|2020 Van avalanches||4–5 February 2020||Two avalanches in Turkey's eastern Van Province resulted in 41 deaths and 84 injuries.|
|2020 Taal Volcano eruption||12 January 2020 – 19 January 2020||On 12 January the Taal Volcano in the Philippines erupted at VEI 4 intensity, bringing intense ashfall to the surrounding areas and killing at least 3 people.|
Droughts, heat waves, and wildfiresEdit
|2019–20 Australian bushfire season||June 2019 – May 2020||Bushfires in Australia continued into 2020, having started in September 2019.|
|2020 Western U.S. Wildfires||March 2020 – December 2020||Record-breaking wildfires began in several Western American states.|
|2020–21 Argentine wildfires||July 2020 – Ongoing||Sudden wildfires started in Córdoba and extended into several Northern provinces.|
Other natural eventsEdit
In 2020, a huge swarm of desert locusts threatened to engulf massive portions of the Middle East, Africa and Asia. In tandem with the COVID-19 pandemic, the swarms posed major hazards to billions of people who might be affected by famine brought on by the locusts. Although experts had thought the insects would die out during the dry season in December 2019, unseasonal rains caused the incursion to reach unanticipated and hazardous levels.
The World Trade Organization reported that trade growth had stagnated and that trade restrictions were increasing as the decade began. The sectors most affected by import restrictions were mineral and fuel oils (17.7%), machinery and mechanical appliances (13%), electrical machinery and parts (11.7%), and precious metals (6%). Regional trade agreements were found to be increasing.
The Brexit withdrawal agreement went into effect at the end of January 2020 with the UK completing its economic withdrawal from the EU at the end of that year. The United States, Mexico, and Canada signed the USMCA agreement, which came into effect on 1 July 2020.
|2020 stock market crash||20 February 2020 – 7 April 2020||Global|
Cybersecurity and hackingEdit
|2020 Twitter bitcoin scam||15 July 2020||Multiple high-profile Twitter accounts, each with millions of followers, were compromised in a cyberattack to promote a bitcoin scam.|
|Colonial Pipeline cyberattack||6 May 2021|
|Event||Date||Infections and deaths||Description|
|COVID-19 pandemic||2019 – present||179.3 million+ confirmed cases and 3.88 million+ deaths with more than 240 countries and territories reported by 21 June 2021.|
|HIV/AIDS||1981 – present||37.9 million people living with HIV (end of 2018), 24.5 million people accessing antiretroviral therapy (end of June 2019), 32.0 million deaths from AIDS-related illnesses since the start of the epidemic (end 2018)|
Science and technologyEdit
- Space company SpaceX sent two NASA astronauts to the International Space Station on 30 May 2020, marking the first time a private company completed a crewed orbital spaceflight mission.
- NASA launched the Perseverance rover and Ingenuity helicopter drone on 30 July 2020 as part of their Mars 2020 mission to search for signs of ancient life on Mars. On 19 April 2021, the Ingenuity helicopter drone performed the first powered controlled flight by an aircraft on a planet other than Earth.
- The Royal Astronomical Society announced the detection of phosphine gas in Venus' atmosphere on 14 September 2020, which is known to be a strong predictor for the presence of microbial life.
- Deepmind solves the protein folding problem to 90 percent accuracy, a 50-year-old grand challenge, at CASP14 in 2020.
Communications and electronicsEdit
- 5G became increasingly widespread in 2020.
Software and electronic platformsEdit
- Support for Adobe Flash Player ended on 31 December 2020.
Social effects of the COVID-19 pandemicEdit
Medical experts advised, and local authorities often mandated stay-at-home orders to prevent gatherings of any size. Such gatherings could be replaced by teleconferencing, or in some cases with unconventional attempts to maintain social distancing with activities such as a balcony sing-along for a concert, or a "birthday parade" for a birthday party. Replacements for gatherings were seen as significant to mental health during the crisis. Social isolation among alcohol users also adopted a trend towards Kalsarikänni or "pantsdrunking", a Finnish antisocial drinking culture.
Low income individuals were more likely to contract the coronavirus and to die from it. In both New York City and Barcelona, low income neighborhoods were disproportionately hit by coronavirus cases. Hypotheses for why this was the case included that poorer families were more likely to live in crowded housing and work in the low skill jobs, such as supermarkets and elder care, which were deemed essential during the crisis. In the United States, millions of low-income people may lack access to health care due to being uninsured or underinsured. Millions of Americans lost their health insurance after losing their jobs. Many low income workers in service jobs became unemployed.
The coronavirus pandemic was followed by a concern for a potential spike in suicides, exacerbated by social isolation due to quarantine and social-distancing guidelines, fear, and unemployment and financial factors. Many countries reported an increase in domestic violence and intimate partner violence attributed to lockdowns amid the COVID-19 pandemic. Financial insecurity, stress, and uncertainty led to increased aggression at home, with abusers able to control large amounts of their victims' daily life. United Nations Secretary-General António Guterres called for a domestic violence "ceasefire".
The murder of George Floyd led to many protest and riots across the United States and internationally in 2020. The stated goal of the protest has been to end police brutality and racial inequality, and is closely linked with the Black Lives Matter movement.
24.3% of all national parliamentarians were women as of February 2019. 11 women were serving as Head of State and 12 as Head of Government in June 2019. 20.7% of government ministers were women as of January 2019. Katerina Sakellaropoulou became the first female president of Greece in January 2020, and Kamala Harris became the first female Vice President of the United States in 2021.
There are wide regional variations in the average percentages of women parliamentarians. As of February 2019, these were: Nordic countries, 42.5%; Americas, 30.6%; Europe excluding Nordic countries, 27.2; sub-Saharan Africa, 23.9; Asia, 19.8%; Arab States, 19%; and the Pacific, 16.3%. Rwanda has the highest number of women parliamentarians worldwide, 61.3% of seats in the lower house. About 26% of elected local parliamentarians are women.
The 2019–20 Australian bushfire season devastated the environment of Australia.
- A law allowing third gender option on driver licenses took effect in New Hampshire.
- Switzerland banned discrimination based on sexuality based on a referendum, putting into effect a law previously introduced in 2018, that was subsequently blocked by the government that requested a referendum to be held on the matter first.
- In Northern Ireland, the first same-sex marriage, after legislation to allow this took effect in January 2020.
- In Costa Rica, same-sex marriage and joint adoption by same-sex couples became legal on 26 May 2020.
- In the United States, the Supreme Court ruled that job discrimination against workers for their sexual orientation or gender identity is illegal.
- The Trump Administration passed a law on 12 June 2020 removing protections against discrimination from LGBTQ people in terms of health care and health insurance in the United States. President Joe Biden reversed a policy enacted during the Trump administration which previously allowed healthcare companies to deny coverage to gay and transgender people on May 10, 2021.
- The Equality Act passed in the House of Representatives on 25 February 2021 in the United States.
Fashion trends of the early 2020s have been largely inspired by the 2000s. Wearing a decorative mask to prevent the disease COVID-19 from spreading was a fashion trend in the early 2020s.
Several films and other upcoming movies were released on streaming platforms instead of theatres due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Though few films were also released simultaneously on both theatrically and streaming platforms.
The 2020s started off with the primary streaming services being Netflix, Amazon Prime, HBO Max, Hulu and Disney+. Additional streaming services such as Discovery+, Paramount+, and Peacock were being developed as well. Cable television and satellite television continued to fall out of popularity, and were no longer as prevalent as they were once in the 2010s and decades prior. In the 2020s, rebooting and reunion episodes of older shows became widespread, including Animaniacs, The Conners, Saved by the Bell, HBO Max's Friends: The Reunion and The Fresh Prince Of Bel Air Reunion, Paramount+'s new Frasier, iCarly, and Rugrats.
In 2020, TikTok became an important music platform on social media. Streaming on platforms such as Spotify, Amazon Music and Apple Music increased due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Festivals such as Coachella were cancelled because of the virus. The COVID-19 pandemic devastated the touring business.
The Nintendo Switch continued to be popular among gamers. Animal Crossing: New Horizons had sold over 31 million copies on the Nintendo Switch, making it the second-best-selling game on the Nintendo Switch. Its success has been attributed in part to its release amid global stay-at-home orders during the COVID-19 pandemic.
The SoFi Stadium was completed on 8 September 2020 and is a component of Hollywood Park, a master planned neighborhood in development in Inglewood, California. The stadium serves as a home to the Los Angeles Rams and the Los Angeles Chargers. SoFi Stadium is set to host Super Bowl LVI in February 2022. The stadium is also set to host the opening and closing ceremonies, soccer and archery in the 2028 Summer Olympics, which will be hosted in Los Angeles, California, United States Of America.
The Unity Tower was finally completed on 30 September 2020. The construction of the building originally started in 1975, but stopped permanently in 1981 because of economic constraints and political unrest at the time. Due to the unfinished building's resemblance to a skeleton, it was nicknamed after Skeletor, the arch-villain in He-Man and the Masters of the Universe, which was popular in Poland at the time construction began.
- Tokyo was to host the Olympic Games for a second time. Originally scheduled for July–August 2020, the games were rescheduled for July–August 2021 due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
- The 2020 T20 Cricket World Cup was originally scheduled to take place in Australia, but because of the COVID-19 pandemic was rescheduled to occur in India in 2021.
The following articles contain brief timelines which list the most prominent events of the decade:
- van Lierop, Wal (24 December 2019). "Let's Make The 20s Roar Again!". Forbes. Archived from the original on 31 December 2019. Retrieved 1 January 2020.
- Beaujon, Andrew (31 December 2019). "Finally, a Decade Whose Name We Can Agree On". Washingtonian. Archived from the original on 31 December 2019. Retrieved 1 January 2020.
- "BBC NEWS". BBC News. Archived from the original on 20 April 2011. Retrieved 26 June 2016.
- "Israeli settlement plan denounced". BBC. 18 November 2009. Archived from the original on 5 March 2019. Retrieved 26 June 2016.
- Bear, Shalom (8 July 2014). "IDF's Operation "Protective Edge" Begins Against Gaza". The Jewish Press. Archived from the original on 10 July 2014. Retrieved 26 June 2016.
- "President Bush Releases National Strategy for Combating Terrorism". 14 February 2003. Archived from the original on 12 October 2017. Retrieved 10 October 2018.
- "Updated: Obama speech balances Afghanistan troop buildup with exit pledge". Associated Press. 1 December 2009. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 26 June 2016.
- "Pilger claims White House knew Saddam was no threat". The Sydney Morning Herald. 23 September 2003. Archived from the original on 6 December 2011. Retrieved 26 June 2016.
- "Online NewsHour Update: Coalition Says Iraqi Regime Has Lost Control of Baghdad – April 9, 2003". 1 December 2010. Archived from the original on 1 December 2010. Retrieved 26 June 2016.
- Ali A. Allawi (2007). The Occupation of Iraq: Winning the War, Losing the Peace. Yale University Press.
- Carlotta Gall (13 November 2004). "World Briefing | Asia: Afghanistan: Taliban Leader Vows Return". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 June 2016.
- "Putin signs laws on reunification of Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol with Russia". ITAR TASS. 21 March 2014. Archived from the original on 20 March 2015. Retrieved 21 March 2014.
- Chulov, Martin (10 June 2014). "Isis insurgents seize control of Iraqi city of Mosul". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 29 April 2019. Retrieved 26 June 2016.
- "ISIS announces formation of Caliphate, rebrands as 'Islamic State'". The Long War Journal. 29 June 2014. Archived from the original on 4 April 2019. Retrieved 26 June 2016.
- Nicks, Denver. "U.S. Forms Anti-ISIS Coalition at NATO Summit". Time. Archived from the original on 12 October 2018. Retrieved 26 June 2016.
- Ed Payne and Salma Abdelaziz. "34 Islamic nations form coalition to fight terrorism". CNN. Archived from the original on 7 May 2019. Retrieved 26 June 2016.
- "Mexico's drug war is getting even worse". Archived from the original on 17 June 2016. Retrieved 26 June 2016.
- "Counting Mexico's drug victims is a murky business". National Catholic Reporter. March 2014. Archived from the original on 28 May 2016. Retrieved 26 June 2016.
- Carl, Traci (10 March 2009). "Progress in Mexico drug war is drenched in blood". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 15 March 2009. Retrieved 1 April 2009.
- "High U.S. cocaine cost shows drug war working: Mexico". Reuters. 14 September 2007. Archived from the original on 4 December 2008. Retrieved 1 April 2009.
- Sullivan, Mark P., ed. (18 December 2008). "Mexico – U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress" (PDF). CRS Report for Congress: Mexico and the 112th Congress. Congressional Research Service. pp. 2, 13, 14. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 June 2010. Retrieved 19 December 2019.
- "UPDATE 3-Somali government declares Islamist rebellion defeated". Reuters. 6 August 2011. Archived from the original on 10 August 2016. Retrieved 26 June 2016.
- "Somalia: 'Al-Shabab' militants forced out of Jowhar". BBC News. 9 December 2012. Archived from the original on 10 September 2016. Retrieved 26 June 2016.
- "SOMALIA: President says Godane is dead, now is the chance for the members of al-Shabaab to embrace peace". RBC Radio. Archived from the original on 6 September 2014. Retrieved 26 June 2016.
- Daniel, Serge (4 April 2012). "Mali junta denounces 'rights violations' by rebels". AFP. Archived from the original on 1 February 2013. Retrieved 26 June 2016.
- "Tuaregs claim 'independence' from Mali". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 7 April 2012. Retrieved 26 June 2016.
- Zoe Flood. "Trouble in Timbuktu as Islamists extend control". Archived from the original on 6 July 2018. Retrieved 26 June 2016.
- "Yemen's ousted president Hadi calls for Houthis to quit capital – World | The Star Online". Archived from the original on 17 July 2018. Retrieved 26 June 2016.
- Orkaby, Asher (25 March 2015). "Houthi Who?". Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 27 March 2015. Retrieved 25 March 2015.
- Clarissa Batino; Cecilia Yap (3 August 2016). "Duterte to Push Ahead With Name-Shame in Drug War as Deaths Rise". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 1 January 2020. Retrieved 19 December 2019.
- Maher, Hatem (25 February 2020). "Former president of Egypt Hosni Mubarak dies at 91". ABC News. Retrieved 15 January 2021.
- Kandell, Jonathan (2 December 2020). "Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, 94, Is Dead; Struggled to Transform France". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 January 2021.
- "Sultan Qaboos of Oman, Arab world's longest-serving ruler, dies aged 79". BBC News. 11 January 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2021.
- Kyle Cheney; Andrew Desiderio; John Breshahan (5 February 2020), "Trump acquitted on impeachment charges, ending gravest threat to his presidency", Politico, archived from the original on 17 June 2020, retrieved 8 February 2020
- "Electoral College makes it official: Biden won, Trump lost". Associated Press. 15 December 2020. Retrieved 20 January 2021.
- Parks, Miles (10 November 2020). "Trump Election Lawsuits Filed So Far". NPR. Retrieved 20 January 2021.
- "Trump faces long odds in challenging state vote counts". Associated Press. 10 November 2020. Retrieved 20 January 2021.
- Berenson, Tessa (20 November 2020). "In Court, Trump's Lawyers Aren't Claiming 'Massive' Fraud". Time. Retrieved 20 January 2021.
- Roebuck, Jeremy (9 November 2020). "Trump campaign moves to bar Pennsylvania from certifying election results in new lawsuit". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved 20 January 2021.
- "Trump campaign sues in Nevada to stop Vegas-area vote count". Associated Press. 23 October 2020.
- "Factbox: Trump Sues in Arizona, Court Battles Continue as Biden Wins U.S. Election". U.S. News & World Report. 8 November 2020. Retrieved 18 April 2021.
- Kevin Breuninger; Dan Mangan (1 December 2020). "Trump sues to reverse Biden win in Wisconsin". CNBC.
- "Trump campaign sues Michigan to prevent certification of Biden win". Reuters. 11 November 2020.
- Martina, Michael (5 December 2020). "Trump campaign files election lawsuit in Georgia, suffers more legal defeats". Reuters.
- "Mike Pence rejects Trump's call to overturn Biden election". CNBC. 6 January 2021. Retrieved 20 January 2021.
- "Transcript of Trump's Speech at Rally Before US Capitol Riot". U.S. News & World Report. 13 January 2021. Retrieved 20 January 2021.
- Peñaloza, Marisa (6 January 2021). "Trump Supporters Clash With Capitol Police At Protest". NPR. Retrieved 6 January 2021.
- Amenabar, Teddy; Zauzmer, Julie; Davies, Emily; Brice-Saddler, Michael; Ruane, Michael E.; et al. (6 January 2021). "Live updates: Hundreds storm Capitol barricades; two nearby buildings briefly evacuated; Trump falsely tells thousands he won". The Washington Post. Retrieved 6 January 2021.
- Corinne Reichert (14 January 2021). "Donald Trump impeached a second time". CNET. Retrieved 20 January 2021.
- "Biden inauguration: New president sworn in amid Trump snub". BBC News. 20 January 2021.
- "Donald Trump acquitted in second impeachment trial". Guardian. 14 February 2021. Retrieved 10 June 2021.
- "Cuba's Raul Castro confirms he's stepping down, says he's 'fulfilled his mission'". NBC News. Retrieved 19 April 2021.
- "Cuba leadership: Díaz-Canel named Communist Party chief". BBC News. Retrieved 20 April 2021.
- "UK joins US in mission to protect oil tankers in Gulf". The Guardian. 5 August 2019. Archived from the original on 30 November 2019. Retrieved 8 January 2020.
- "Trump accuses Iran over storming of US embassy compound in Baghdad". The Guardian. 31 December 2019. Archived from the original on 31 December 2019. Retrieved 8 January 2020.
- "Column: What the killing of Qassem Soleimani could mean". PBS News Hour. 3 January 2020. Archived from the original on 7 January 2020. Retrieved 8 January 2020.
- "Chinese troops challenge India at multiple locations in eastern Ladakh, standoff continues". The Print. 24 May 2020. Archived from the original on 27 May 2020. Retrieved 2 September 2020.
- Nagorno-Karabakh: "We have to get ready for long-term war" – leader of disputed region – via YouTube.
- Azerbaijan-Armenia clashes over Nagorno-Karabakh escalate – via YouTube.
- "Armenia-Azerbaijan: Both sides defy Nagorno-Karabakh ceasefire calls". BBC News. 1 October 2020. Retrieved 2 October 2020.
- "Brexit: European Parliament overwhelmingly backs terms of UK's exit". Archived from the original on 29 January 2020. Retrieved 1 February 2020.
- "Trump orders attack that kills Iranian Gen. Qassem Soleimani, other military officials in Baghdad, Pentagon says". Archived from the original on 24 February 2020. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
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Media related to 2020s at Wikimedia Commons