2020s in political history

2020s political history refers to significant political and societal historical events of the 2020s, presented as a historical overview in narrative format.

Millennium: 3rd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
Categories:

Global events and issuesEdit

Major eventsEdit

COVID-19 pandemicEdit

The COVID-19 pandemic, also known as the coronavirus pandemic, caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. The World Health Organisation declared the outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern in January 2020 and a pandemic in March 2020. By December 2020 the virus had extended to virtually every corner of the planet including ships at sea but excluding Antarctica and a handful of small islands. As of 19 April 2021[1], there were 141,414,180[1] confirmed cases, 57,605,626[1] active cases, and 3,019,660[1] deaths. The United States, India, and Brazil reported the most infections, deaths, and recoveries; the highest death rates were reported in Belgium, Italy, Peru, and Spain. The United States leads in new cases, new deaths, active cases, and recoveries.[2]

The responses caused global social and economic disruption, including the largest global recession since the Great Depression.[3] It led to the postponement or cancellation of events, widespread supply shortages exacerbated by panic buying, famines affecting hundreds of millions of people, and decreased emissions of pollutants and greenhouse gases. Educational institutions were partially or fully closed. Misinformation circulated through social media and mass media. There were incidents of xenophobia and discrimination against Chinese people and against those perceived as being Chinese or as being from areas with high infection rates.[4]

 
Countries with at least one election date altered

The pandemic impacted international relations and affected the political systems of multiple countries, causing suspensions of legislative activities, isolation or deaths of multiple politicians and reschedulings of elections due to fears of spreading the virus. The pandemic also triggered broader debates about political issues such as the relative advantages of democracy and autocracy,[5][6] how states respond to crises,[7] politicization of beliefs about the virus,[8] and the adequacy of existing frameworks of international cooperation.[9]

Conflict and peaceEdit

The Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons, which totally bans nuclear weapons, went into effect on January 22, 2021. No known nuclear power and NATO do not support the treaty.[10]

Afghan peace processEdit

On February 29, 2020, the United States and the Taliban signed a peace agreement in Doha, Qatar, officially titled the Agreement for Bringing Peace to Afghanistan.[11] The provisions of the deal include the withdrawal of all American and NATO troops from Afghanistan, a Taliban pledge to prevent al-Qaeda from operating in areas under Taliban control, and talks between the Taliban and the Afghan government.[12] The United States agreed to an initial reduction of its force level from 13,000 to 8,600 by July 2020, followed by a full withdrawal within 14 months if the Taliban keeps its commitments.[13] The United States also committed to closing five military bases within 135 days,[14] and expressed its intent to end economic sanctions on the Taliban by August 27, 2020.[15] The deal was supported by China, Russia and Pakistan, although it did not involve the government of Afghanistan.[16]

Talks between the Afghan government and the Taliban began in Doha, Qatar on September 12, 2020. The negotiations were set for March but have been delayed over a prisoner exchange dispute. Mawlavi Abdul Hakim will lead negotiations for the Taliban, he is the group's chief justice and a close confidant of Haibatullah Akhundzada. Abdullah Abdullah will be one of the leading figures for the Afghan government negotiating team. The Afghan government team also comprises women's rights activists.[17]

Indian border skirmishesEdit

The 2020 China–India skirmishes have caused dozens of casualties on both sides. The 2020 India–Pakistan border skirmishes have also caused casualties, though fewer.

Nagorno-KarabakhEdit

The 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh war took place in the Nagorno-Karabakh region between the Republic of Artsakh backed by Armenia and Azerbaijan from September 2020 to November 2020. It is the latest escalation of the unresolved Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. A peace treaty was signed between Armenia, Azerbaijan, Artsakh, and Russia, ending hostilities on 10 November 2020. Widespread protests in Armenia followed the treaty while it was celebrated in Azerbaijan.

Persian GulfEdit

The 2019–2020 Persian Gulf crisis has led to the attack on the United States embassy in Baghdad during the start of the decade, the subsequent assassination of Qasem Soleimani by the United States days later, the Iranian attack on U.S. forces in Iraq in revenge, as well as the accidental shootdown of Ukraine International Airlines Flight 752 by Iran soon after.

EnvironmentEdit

Climate changeEdit

In 2020, the Secretary-General of the United Nations, António Guterres, declared that "The state of the planet is broken" and that "Humanity is waging war on nature. This is suicidal."[18] The United Nations has also called climate change "the defining issue of our time",[19] and the World Health Organization said it "threatens the essential ingredients of good health - clean air, safe drinking water, nutritious food supply, and safe shelter - and has the potential to undermine decades of progress in global health".[20]

SocietyEdit

Gender equalityEdit

Out of all national parliamentarians, 24.3% were women as of February 2019, while 11 women were serving as Head of State and 12 as Head of Government in June 2019. Furthermore, 20.7% of government ministers were women as of January 2019.[21] Katerina Sakellaropoulou became the first female president of Greece in January 2020.[22] Maia Sandu reached the same milestone for Moldova in 2020 as well. In Austria, the first female-majority cabinet was sworn-in in 2020.[23]

TechnologyEdit

In a January 2020 interview with the Financial Times, German Chancellor Angela Merkel urged Europe to develop its own technology, such as manufacturing of batteries, electric cars, and cloud computing. Europe depends mostly on Asia for electric car batteries, and it has no hyperscale computing companies to support companies like Amazon and Facebook.[24]

Switzerland's neutrality was called into question when it was in revealed in February 2020 that German and U.S. intelligence services had been using coding devices manufactured by Crypto AG to spy on other countries.[25]

EconomyEdit

RecessionEdit

 
Map showing real GDP growth rates in 2020, as recorded by the International Monetary Fund as of 26 January 2021

The COVID-19 recession is a severe global economic crisis which caused a recession or a depression in many countries. It is the worst global economic crisis since the Great Depression.[26] The crisis began due to the COVID-19 lockdowns and other precautions taken during the COVID-19 pandemic. The onset of the recession coincided with the 2020 stock market crash, which began in late February and lasted through early April 2020.[27][28][29] The stock market crash was short-lived, and many market indices around the world recovered or set new records by late 2020. By September 2020, every advanced economy had fallen to recession or depression, whilst all emerging economies were in recession.[30][31][32] Modeling by the World Bank suggests that in some regions a full recovery will not be achieved until 2025 or beyond.[33][34][35][36]

The COVID-19 pandemic led to half of the world's population being placed on stay-at-home orders to stop the spread of COVID-19.[37] It has caused severe repercussions for economies across the world,[38] following soon after a global economic slowdown during 2019 that saw stagnation of stock markets and consumer activity worldwide.[39][40]

The recession has seen unusually high and rapid increases in unemployment in many countries, and the inability in the United States for state-funded unemployment insurance computer systems and processes to keep up with applications.[41][42] By October, more than 10 million unemployment cases had been filed in the United States.[43] The United Nations (UN) predicted in April 2020 that global unemployment will wipe out 6.7% of working hours globally in the second quarter of 2020—equivalent to 195 million full-time workers.[44] In some countries, unemployment is expected to be at around 10%, with more severely affected nations from the COVID-19 pandemic having higher unemployment rates.[45][46][47] Developing countries were also being affected by a drop in remittances,[48] exacerbating COVID-19 pandemic-related famines.[49]

The recession and the 2020 Russia–Saudi Arabia oil price war led to a drop in the price of oil; the collapse of tourism, the hospitality industry, and the energy industry; and a significant downturn in consumer activity in comparison to the previous decade.[50][51][52] The 2020 stock market crash resulted in a decline in value in stock market indices of 20 to 30% during late February and March 2020. During the crash, global stock markets made unprecedented and volatile swings, mainly due to extreme uncertainty in the markets.[53][54][55]

World tradeEdit

President Trump's trade disputes appear to be neutralizing as the President completed a phase 1 agreement with China and renegotiated NAFTA with the ratification of the United States–Mexico–Canada Agreement an improved, bipartisan trade agreement. Tomasz Brodzicki of IHS Markit predicts that world merchandise trade volume will increase by 2.7% to 14.175 billion tons (US$18.870 trillion) in 2020 and by 5% to 14.881 billion tons (US$19.795 trillion) in 2021. He forecasts the highest growth rates in 2020 for South and North America and the lowest for Africa. He predicts low trade growth for the U.S. and Canada and continuing conflicts with China, which should benefit Taiwan, Vietnam, and other parts of the ASEAN Free Trade Area. He also says the paralysis of the multilateral dispute settlement system in the World Trade Organization (WTO) will probably last.[56]

The world's largest free trade agreement, the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership, was signed on November 15, 2020, including the members of ASEAN, as well as Australia, China, Japan, New Zealand, and South Korea.[57]

The African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCTA) will go fully into effect on July 1, 2020, abolishing 90% of tariffs between member states and bringing a 50% increase in trade in the next few years.[58] In June 2019 the Mercosur (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay) reached a tentative agreement.pdf with the European Union. They are also looking forward to similar agreements with the United States, Canada, and the EFTA bloc—made up of Iceland, Norway, Liechtenstein, and Switzerland.[59]

History by regionEdit

AsiaEdit

AfghanistanEdit

The Afghan peace process comprises the proposals and negotiations in a bid to end the ongoing war in Afghanistan. Besides the United States, regional powers such as Pakistan, China and India, Russia, as well as NATO play a part in facilitating the peace process.[60][61] On February 29, 2020, the U.S. signed a conditional peace agreement with the Taliban, which calls for the withdrawal of foreign troops in 14 months if the Taliban uphold the terms of the agreement.[62][63]

ChinaEdit

Chinese Communist Party (CCP) continued the mass imprisonment of Uyghyrs in the Xinjiang internment camps, under CCP General Secretary Xi Jinping's administration.[64]

Hong KongEdit

The Hong Kong protests against the Chinese government continued into 2020. A controversial new national security law was enacted on 30 June 2020 by the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress.[65] In July, 12 politicians were banned from standing the upcoming elections.[66] The elections were then postponed by a year, officially due to the COVID-19 pandemic.[66] After the arrest of eight opposition politicians in November, 15 other opposition lawmakers resigned in protest, including the remaining opposition members of the Legislative Council of Hong Kong.[66] The democracy activist Joshua Wong was also arrested, facing up to three years in prison in his trial.[67]

The Decision of the National People's Congress on Improving the Electoral System of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region was enacted on 11 March 2021 by the National People's Congress (NPC), the de jure legislative body of the People's Republic of China (PRC), to rewrite the electoral rules, imposing a much restrictive electoral system on the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) for its Chief Executive (CE) and the Legislative Council (LegCo), claiming to ensure a system of "patriots governing Hong Kong."[68][69]

JapanEdit

Following Shinzo Abe's resignation announcement in August 2020, Yoshihide Suga replaced Abe on the Liberal Democratic Party leadership, and then became Prime Minister.[70][71][72][73][74]

KyrgyzstanEdit

The 2020 Kyrgyzstani protests began on 5 October 2020 in response to the recent parliamentary election that was perceived by protestors as unfair, with allegations of vote rigging.[75][76] The results of the election were annulled on 6 October 2020.[77] On 12 October 2020, President Jeenbekov announced a state of emergency in the capital city of Bishkek,[78] which was approved by Parliament the following day.[79] Jeenbekov resigned on 15 October 2020.

In January 2021 a referendum on the form of government was held alongside presidential elections (won by Sadyr Japarov), with voters asked whether they would prefer a presidential system, a parliamentary system, or opposed both. Just over 84% voted in favour of a presidential system.

Work began on drafting a new constitution, which was debated in the Supreme Council in February 2021. The draft new constitution replaces the parliamentary system with a presidential one, with presidents limited to two five years terms instead of a single six-year term. It also reduces the number of seats in the Supreme Council from 120 to 90 and establishes a constitutional court.[80]

In March 2021 members of the Supreme Council passed a bill, scheduling a referendum on the new constitution for 11 April, the same day as local elections.[80] The result was 79.31% in favour.[81]

MalaysiaEdit

In early 2020, officials from the Malaysia's Prime Minister's Office (PMO) said that Malaysia has recovered US$322 million stolen from the sovereign wealth fund 1Malaysia Development Berhad scandal, a fraction of the more than US$4.5 billion US prosecutors say was looted.[82] In April, the US Department of Justice returned US$300 million in funds stolen during the 1MDB scandal to Malaysia.[83][84] Former Prime Minister Najib Razak was found guilty of one count of abuse of power, three counts of criminal breach of trust, three counts of money laundering, a total of seven charges for the SRC International trial.[85][86]

On 24 February 2020, Malaysia entered the 2020 Malaysian political crisis for almost a week after the resignation of the 7th Prime Minister of Malaysia, Mahathir Mohamad. Immediately that afternoon, the King of Malaysia re-appointed Mahathir Mohamad as the Interim Prime Minister to solve the political crisis. On 29 February 2020, Yang Dipertuan Agong, King Abdullah of Pahang agreed to appoint Tan Sri Muhyiddin Yassin as the 8th Prime Minister of Malaysia, and he was sworn in at the Istana Negara on 1 March 2020.

MyanmarEdit

General elections were held in Myanmar on 8 November 2020, in which the National League for Democracy won 396 out of 476 seats in parliament, while the military's proxy party, the Union Solidarity and Development Party, won only 33 seats.[87] In the 2021 Myanmar coup d'état, democratically elected members of the ruling National League for Democracy were detained and/or deposed from their offices by the Tatmadaw; Myanmar's military. The Tatmadaw declared a year-long state of emergency and declared power had been vested in the commander-in-chief of the armed forces, Min Aung Hlaing. The coup d'état occurred the day before the Parliament of Myanmar was due to swear in the members elected at the November 2020 general election, preventing this from occurring.[88] President Win Myint and State Counsellor Aung San Suu Kyi were detained, along with ministers and their deputies and members of Parliament.[87] Domestic civil resistance efforts in Myanmar, known locally as the Spring Revolution (Burmese: နွေဦးတော်လှန်ရေး),[89][90] began in opposition to the coup d'état on 1 February.[91] As of 2 April 2021, at least 550 civilians, including children, have been killed by military or police forces and at least 2,574 people detained.[92]

MongoliaEdit

Parliamentary elections were held in Mongolia on 24 June 2020.[93][94] The result was a victory for the ruling Mongolian People's Party, which won 62 of the 76 seats, a slight decrease from the 65 won in the 2016 elections. The Prime Minister Ukhnaagiin Khürelsükh resigned on 27 January 2021 following a minor protest against the mistreatment of a hospital patient.[95]

IndiaEdit

The Citizenship Amendment Act protests occurred after the enactment of the Citizenship (Amendment) Act (CAA) by the Indian government on 12 December 2019, which triggered widespread ongoing protests across India and abroad against the act and the associated proposals to enact a National Register of Citizens (NRC).[96] The Amendment created a pathway to Indian citizenship for illegal migrants belonging to Hindu, Sikh, Buddhist, Jain, Parsi, and Christian communities from Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan, who had entered India before 2014 fleeing religious persecution.[97] The Amendment does not provide the same pathway to Muslims and others from these countries, nor to refugee Sri Lankan Tamils in India, Rohingyas from Myanmar, or Buddhists from Tibet.[98] The proposed National Register of Citizens (NRC) will be an official record of all legal citizens of India; individuals would need to provide a prescribed set of documents issued before a specified cutoff date to be included in it.[99] The amendment has been widely criticised as discriminating on the basis of religion, in particular for excluding Muslims.[100] Protestors against the amendment demand that it be scrapped and that the nationwide NRC not be implemented.[101] Protesters in Assam and other northeastern states do not want Indian citizenship to be granted to any refugee or immigrant, regardless of their religion, as they fear it would alter the region's demographic balance..[102][103]

North KoreaEdit

At the 8th Congress of the Workers' Party of Korea, Kim Jong-un was elected as the General Secretary of the ruling Workers' Party of Korea, inheriting the title from his late father Kim Jong-il, who died in 2011.[104]

South KoreaEdit

South Korea's 21st legislative elections were held on 15 April 2020. All 300 members of the National Assembly were elected, 253 from first-past-the-post constituencies and 47 from proportional party lists. They were the first elections held under the new electoral system.[105] The two largest parties, the liberal Democratic Party and the conservative United Future Party, set up new satellite parties (also known as bloc parties) to take advantage of the revised electoral system. The reforms also lowered the voting age from 19 to 18.

The Democratic Party and its satellite, the Platform Party, won a landslide victory, taking 180 of the 300 seats (60%) between them.[106] The Democratic Party alone won 163 seats — the highest number by any party since 1960. This guarantees the ruling liberal alliance an absolute majority in the legislative chamber, and the three-fifths super-majority required to fast-track its procedures. The conservative alliance between the United Future Party and its satellite Future Korea Party won only 103 seats, the worst conservative result since 1960.

Sri LankaEdit

Parliamentary elections in Sri Lanka were held on 5 August 2020 to elect 225 members to Sri Lanka's 16th Parliament.[107][108][109] The incumbent Sri Lanka People's Freedom Alliance coalition claimed a landslide victory in the election, winning 145 seats,[110][111][112] while Samagi Jana Balawegaya won 54 seats, Tamil National Alliance won 10 seats and National People's Power won 3 seats.[113][114][115] The main opposition United National Party suffered the worst showing in its history following a split over party leadership, finishing in fourth place with only one seat.[116] The election was postponed at least twice due to a surge in COVID-19 cases in the country, before the date was finalized as 5 August 2020.[117][118]

TajikistanEdit

Parliamentary elections were held in Tajikistan on 1 March 2020.[119] The result was a landslide victory for the ruling People's Democratic Party, which won 47 of the 63 seats. The only opposition party, the Social Democratic Party, received just 0.3% of the vote.[120] The Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe was critical of the election.[120]

ThailandEdit

In Thailand, protests began in early 2020. Beginning first as demonstrations against the government of Prime Minister Prayut Chan-o-cha, it later included the unprecedented demands for reform of the Thai monarchy. The protests were initially triggered by the dissolution of the Future Forward Party (FFP) in late February 2020 which was critical of Prayut, the changes to the Thai constitution in 2017 and the country's political landscape that it gave rise to.

Government responses included filing criminal charges using the Emergency Decree; arbitrary detention and police intimidation; delaying tactics; the deployment of military information warfare units; media censorship; the mobilisation of pro-government and royalist groups who have accused the protesters of receiving support from foreign governments or non-governmental organizations (NGOs) as part of a global conspiracy against Thailand; and the deployment of thousands of police at protests. The government ordered university chancellors to prevent students from demanding reforms to the monarchy and to identify student protest leaders. Protests since October, when the King had returned to the country from Germany,[121] resulted in the deployment of the military, riot police, and mass arrests

VietnamEdit

On 31 January 2021, Nguyễn Phú Trọng is re-elected for a third five-year term as the General Secretary of the Communist Party of Vietnam.[122]

EuropeEdit

The European Union reduced in member states from 28 to 27 with the exit of the United Kingdom on January 31, 2020. The response to the COVID-19 pandemic caused a rift between Northern and Southern European member states over spending, with the former demanding more stringent measures to curb overspending, while the latter argued for more financial support in order to overcome the crisis.[123] A key issue of contention was the issuing of so-called corona bonds. After a historic debt-sharing deal for economic stimulus was agreed to by the remaining countries, Hungary and Poland threatened to veto both it and the EU's budget unless a clause demanding the upholding of the rule of law by member states was dropped.[124] A compromise was reached to pass the deal, which involved delaying the implementation of the clause.[125]

AustriaEdit

The 2020 Vienna attack killed four victims after a jihadist gunman attacked the country's capital. In response, the Chancellor Sebastian Kurz unveiled plans to outlaw political Islam.[126]

BelarusEdit

The 2020 Belarusian presidential election was held on Sunday, 9 August 2020. Early voting began on 4 August and ran until 8 August.[127] Incumbent Alexander Lukashenko was reelected to the sixth term in office, with official results crediting him with 80% of the vote. Lukashenko has won every presidential election since 1994,[128] with all but the first being labelled by international monitors as neither free nor fair.[129]

Opposition candidate Sviatlana Tsikhanouskaya claimed to have won a decisive first-round victory with at least 60% of the vote, and called on Lukashenko to start negotiations. Her campaign subsequently formed the Coordination Council to facilitate a transfer of power and stated that it was ready to organize "long-term protests" against the official results.[130][131] All seven members of the Coordination Council Presidium were subsequently arrested or went into exile. Numerous countries refused to accept the result of the election, as did the European Union, which imposed sanctions on Belarusian officials deemed to be responsible for "violence, repression and election fraud".[132]

The largest anti-government protests in the history of Belarus began in the lead-up to and during the election. Initially moderate, the protests intensified nationwide after official election results were announced on the night of 10 August, in which Lukashenko was declared the winner.

BelgiumEdit

The foreign minister Sophie Wilmès was treated in intensive care after contracting COVID-19 in November, 2020.[133]

BulgariaEdit

In July 2020 protests erupted through the country as a result of long-lasting corruption, state capture, lack of media freedom, particularly associated with prime minister Boyko Borisov's governments, in power since 2009.

CroatiaEdit

The presidential elections' second round took place on 5 January 2020 between the two candidates with the highest number of votes in the first round. Zoran Milanović won the second round with 52.66% of the vote. The 2020 Croatian parliamentary election took place on 5 July 2020.[134] The ruling HDZ obtained an upset victory over the Restart Coalition, who had previously been leading in opinion polls for several weeks prior to the elections.

EstoniaEdit

Kaja Kallas became the first female Prime Minister after the previous government fell after a corruption scandal.[135]

FranceEdit

The murder of Samuel Paty reignited the controversy surrounding depictions of Muhammad, and was followed by the 2020 Nice stabbing committed by another jihadist, as well as a far-right attack in Avignon on the same day.[136] Before the attacks, the Charlie Hebdo depiction had been republished on September 1, and the trial over the Charlie Hebdo shooting in 2015 had begun on September 2.[137] There had also been a second attack on Charlie Hebdo's former headquarters in Paris on September 25, and on October 2, President Emmanuel Macron had called Islam a 'religion in crisis'.[137] Following Macron's remarks, the Turkish president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan suggested he needed "mental treatment", leading France to withdraw its ambassador.[138] Saudi Arabia and Iran condemned France, while tens of thousands marched against in protest in Bangladesh.[139] The French government demanded that the representative body for the religion in the country accept a 'charter of republican values', rejecting political Islam and foreign interference, as well as establishing a system of official licenses for imams.[140] Overseas, the French military intervention in the Sahel continued fighting against the Islamic State in the Greater Sahara.[141]

The former president Nicolas Sarkozy was charged with corruption in 2020.[142] Sarkozy, was found guilty in 2021 and sentenced to three years in jail for corruption.[143][144] Two years of this sentence are suspended, and one to be served in prison.[144]

GreeceEdit

Presidential elections were held in Greece on Wednesday 22 January 2020 for the President of the Hellenic Republic. Incumbent President Prokopis Pavlopoulos, who was elected by the Hellenic Parliament on the 18 February 2015, was eligible for re-election but was not suggested by the government. Katerina Sakellaropoulou won the election with 261 votes. She was elected as the 13th and first female President of Greece.[145]

Following a surge of migrant arrivals from Turkey, Greece suspended all asylum applications in March 2020.[146] The freeze was lifted a month later.[147]

IcelandEdit

Presidential elections were held in Iceland on 27 June 2020.[148] Absentee voting opened on 25 May 2020.[149] Incumbent president Guðni Th. Jóhannesson was re-elected with 92% of the vote.

ItalyEdit

During the 2021 Italian government crisis, the Conte II Cabinet fell after Matteo Renzi, leader of Italia Viva (IV) and former Prime Minister, that he would revoke IV's support to the government of Giuseppe Conte.[150] On 18 and 19 January, Renzi's party abstained and the government won the key confidence votes in the Chamber and in the Senate, but it failed in reaching an absolute majority in the Senate.[151] On 26 January, Prime Minister Conte resigned from his office, prompting President Sergio Mattarella to start consultations for the formation of a new government. On 13 February, Mario Draghi was sworn in as Prime Minister, leading to the Draghi Cabinet.[152]

IrelandEdit

The 2020 Irish general election resulted in a historic win for the Sinn Féin, making it the second largest party of the Dáil Éireann.[153] The result was seen as a historic shift in Ireland's political landscape, effectively ending the two-party system of Fine Gael and Fianna Fáil.[154] The reason for the electoral upset for these parties was believed to be in voter dissatisfaction on issues of health, housing and homelessness.[155] Sinn Féin won 37 seats, Fianna Fáil won 38, and Fine Gael won 35.[156] Seán Ó Fearghaíl was re-elected to Ceann Comhairle at the first sitting of the 33rd Dáil on 20 February 2020.[157][158]

On 27 June 2020, Micheál Martin was elected as Taoiseach, in an historic coalition agreement that saw his party Fianna Fáil go into government with the Green Party and Fianna Fáil's historical rivals, Fine Gael. A majority of 93 members of the Dáil voted in favour of him taking the role, while 63 members voted against him.[159][160]

LithuaniaEdit

Ingrida Šimonytė became the second-ever female Prime Minister of Lithuania in 2020.

MoldovaEdit

The 2020 Moldovan presidential election was won by Maia Sandu becoming the first female president and promising reform of the country's corruption.[161] After entering office, she demanded the withdrawal of Russian troops from Transnistria.[162]

North MacedoniaEdit

Early parliamentary elections were held in North Macedonia on 15 July 2020.[163] It was originally scheduled for November 2020, but Prime Minister Zoran Zaev called early elections after the European Council failed to come to an agreement on starting talks with North Macedonia on joining the European Union in October 2019. The election date was set for 12 April, but was postponed until July due to the COVID-19 pandemic in North Macedonia.[164]

PolandEdit

The 2020 Polish presidential election was completed with a second round of voting on 12 July 2020. The first round of voting was held on 28 June 2020. The incumbent president Andrzej Duda, running with the support of Law and Justice,[165] faced off against Civic Platform vice-chairman and Mayor of Warsaw Rafał Trzaskowski after first round results showed Duda with 43.5% of the vote and Trzaskowski with 30.46%. Results from the second round of voting, announced by the National Electoral Commission (PKW) on 13 July, indicated that Andrzej Duda had won with 51.03% compared to Rafał Trzaskowski's 48.97%.[166]

On 7 August 2020, a protest against the arrest of LGBT activist Margot led to a confrontation with police in central Warsaw and resulted in the arrest of 47 others, some of whom were peacefully protesting and others who were bystanders to the event, dubbed "Polish Stonewall" in an analogy to the 1969 Stonewall riots.

The October–December 2020 Polish protests, commonly known as the Women's Strike (Polish: Strajk Kobiet)[citation needed], are the ongoing anti-government demonstrations and protests in Poland that began on 22 October 2020, in reaction to a ruling of the Constitutional Tribunal, mainly consisting of judges who were appointed by the ruling Law and Justice (Polish: Prawo i Sprawiedliwość, PiS) dominated United Right, which tightened the law on abortion in Poland. The ruling made almost all cases of abortion illegal, including those cases in which the foetus had a severe and permanent disability, or an incurable and life-threatening disease.[167][168] It was the biggest protest in the country since the end of the People's Republic during the revolutions of 1989.[169][170]

RomaniaEdit

The 2020 Romanian legislative election had a record low turnout of 31.84 percent due to the coronavirus pandemic, with the ruling centre-right coalition winning the election, and the far-right Alliance for the Union of Romanians entering the legislature for the first time boosted by vaccine skepticism.[171]

RussiaEdit

The entire Russin cabinet resigned in January 2020, with a new Prime Minister Mikhail Mishustin soon sworn-in.[172] Following this, a constitutional referendum was held in Russia in 2020.[173] The draft amendments to the Constitution were submitted to a referendum in accordance with article 2 of the Law on Amendments to the Constitution.[174] The referendum was criticized for extending the rule of Vladimir Putin, as well as for not following the normal rules for referenda in Russia (by being labelled an "all-Russian vote" instead).[175][176]

The anti-corruption activist and politician Alexei Navalny was the target of an attempted assassination by the Russian Federal Security Service, whose members involved in the attempt he exposed together with the investigative journalism outlet Bellingcat.[177] Following his return to Russia afterwards, he was arrested and immediately jailed.[178] This, and the release of his film A Palace for Putin, led to the 2021 Russian protests. Navalny was ultimately sentenced to two-and-a-half years in a penal colony.[179]

SerbiaEdit

Parliamentary elections were held in Serbia on 21 June 2020.[180] Initially organised for 26 April 2020,[181] they were postponed by a state of emergency due to the COVID-19 pandemic in the country.[182] In the period before the elections, inter-party European Parliament–mediated dialogue wаs held and certain changes in election legislation were made. Numerous parliamentary and non-parliamentary political parties boycotted the elections, including the major opposition coalition Alliance for Serbia, which said that there were no conditions for free and fair elections. This resulted in the lowest turnout since the establishment of a multi-party system in 1990.[183] The Serbian Progressive Party–led coalition won one of the largest parliamentary majorities in Europe.

On 7 July 2020, a series of protests and riots began over the government announcement of the reimplementation of the curfew and the government's allegedly poor handling of the COVID-19 situation, as well as being a partial continuation of the "One of Five Million" movement. The initial demand of the protesters had been to cancel the planned reintroduction of curfew in Serbia during July, which was successfully achieved in less than 48 hours of the protest.[184] Among other causes, the protests were driven by the crisis of democratic institutions under Aleksandar Vučić's rule and the growing concern that the President is concentrating all powers in his hands at the expense of the parliament.[185]

SlovakiaEdit

Parliamentary elections were held in Slovakia on 29 February 2020 to elect all 150 members of the National Council. The anti-corruption movement Ordinary People (OĽaNO) led by Igor Matovič emerged as the largest party, winning 53 seats. The ruling coalition comprising Direction – Social Democracy (Smer–SD), the Slovak National Party (SNS) and Most–Híd, led by Prime Minister Peter Pellegrini of Smer–SD, won only 38, with both the SNS and Most–Híd losing their parliamentary representation. It was the first time since the 2006 elections that Smer–SD did not emerge as the party with the most seats. As no party or electoral coalition won a majority of seats, a coalition government was needed.[186] On 13 March, Matovič announced he had reached an agreement for a governing coalition with We Are Family, Freedom and Solidarity and For the People, though they had not agreed upon a common governing program.

SloveniaEdit

A series of protests broke out after the formation of Janez Janša's government in early 2020, with protestors demanding Janša's resignation and early elections.[187]

Janez Janša has been accused of eroding freedom of media since assuming office. According to a report by International Press Institute Slovenia has experienced a swift downturn in media and press freedom. IPI accused Janša of creating a hostile environment for journalists by his tweets, which IPI described as "vitriolic attacks".[188][189] He has also been accused of usurping power and corruption and is often compared to Viktor Orbán. [190][191]

United KingdomEdit

Under Boris Johnson's government, the UK left the EU on 31 January 2020; trade deal negotiations continued to within days of the scheduled end of the transition period on 31 December 2020 CET. The effects of Brexit will in part be determined by the EU–UK Trade and Cooperation Agreement which was agreed on 24 December 2020 and ratified by the UK Parliament on 30 December 2020 and was "provisionally" applied by the EU from 31 December 2020.[192]

Loyalists and unionists argued that post-Brexit trading arrangements have created barriers between Northern Ireland and the rest of the United Kingdom.[193] The Loyalist Communities Council, which represents paramilitary groups including the Ulster Volunteer Force and the Ulster Defence Association withdrew their support for the Good Friday Agreement (which brought to an end The Troubles) until the sea border is removed.[194] A series of riots in loyalist areas of Northern Ireland began in Waterside, Derry (Londonderry),[a] on 30 March 2021.

Middle East and North AfricaEdit

As a result of the Arab Spring which began in 2011, which evolved into what some considered the Arab Winter, much of the region was riven by massive instability and conflict, with the Syrian, Libyan and Yemeni Civil Wars continuing into the 2020s.. The 2018–2020 Arab protests in Algeria, Sudan, Iraq, Lebanon and Egypt were seen as a continuation of the Arab Spring.[195][196]

ArmeniaEdit

Following the 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh ceasefire agreement, Armenian forces were to withdraw from Armenian-occupied territories surrounding Nagorno-Karabakh by 1st of December. An approximately 2,000-strong Russian peacekeeping force from the Russian Ground Forces was to be deployed to the region for a minimum of five years, one of its task being protection of the Lachin corridor, which links Armenia and the Nagorno-Karabakh region. Additionally, Armenia undertook to "guarantee safety" of passage between mainland Azerbaijan and its Nakhchivan exclave via a strip of land in Armenia's Syunik Province. Russian FSB′s Border Troops would exercise control over the transport communication.[197][198][199]

Shortly after the news about the signing the ceasefire agreement broke in the early hours of 10 November, violent protests erupted in Armenia against Nikol Pashinyan, claiming he was a "traitor" for having accepted the peace deal.[200] Protesters also seized the parliament building by breaking a metal door, and pulled the President of the National Assembly of Armenia Ararat Mirzoyan from a car and beat him.[201][202] Throughout November, numerous Armenian officials resigned from their posts, including the Armenian minister of foreign affairs, Zohrab Mnatsakanyan,[203] the minister of defence, David Tonoyan,[204] head of the same ministry's military control service, Movses Hakobyan,[205] and the spokesman of Armenia's Defense Ministry, Artsrun Hovhannisyan.[206]

Prime Minister Nikol Pashinyan accused Chief of the General Staff of the Armenian Armed Forces Onik Gasparyan and more than 40 other high-ranking military officers of attempting a coup after they published a statement calling for Pashinyan's resignation on 25 February 2021. Two days later Armenian President Armen Sarksyan refused the order from Prime Minister Nikol Pashinyan to dismiss Onik Gasparyan, saying parts of the decree were in violation of the constitution. Pashinyan immediately resent the motion to dismiss Gasparyan to the president.[207] On 27 February, more than 15,000 protested in the capital Yerevan calling for Pashinyan to resign.[208]

AzerbaijanEdit

Parliamentary elections were held in Azerbaijan on 9 February 2020.[209] They were originally scheduled to take place in November 2020,[210] but were brought forward after parliament was dissolved in December 2019.[209] Opposition parties accused President Ilham Aliyev of limiting their ability to campaign, and called for a boycott of the election. The ruling New Azerbaijan Party retained its majority, winning 72 of the 125 seats, although this was later reduced to 70 when results in two constituencies were annulled. The second largest party (the Civic Solidarity Party) won only three seats.

Russian and Turkish troops were deployed in parts of the country as peacekeepers following the end of the 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh war.[211]

EgyptEdit

The 2020 Egyptian protests opposed the reign of Abdel Fattah el-Sisi. The 2020 Egyptian parliamentary election was criticized as being undemocratic.[212]

IranEdit

In January 2020, the United States assassinated the commander of the Quds Force of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, general Qasem Soleimani. This led to an Iranian missile strike against bases housing US troops in Iraq five days later. As a result of expectations of a US retribution, the Iranian air defence system accidentally shot down Ukraine International Airlines Flight 752, killing all 176 people on board.[213] The International Maritime Security Construct was setup by the US to prevent Iran from disrupting international shipping in the Strait of Hormuz.[214]

Israel was suspected of being behind at least five explosions and fires at Iranian nuclear sites in the summer of 2020.[215] The leading nuclear scientist of the country, Mohsen Fakhrizadeh, was assassinated on 27 November 2020, with Iran blaming Israel for the attack.[216]

IraqEdit

In 2020-21, demonstrations took place in Baghdad and other parts of Iraq, over popular discontent with government corruption, unemployment, poor government services, and foreign interference within Iraq. Reports said that 450 protesters had been fatally shot by security forces.[217] Major protests were based in Nasiriyah in Dhi Qar province, with hundreds of protesters arriving there from other cities.[218] New clashes erupted in Baghdad between protesters and security forces, with security forces using gunfire against protesters.[219][220][221] One march included more than 1,000 students.[222]

In March 2020, Mohammed Allawi sent a letter to the President of Iraq, stating that he had to decline to take office as Prime Minister since the Iraqi Parliament had declined to approve his cabinet.[223][224][225] Reports indicated that the crowds of protesters in Baghdad had expressed widespread opposition to Allawi.[217][226]

Mustafa Al-Kadhimi was named by President Barham Salih as prime minister-designate, the third person tapped to lead the country in just 10 weeks as it struggled to replace a government that fell last year after months of protests.[227] Kadhimi was nominated by President Barham Salih, state television reported, shortly after the previous designated prime minister, Adnan al-Zurfi, announced he was withdrawing having failed to secure enough support to pass a government.[228] After nearly six months of political negotiations, Iraq's parliament confirmed al-Kadhimi as Prime Minister of Iraq on 6 May 2020.[229] Before entering office, al-Kadhimi said his government would be a government that finds solutions to Iraq's many problems and not a crisis ridden government. He promised early elections and vowed Iraq would not be used as a battleground by other countries.[citation needed] He assumed office on the heels of major upheavals in Iraq - protests, falling oil prices, and the COVID-19 pandemic.[230]

IsraelEdit

The 2019–2021 Israeli political crisis continued, with the fourth election within two years held in 2021.[231] The rotation government established after the third elections between the competing factions of Likud and Blue and White collapsed. In foreign relations, the country signed the Abraham Accords (also in 2020), leading to the Bahrain–Israel and Israel–United Arab Emirates normalization agreements. Sudan also announced that it would be normalizing relations with the country as did Morocco.[232] The Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu also met with Saudi Arabia's crown prince Mohammed bin Salman soon after.[233]

JordanEdit

The 2021 Jordanian coup d'état attempt was a failed military coup attempt against King Abdullah II of Jordan. The former Crown Prince Prince Hamzah bin Hussein was placed under house arrest.

LebanonEdit

The 2019–20 Lebanese protests continued, leading to the resignation of Prime Minister Saad Hariri, and then his successor Hassan Diab following the 2020 Beirut explosion. These events have also happened against the ongoing Lebanese liquidity crisis.

LibyaEdit

In February 2020, the political track of the Libyan peace process started in Geneva among 20 Libyans, from both the Tobruk-based and Tripoli-based parts of the Libyan House of Representatives, and from the independent persons' group selected by UN Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL), including Interior Minister Fathi Bashagha, former Education Minister Othman Abdul Jalil and former head of the HCS Abdulrahman Sewehli.[234] The aimed composition was 13 HoR representatives from both the Tobruk and Tripoli branches, 13 HCS representatives and 14 UNSMIL-selected independent Libyans, for a total of 40.[235]

MoroccoEdit

In November 2020, the Polisario Front declared it had broken a 30-year truce and attacked Moroccan forces in Western Sahara as part of the Western Sahara conflict.[236]

SyriaEdit

In early 2020, there was some evidence of new positive ties between the Syrian government and the Kurdish leaders in the autonomous region of Rojava, as the Kurds asked the Syrian government for help and protection against Turkish forces who invaded that region of Syria.[237]

In June 2020, the Syrian pound underwent a dramatic collapse. The US Government stated via US Envoy James Jeffrey that the collapse would be exacerbated due to sanctions, and offered to help Assad if he agreed to meet certain conditions for political reform.[238] On 10 June, hundreds of protesters returned to the streets of Sweida for the fourth consecutive day, rallying against the collapse of the country's economy, as the Syrian pound plummeted to 3,000 to the dollar within the past week.[239] On 11 June, Prime Minister Imad Khamis was dismissed by President Bashar al-Assad, amid anti-government protests over deteriorating economic conditions.[240] The new lows for the Syrian currency, and the dramatic increase in sanctions, began to appear to raise new threats to the survival of the Assad government.[241][242][243] Analysts noted that a resolution to the current banking crisis in Lebanon might be crucial to restoring stability in Syria.[244]

TurkeyEdit

In January 2020, Turkey announced it had sent troops to Libya in order to support the National Transitional Council in the Libyan Civil War, but that they would be in non-combat duties.[245] In March 2020, Turkey started a military offensive against the Syrian Armed Forces as part of its intervention in the Syrian Civil War.[246] That same month Turkey also declared that it would no longer stop migrants from entering the European Union.[247] Turkey also supported the Azerbaijani side in the 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh war by supplying it with Syrian mercenaries and drones.[248]

YemenEdit

The Yemeni Civil War is an ongoing conflict that began in 2015 between two factions: the Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi led Yemeni government and the Houthi armed movement, along with their supporters and allies. Both claim to constitute the official government of Yemen.[249]

Sub-Saharan AfricaEdit

As the 2020s begin, there is the possibility of unprecedented economic growth throughout Africa, based on probable increases in trade when the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCTA) goes fully into effect on July 1, 2020, abolishing 90% of tariffs between member states and bringing a 50% increase in trade in the next few years.[58][250] This economic growth could lead directly to increases in life expectancy, literacy, and per capita income. The CFA franc, which has been criticized as neocolonialist, will be replaced in by the ECO, which will be less controlled by France.[251]

Nigeria and South Africa account for the largest shares of Africa's GDP at 29.3% and 19.1%, respectively.[252] Civil strife and terrorism continue to plague the continent, particularly in the Sahel and the Horn of Africa.[253] Finally, Africa is more vulnerable than any other region to the world's changing weather patterns.[254]

Burkina Faso, Mali, and Nigeria face serious challenges related to security and terrorism such as the January 2020 2020 Gamboru bombing.[255][256] In January 2020 the United States called for a reduction of the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA) with a new focus on protecting civilians. France and Russia opposed reductions.[257]

Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a continuing issue in Guinea, the Gambia, Burkina Faso, Mali, and Sierra Leone.[258]

Human rights concerns and freedom of the press are highlighted in South Sudan,[259] Comoros,[260] and Tanzania as 2020 begins.[261]

Burkina FasoEdit

General elections were held in Burkina Faso on 22 November 2020 to elect the President and National Assembly.[262] In the presidential elections, incumbent president Roch Marc Christian Kaboré of the People's Movement for Progress was re-elected in the first round with 57.9% of the vote, avoiding the need for second round. The main campaign focus of the major presidential candidates was the growing insecurity in the country with the rise in terrorism and ethnic violence.[263]

In 2021, a military court indicted (in absentia) ex-President Blaise Compaoré with the 1987 murder of his immediate predecessor Thomas Sankara. Compaoré ruled the nation for 27 years following Sankara's assassination before resigning in the face of protests in 2014 and fleeing into exile in Ivory Coast. The court also indicted thirteen other Burkinabé ex-officials accused of various crimes including murder.[264]

BurundiEdit

General elections were held in Burundi on 20 May 2020 to elect both the president and the National Assembly.[265] Évariste Ndayishimiye of the ruling CNDD–FDD was elected president with 71% of the vote. In the National Assembly elections, the CNDD–FDD won 72 of the 100 elected seats. The Conference of Bishops of Burundi issued a statement criticizing the transparency and freedom of the election process. The church deployed around 2,716 observers across Burundi's 119 municipalities. The conference's observers witnessed intimidation and expulsion of opposition observers from the polling and vote counting stations. The church condemned the ruling party for engaging in national election fraud.[266][267] The East African Community issued a statement saying that "The 2020 Burundi elections hold an iconic place in the history of the nation, marking this the first peaceful and democratic transfer of power. More significantly, the process was domestically driven through own funding. The peaceful conclusion of the electoral process will not only be a big win for the people of Burundi, but for the East African Community as a region."[268]

CameroonEdit

Parliamentary elections were held in Cameroon on 9 February 2020.[269] The Cameroon People's Democratic Movement retained its majority in parliament, winning 139 of the 167 seats decided on election day. The ongoing Anglophone Crisis dominated the process, with supporters of Ambazonia calling for a boycott of the election. Ensuing violence resulted in a low turnout in the Northwest Region and Southwest Region, with separatists claiming that 98 percent of eligible voters had boycotted the election.[270]

ComorosEdit

Legislative elections were held in the Comoros on 19 January 2020; in constituencies where no candidate received a majority, a second round was held alongside local elections on 23 February. The elections were boycotted by the main opposition parties, including the two largest parties in the outgoing parliament, the Union for the Development of the Comoros and Juwa Party, in protest at constitutional reform and political repression,[271][272][273] The result was a landslide victory for President Azali Assoumani's Convention for the Renewal of the Comoros, which won 20 of the 24 elected seats.

Cote d’IvoireEdit

Presidential elections were held in Ivory Coast on 31 October 2020. The election, boycotted by the opposition, saw the reelection of incumbent Alassane Ouattara. Election monitors from ECOWAS had to travel by helicopter to reach Abidjan due to difficulties entering the city. Opposition supporters attacked several motorcades of pro-government figures, in some cases shooting at them, or setting vehicles on fire. Several people were also killed in clashes in Toumodi,[274] as well as Tiébissou.[275]

EswatiniEdit

The Prime Minister Ambrose Mandvulo Dlamini died of COVID-19 in 2020.[276]

EthiopiaEdit

Tensions began to rise again between Ethiopia and Eritrea, after several years of efforts to negotiate peace, due to possible border disputes.[277][278][279]

After having won the Nobel Peace Prize in 2019, Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed's government adopted some policies which raised some concerns about political developments in Ethiopia. Abiy dissolved the governing coalition and formed a new party, the Prosperity Party; some said the imposition of a brand-new political party was detrimental to political stability. Also, the government enacted some restrictions on some forms of expression which raised concern about standards of free speech.[280][281] Abiy's response to rebel groups has raised some concerns about undue harshness, although some others allege that he was originally too lenient.[282][283] Amnesty International raised concerns about the status of one opposition leader.[284][285] Abiy encouraged Ethiopian refugees to return home, due to improving conditions.[286]

On November 4, 2020, the Ethiopian National Defense Force launched a military intervention against the Tigray People's Liberation Front (TPLF) in the Tigray Region, which it claimed was in response to an attack on its troops.[287] This followed month of feuding between the central and regional governments over elections and funding.[287] The Tigray forces launched rockets at the airport of Asmara, capital of neighbouring Eritrea, claiming that forces from there had taken part in the offensive.[288] Amnesty International reported that a massacre had taken place in Tigray, with TPLF-affiliated forces claimed to be responsible.[289]

There is also another conflict going on in the Oromia Region.[287]

GhanaEdit

General elections were held in Ghana on 7 December 2020. Incumbent President Nana Akufo-Addo of the New Patriotic Party (NPP) was re-elected in the first round after securing a majority of the votes.[290] Former President John Dramani Mahama said he would contest the results.[291]

GuineaEdit

Parliamentary elections were held in Guinea on 22 March 2020 alongside a constitutional referendum,[292][293][294] after being postponed four times from the original date of January 2019.[295][296][297][298][299][300] The 2020 Guinean presidential election resulted in a third term for President Alpha Condé, with protests against him resulting in at least 30 deaths according to the opposition.[301]

KenyaEdit

The Camp Simba attack by Al-Shabaab in January 2020 killed three Americans.[302]

LiberiaEdit

A constitutional referendum was held in Liberia on 8 December 2020 alongside Senate elections and two by-elections to the House of Representatives. It had been planned for 13 October, but was postponed due to the COVID-19 pandemic.[303] Voters were asked whether they approved of eight amendments to the constitution, voting separately on each one. The government had planned to bundle the eight amendments into three questions, with one question on amending article 28 (citizenship), one on amending articles 45, 47, 48, 49 and 50 on the terms of office of the President, Senate and House of Representatives, and one on amending article 83 to change the date of general elections and decrease the time the Elections Commission has to investigate complaints.[304] However, this was ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court, as article 92 requires amendments to be voted on separately.[304]

MalawiEdit

The Constitutional Court ordered a re-run of the 2019 Malawian general election following “widespread, systematic and grave” problems with the process, leading to the 2020 Malawian presidential election.[305]

MaliEdit

Parliamentary elections were held in Mali on 29 March 2020, with a second round on 19 April.[306] They were initially scheduled to be held on 25 November and 16 December 2018,[307] but were moved to April 2019 and then to June 2019,[308][309] before being postponed until 2020 by the Council of Ministers.[310] The elections were marred by violence in the north and center of the country.[311]

Incidents on April 19 prevented some people from casting votes, and on 30 April the Constitutional Court overturned the results in 31 districts, giving Rally for Mali, which is led by President Ibrahim Boubacar Keïta, ten more seats than originally expected.[312] Oppostion parties led by Iman Mahmoud Dicko established the Mouvement du 5 juin - Rassemblement des forces patriotiques (in French) (June 5 Movement - Rally of Patriotic Forces) on 30 May, and thousands took to the streets in protest on 5 June.[312]

Boubou Cisse was reappointed Prime Minister on 11 June, when he was instructed to form a new government.[312] Tens of thousands of Malians protested again on 19 June, demanding the resignation of President Keïta.[313] On June 20, the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) called for new elections to be held.[313]

President Ibrahim Boubacar Keïta and Imam Mahmoud Dicko met on 5 July,[314] but the opposition continued to call for civil disobedience to force Keïta's resignation and the dissolution of Parliament.[312] Protests turned violent on 10 July.[312] For the next three days, protesters in Bamako clashed with security forces,[315] and security forces reportedly fired live rounds at the protesters, killing at least 11 and injuring 124.[316]

On 18 August 2020, elements of the Malian Armed Forces began a coup.[317][318] Soldiers on pick-up trucks stormed the Soundiata military base in the town of Kati, where gunfire was exchanged before weapons were distributed from the armory and senior officers arrested.[319][320] Tanks and armoured vehicles were seen on the town's streets,[321] as well as military trucks heading for the capital, Bamako.[322] The soldiers detained several government officials including the President Ibrahim Boubacar Keïta who resigned and dissolved the government.[323]

MozambiqueEdit

The insurgency in Cabo Delgado intensified with events such as the 2020 Mozambique attacks, the Mocímboa da Praia offensive in 2020 and the Battle of Palma in 2021.

NigerEdit

The 2021 Nigerien coup attempt occurred on 31 March 2021 at around 3:00 am WAT (2:00 am UTC) after gunfire erupted in the streets of Niamey, the capital of Niger, two days before the inauguration of president-elect Mohamed Bazoum. The coup was staged by elements within the military. After it was foiled, the perpetrators were arrested.[324]

NigeriaEdit

The End SARS movement protested the abuses committed by the Special Anti-Robbery Squad, but were met with violence which killed at least 12 people.[325]

SeychellesEdit

General elections were held in Seychelles on 22–24 October 2020 to elect the President and members of the National Assembly.[326] The National Assembly elections had been due in 2021,[327] but in July 2020 were brought forward by President Danny Faure in order to hold them together with the presidential elections, a proposal supported by opposition parties.[328][329]

The presidential elections were won by Wavel Ramkalawan of the Linyon Demokratik Seselwa (LDS), with the LDS also increasing its majority in the National Assembly, winning 25 of the 35 seats.

SudanEdit

In January 2020, progress was made in peace negotiations, in the areas of land, transitional justice and system of government issues via the Darfur track of negotiations. SRF and Sovereignty Council representatives agreed on the creation of a Special Court for Darfur to conduct investigations and trials for war crimes and crimes against humanity carried out during the War in Darfur by the al-Bashir presidency and by warlords. Two Areas negotiations with SPLM-N (al-Hilu) had progressed on six framework agreement points, after a two-week pause, but disagreement remained on SPLM-N (al-Hilu)'s requirement of a secular state in South Kordofan and Nuba Mountains and Blue Nile self-determination. On 24 January on the Two Areas track, political and security agreements, constituting a framework agreement, were signed by Hemetti on behalf of the Sovereignty Council and Ahmed El Omda Badi on behalf of SPLM-N (Agar). The agreements give legislative autonomy to South Kordofan and Blue Nile; propose solutions for the sharing of land and other resources, and aim to unify all militias and government soldiers into a single unified Sudanese military body.

On 26 January, a "final" peace agreement for the northern track, including issues of studies for new dams, compensation for people displaced by existing dams, road construction and burial of electronic and nuclear waste, was signed by Shamseldin Kabashi of the Sovereignty Council and Dahab Ibrahim of the Kush Movement.[330][331][332]

In February 2020, a new unity government was announced, to govern the entire country, with the support of all sides of the conflict.[333][334] As one part of the agreement, the current cabinet was disbanded, in order to enable more opposition members to be appointed to cabinet roles.[335][336][337][338] In March 2020, negotiators and officials on both sides of the conflict attempted to work out arrangements to facilitate the appointment of civilian governors for various regions, in concert with ongoing peace efforts.[339] The EU announced its support for the peace efforts and pledged to provide financial support of 100 million Euros.[340]

South AfricaEdit

A criminal investigation was launched against the former president Jacob Zuma after he refused co-operate with a corruption inquiry.[341]

South SudanEdit

The South Sudanese Civil War ended with a negotiated peace treaty. In January 2020, the Community of Sant'Egidio mediated a Rome Peace Declaration between the SSOMA and the South Sudanese government.[342] The most contentious issue delaying the formation of the unity government was whether South Sudan should keep 32 or return to 10 states. On 14 February 2020, Kiir announced South Sudan would return to 10 states in addition to three administrative areas of Abyei, Pibor, and Ruweng,[343][344] and on 22 February Riek Machar was sworn in as first vice president for the creation of the unity government, ending the civil war.[345] Disarmament campaigns led by the government has led to resistance, with clashes killing more than 100 people in two days in north-central Tonj in August 2020.[346]

TanzaniaEdit

General elections were held in Tanzania on 28 October 2020 to elect the President and National Assembly.[347] The presidential election was won by incumbent John Magufuli of the Chama Cha Mapinduzi party.[348] On 24 October 2020 the opposition claimed that the government was interfering in the election by making it more difficult to accredit thousands of opposition electoral observers, whose job is to ensure that the election is fair.[349] The opposition has also claimed that the National Electoral Commission, whose members are appointed by the president, have barred the challenger Lissu from campaigning while letting the incumbent Magufuli campaign.[350] From 27 October, the Tanzania Communication Regulatory Authority (TCRA) blocked several popular social media websites to restrict communication amid violence in the islands of Zanzibar, where dozens have been shot dead and tens have been injured by the police and other security forces.[349] Tanzania electoral watch panel,[351] USA State Department,[352] Commonwealth,[353] and European Union[354] were very critical about the elections.

TogoEdit

Presidential elections were held in Togo on 22 February 2020.[355] Incumbent president Faure Gnassingbé of the Union for the Republic (UPR) was re-elected for his fourth term with 71% of the vote in the first round.[356] His closest challenger was Agbéyomé Kodjo, a former prime minister and leader of the newly established Patriotic Movement for Democracy and Development, who received 19% of the vote.

After observing the elections, ECOWAS determined that they were free and transparent, commending the population for its peaceful participation as an improvement from protests years prior against the long reign of the Gnassingbe family.[357] However, sporadic internet shutdowns were recorded across the capital and other major cities, prompting both international watchdogs and opposition parties to question the results.[358]

On 25 February Kodjo filed a petition at the Constitutional Court asking it to overturn the results.[359] Three days later, he and Kpodzro called for public protests, resulting in the military surrounding their homes and the Ministry of Territorial Administration stating that protests would be illegal.[359] Members of the National Assembly responded by accusing Kodjo of planning a coup.[360]

UgandaEdit

Unrest killed at least 45 people after the arrest of opposition leader Bobi Wine in the runup to the 2021 Ugandan general election.[361]

ZambiaEdit

Zambia faces sovereign default as the first sub-Saharan African country since 2005 due to economic mismanagement by the government of Edgar Lungu, who has grown public debt from 32% to 120% and has scared off investment by seizing mines.[362] Debt servicing takes up four times more money from the budget than healthcare.[363] Much of the money is believed to have been lost to corruption.[363] The main opposition leader Hakainde Hichilema has been arrested.[362] The electoral roll has been nulled and only 30 days have been given for re-registration.[363] Comparisons have been drawn to neighbouring Zimbabwe.[363]

AmericasEdit

ArgentinaEdit

Argentina's economy faces major problems of debt, inflation, and growing poverty. Vice President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner is on trial for corruption.[364]

BoliviaEdit

The 2020 Bolivian general election was won by the Movement for Socialism, which had been deposed from power during the 2019 Bolivian political crisis.[365]

BrazilEdit

On March 30, 2021, the commanders of all three branches of the Brazilian Armed Forces – General Edson Leal Pujol (Army), Admiral Ilques Barbosa Junior (Navy), and Brigadier Antonio Carlos Moretti Bermudez (Air Force) – announced their intention to resign from their posts. The collective resignation announcement came less than a day after the dismissal of former Defence Minister Fernando Azevedo e Silva and was allegedly a move to signal the Armed Forces' opposition to any military interference in politics.

ChileEdit

The 2019–20 Chilean protests demanded a new constitution, which the 2020 Chilean national plebiscite approved would be written by a constitutional convention.[366]

ColombiaEdit

The 2019–20 Colombian protests are a collection of ongoing protests that began on 21 November 2019. Hundreds of thousands of Colombians demonstrated for various reasons. Some protested against various proposed economic and political reforms proposed by the government of Iván Duque Márquez, others against the few violent protestors and in favor of the Colombian peace process, etc.[85]

While mostly peaceful in nature, a few violent incidents took place throughout the protests, leading to overnight curfews in Cali and Bogotá. It is "one of the largest mass demonstrations Colombia has witnessed in recent years".[367]

CubaEdit

At the 8th Congress of the Communist Party, Raúl Castro officially resigned as the First Secretary, the most powerful position in Cuba.[368]

Dominican RepublicEdit

In March 2020, massive protests occurred in the Dominican Republic, due to announced postponement of national elections.[369]

EcuadorEdit

On 7 April 2020, The Criminal Court of the National Court of Justice found the former president Rafael Correa guilty of aggravated passive bribery in 2012–2016. He was sentenced to 8 years in prison in absentia for leading the corruption network that between 2012 and 2016 received "undue contributions" at to finance his political movement in exchange for awarding state contracts to businessmen along with Alexis Mera, former Judiciary Secretary of the Presidency, former Ministry of Housing and Urban Development, María de los Angeles Duarte, former congresswoman Viviana Bonilla and former Constitutional Judge and his secretary Pamela Martínez.[370][371][372][373][374][375]

General elections were held in Ecuador on 7 February 2021. Incumbent president Lenín Moreno did not seek reelection. In first round results, Andrés Arauz had a significant lead, but one not large enough to avoid a runoff with Lasso, who had narrowly beaten third-place finisher Yaku Pérez. On 11 April, Lasso defeated Arauz,[376][377][378] which some news outlets called an upset victory.[379][380]

El SalvadorEdit

in the 2020 Salvadoran political crisis on 9 February 2020, the Salvadoran President Nayib Bukele ordered 1,400 Salvadoran soldiers from the Salvadoran Army to enter the Legislative Assembly of El Salvador to coerce the approval of a loan request of 109 million dollars from the United States for Bukele's security plan for El Salvador.[381]

GuatemalaEdit

Alejandro Giammattei became the new president in 2020. Later in the year, the 2020 Guatemalan protests breakout in response to COVID-19 pandemic and Hurricanes Eta and Iota.

MexicoEdit

As the Fourth Transformation enters its second year, President Andrés Manuel López Obrador (AMLO) faces challenges involving social violence (particularly drug-related and other killings),[382] corruption, major infrastructure development, universal health care,[383] and decentralization of the government.[384][385] At a news conference on January 15, 2020, journalist Jorge Ramos pointed that during AMLO's first year as president, there were more homicides than under his predecessors; Ramos asked if a change in strategy and/or personal were required. The president assured him that we would see results by December.[386]

Following several notorious cases of femicide, violence against women emerges as a priority concern. Hundreds of thousands march on March 8[387] and millions of women strike on March 9, 2020.[388]

United StatesEdit

The impeachment trial of Donald Trump found him not guilty in February 2020. The 2020 Democratic Party presidential primaries ended up supporting moderate Joe Biden (former Vice President to Barack Obama) as the party's nominee, over more radical choices such as Bernie Sanders or Elizabeth Warren. The presidential campaign was dominated by the issues of the COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting economic fallout. A month before the election, Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg died unexpectedly, leading to the nomination and confirmation of Amy Coney Barrett as her replacement by the sitting President Trump and the Republican-held Senate. The election ended with Biden winning.

George Floyd protestsEdit

The George Floyd protests are an ongoing series of peaceful protests, lootings, riots, and demonstrations against police brutality and racism in policing. The protests began in the United States in Minneapolis on May 26, 2020,[389] following the killing of George Floyd, a 46-year-old black man, after Derek Chauvin, a white police officer, knelt on Floyd's neck for almost nine minutes during an arrest the previous day.[390]

The unrest began as local protests in the Minneapolis–Saint Paul metropolitan area of Minnesota before quickly spreading across the entire nation as well as George Floyd protests outside the United States in support of Black Lives Matter. While the majority of protests have been peaceful,[391] demonstrations in some cities descended into riots and widespread looting,[392][393] with some being marked by street skirmishes and strong police reaction, notably against some peaceful protesters and members of the media.[394] At least 200 cities imposed curfews by 3 June, while at least 27 states and Washington, D.C, activated over 74,000 National Guard personnel due to the mass unrest.[395][396][397] From the beginning of the protests to June 3, at least 11,000 people had been arrested,[398] including all four police officers involved in the arrest which led to Floyd's death.[399]

PeruEdit

The fallout from the Odebrecht scandal and corruption investigations into opposition leader Keiko Fujimori and past presidents Pedro Pablo Kuczynski (2016–18), Ollanta Humala (2011–16), Alejandro Toledo (2001–06), and the late Alan Garcia (1985–90 and 2006–11) continue.[364]

Early parliamentary elections were held in Peru on 26 January 2020.[400] The elections were called after President Martín Vizcarra dissolved the Congress of the Republic on 30 September 2019.[400]

All 130 congressmen corresponding to the 26 electoral districts will be elected to office for the remainder of the 2016–2021 congressional period. It was the seventh parliamentary election under the 1993 Constitution, which created the current Congress of the Republic of Peru.

During the COVID-19 pandemic in Peru, Vizcarra instituted stay-at-home orders and issued relief funds, but existing inequality, overcrowding and a largely informal economy saw Peru being heavily affected by the pandemic. As a result, Peru's gross domestic product declined thirty percent, increasing political pressure on Vizcarra's government. In September 2020, Congress opened impeachment proceedings against Vizcarra on grounds of "moral incapacity", accusing him of influence peddling after audio recordings were released by an opposition legislator, but the process did not receive enough votes to remove him from office.

On 9 November 2020, the Peruvian Congress impeached Vizcarra a second time, after declaring him "morally incompetent"; he was removed from office.[401] The President of Congress, Manuel Merino, succeeded him as President of Peru the following day.[402] Vizcarra's removal from office was seen as a coup by many Peruvians,[403] political analysts[404] and media outlets in the country,[405][406][407][408][409] resulting in the beginning of the 2020 Peruvian protests. Following the deaths of protesters, Merino resigned after only five days.[410] The new president chosen by the legislature was Francisco Sagasti, a former World Bank official characterised as a "centrist technocrat".[411]

VenezuelaEdit

The Crisis in Venezuela and its presidential crisis continued in 2020.

On 5 January, the 2020 Venezuelan National Assembly Delegated Committee election was disputed between Luis Parra and opposition leader Juan Guaidó.[412] On 19 January, Guaidó left Venezuela and arrived in Colombia, planning to meet with Mike Pompeo, as well as traveling to Europe and the United States later.[413]

On 26 March, the Department of State declared a $15 million bounty on Nicolás Maduro, as well as $10 million each on Diosdado Cabello, Hugo Carvajal, Clíver Alcalá Cordones and Tareck El Aissami, for charges of drug trafficking and narco-terrorism.[414] Following this, Clíver Alcalá, a former general residing in Colombia, published a video claiming responsibility for a stockpile of weapons and military equipment seized in Colombia.[415] According to Alcalá, he had made a contract with Guaidó and "American advisers" in order to buy weapons to remove Maduro.[415] Alcalá did not present any evidence[415] and Guaidó rejected the allegations.[416] After wishing farewell to his family, Alcalá surrendered to US authorities on 27 March.[417]

On 3 May, eight former Venezuelan soldiers were killed and seventeen rebels were captured on 3 May, including two American security contractors, after approximately 60 men landed in Macuto and tried to invade Venezuela. The members of the naval attack force were employed as private military contractors by Silvercorp USA and the operation aimed to depose Maduro from power.[418]

OceaniaEdit

AustraliaEdit

The Morrison Government announced an economic stimulus package to combat the effects of coronavirus on the economy.[419]

New ZealandEdit

The 2020 New Zealand general election was held on Saturday 17 October 2020 to determine the composition of the 53rd parliament.[420][421] Voters elected 120 members to the House of Representatives, 72 from single-member electorates and 48 from closed party lists. Two referendums, one on the personal use of cannabis and one on euthanasia, were also held.[422][423] The initial results for the general election have been released, with preliminary referendum results being released on 30 October. The final official results of the election and the referendum will be released on 6 November.[424]

The governing Labour Party, led by incumbent Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern won the election in a landslide victory against the National Party, led by Judith Collins.[425] It was the first time a New Zealand political party has secured a majority government under the mixed-member proportional representation (MMP) system introduced in 1996.[426] Labour also achieved the highest percentage of the popular vote (49.1%) for any political party since the 1951 general election[427][circular reference] (where the then-National Party won 54.0% of the popular vote). Labour also achieved its third-highest ever percentage of the popular vote (49.1%) in its political history, surpassed only by its previous general election victories of 1938 (55.8%) and 1946 (51.3%).[427] Conversely in this election, the National Party obtained the second-lowest ever percentage of the popular vote (26.79%) in its history, second only to the lowest percentage obtained in 2002 (20.93%).[427]

See alsoEdit

See also

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d "COVID-19 Dashboard by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) at Johns Hopkins University (JHU)". ArcGIS. Johns Hopkins University. Retrieved 19 April 2021.
  2. ^ "Coronavirus Update (Live): 76,583,060 Cases and 1,691,014 Deaths from COVID-19 Virus Pandemic - Worldometer". worldometers.info. Worldmeters. Retrieved December 19, 2020.
  3. ^ "The Great Lockdown: Worst Economic Downturn Since the Great Depression". IMF Blog. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  4. ^ Lee J, Yadav M. "The Rise of Anti-Asian Hate in the Wake of Covid-19". Social Science Research Council. Social Science Research Council. Retrieved 3 July 2020.
  5. ^ Ang, Yuen Yuen (2020). "When COVID-19 meets centralized, personalized power". Nature Human Behavior. 4 (5): 445–447. doi:10.1038/s41562-020-0872-3. PMID 32273583. S2CID 215532797.
  6. ^ Stasavage, David (2020). "Democracy, Autocracy, and Emergency Threats: Lessons for COVID-19 From the Last Thousand Years". International Organization. 74: E1–E17. doi:10.1017/S0020818320000338.
  7. ^ Lipscy, Phillip (2020). "COVID-19 and the Politics of Crisis". International Organization. 74: E98–E127. doi:10.1017/S0020818320000375. S2CID 225135699.
  8. ^ Druckman, James; Klar, Samara (2020). "How Affective Polarization Shapes Americans' Political Beliefs: A Study of Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic". Journal of Experimental Political Science: 1–12. doi:10.1017/XPS.2020.28. S2CID 222312130.
  9. ^ Fazal, Tanisha (2020). "Health Diplomacy in Pandemical Times". International Organization. 74: E78–E97. doi:10.1017/S0020818320000326. S2CID 229265358.
  10. ^ "First-ever treaty to ban nuclear weapons enters into force". news.yahoo.com. AP. January 22, 2021. Retrieved January 22, 2021.
  11. ^ Qazi, Shereena (29 February 2020). "Afghanistan's Taliban, US sign agreement aimed at ending war". Al-Jazeera. Retrieved 6 March 2020.
  12. ^ "US and Taliban sign deal to end 18-year Afghan war". BBC News. 29 February 2020. Retrieved 6 March 2020.
  13. ^ Rai, Manish. "U.S.-Taliban Deal: India should Chalk-out a New Strategy". OpedColumn.News.Blog.
  14. ^ Graham-Harrison, Emma; Sabbagh, Dan; Makoii, Akhtar Mohammad; Borger, Julian (29 February 2020). "US and Taliban sign deal to withdraw American troops from Afghanistan". The Guardian. ISSN 0029-7712. Retrieved 6 March 2020.
  15. ^ Seligman, Lara. "All U.S. troops to withdraw from Afghanistan under peace deal". POLITICO. Retrieved February 29, 2020.
  16. ^ Basu, Nayanima (12 September 2020). "India asserts Afghanistan's 'national sovereignty' as peace talks with Taliban start in Qatar". ThePrint.
  17. ^ "Qatar to host long-awaited intra-Afghan talks from Saturday". Al Jazeera. September 10, 2020.
  18. ^ "UN calls on humanity to end 'war on nature,' go carbon-free". AP NEWS. 2020-12-02. Retrieved 2020-12-06.
  19. ^ Climate Change United Nations, retrieved 14 Jan 2020
  20. ^ Climate change World Health Organization, 14 Jan 2020
  21. ^ "Facts and figures: Leadership and political participation". UN Women. Archived from the original on 29 March 2020. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  22. ^ "Katerina Sakellaropoulou becomes Greece's first woman president". Archived from the original on 18 February 2020. Retrieved 18 February 2020.
  23. ^ Welle, Deutsche. "Austria swears in first female-majority Cabinet | DW | 07.01.2020". DW.COM. Retrieved 2020-12-14.
  24. ^ Angela Merkel: Europe should make its own chips and electric car batteries By Charles Riley, CNN Business, 16 Jan 2020
  25. ^ Swiss Crypto AG spying scandal shakes reputation for neutrality BBC World, 16 Feb 2020
  26. ^ Zumbrun, Josh (2020-05-10). "Coronavirus Slump Is Worst Since Great Depression. Will It Be as Painful?". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2021-01-20.
  27. ^ Islam, Faisal (20 March 2020). "Coronavirus recession not yet a depression". BBC News. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
  28. ^ Hawkins, John. "How will the coronavirus recession compare with the worst in Australia's history?". The Conversation. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
  29. ^ Stewart, Emily (21 March 2020). "The coronavirus recession is already here". Vox. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
  30. ^ "World Economic Outlook Update, June 2020: A Crisis Like No Other, An Uncertain Recovery". IMF. Retrieved 2020-09-11.
  31. ^ "The Great Lockdown: Worst Economic Downturn Since the Great Depression". IMF Blog. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
  32. ^ "COVID-19 to Plunge Global Economy into Worst Recession since World War II". World Bank. Retrieved 2020-09-11.
  33. ^ "The Great Recession Was Bad. The 'Great Lockdown' Is Worse". BloombergQuint. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  34. ^ "IMF Says 'Great Lockdown' Worst Recession Since Depression, Far Worse Than Last Crisis". nysscpa.org. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  35. ^ Winck, Ben (14 April 2020). "IMF economic outlook: 'Great Lockdown' will be worst recession in century". Business Insider. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  36. ^ Larry Elliott Economics editor. "'Great Lockdown' to rival Great Depression with 3% hit to global economy, says IMF | Business". The Guardian. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  37. ^ McFall-Johnsen, Juliana Kaplan, Lauren Frias, Morgan (14 March 2020). "A third of the global population is on coronavirus lockdown – here's our constantly updated list of countries and restrictions". Business Insider Australia. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  38. ^ "World Economic Outlook, April 2020 : The Great Lockdown". IMF. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  39. ^ Elliott, Larry (8 October 2019). "Nations must unite to halt global economic slowdown, says new IMF head". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  40. ^ Cox, Jeff (21 November 2019). "The worst of the global economic slowdown may be in the past, Goldman says". CNBC. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  41. ^ Aratani, Lauren (15 April 2020). "'Designed for us to fail': Floridians upset as unemployment system melts down". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  42. ^ "The coronavirus has destroyed the job market. See which states have been hit the hardest". NBC News. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  43. ^ "Unemployment cases jump in the United States".
  44. ^ "ILO: COVID-19 causes devastating losses in working hours and employment". 7 April 2020. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
  45. ^ Partington, Richard (14 April 2020). "UK economy could shrink by 35% with 2m job losses, warns OBR". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  46. ^ Sullivan, Kath (13 April 2020). "Unemployment forecast to soar to highest rate in almost 30 years". ABC News. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  47. ^ Amaro, Silvia (15 April 2020). "Spain's jobless rate is set to surge much more than in countries like Italy". CNBC. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  48. ^ "Covid stops many migrants sending money home". The Economist. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  49. ^ Picheta, Rob. "Coronavirus pandemic will cause global famines of 'biblical proportions,' UN warns". CNN. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
  50. ^ Yergin, Daniel (7 April 2020). "The Oil Collapse". Foreign Affairs : An American Quarterly Review. ISSN 0015-7120. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  51. ^ Dan, Avi. "Consumer Attitudes And Behavior Will Change in the Recession, And Persist When It Ends". Forbes. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  52. ^ "The $1.5 Trillion Global Tourism Industry Faces $450 Billion Collapse in Revenues, Based on Optimistic Assumptions". Wolf Street. 30 March 2020. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  53. ^ Williams, Sean (10 March 2020). "Stock Market Crash 2020: Everything You Need to Know". The Motley Fool. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  54. ^ DeCambre, Mark. "Wild stock-market swings are 'emotionally and intellectually wearing' on Wall Street". MarketWatch. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  55. ^ Samuelson, Robert J. "Opinion | What the Crash of 2020 means". The Washington Post. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  56. ^ Outlook for Global Trade in 2020 Author: Tomasz Brodzicki, Ph.D., Senior Economist II, IHS Markit Maritime & Trade, 2 Jan 2020
  57. ^ "The meaning of RCEP, the world's biggest trade agreement". The Economist. 2020-11-15. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2020-11-16.
  58. ^ a b What Can We Expect from Africa in the 2020s? by Alexander Hammond, African Liberty.org, 24 Jan 2020
  59. ^ South American bloc eyes fast-track for EU trade deal by Maximilian Heath, Reuters Business News, 17 July 2019
  60. ^ "US, Russia, China, Pakistan urge Taliban to agree for ceasefire, begin talks with Afghan govt". @businessline.
  61. ^ "not excluded from peace process in Afghanistan: China". India Today.
  62. ^ George, Susannah (February 29, 2020). "U.S. signs peace deal with Taliban agreeing to full withdrawal of American troops from Afghanistan". WashingtonPost.com.
  63. ^ Mashal, Mujib (February 29, 2020). "U.S. Strikes Deal With Taliban to Withdraw Troops From Afghanistan". MSN.com. The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 29, 2020.
  64. ^ "Dismantling China's Muslim gulag in Xinjiang is not enough". The Economist. 2020-01-09. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2020-11-16.
  65. ^ Wong, Chun Han; Areddy, James T. (2020-07-01). "China's Security Law Tightens Vise on Hong Kong". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2020-07-26.
  66. ^ a b c "Hong Kong's legislature has been stripped of a vocal opposition". The Economist. 2020-11-14. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2020-11-18.
  67. ^ "Joshua Wong faces up to three years in jail over Hong Kong protest". www.ft.com. Retrieved 2020-11-24.
  68. ^ "China approves plan to veto Hong Kong election candidates". France 24. 11 March 2021.
  69. ^ "Improving Hong Kong's electoral system important for developing high-quality democracy". China Today. 7 March 2021.
  70. ^ Kuronuma, Susumu (1 September 2020). "Abe's silent nod opened floodgates of support for longtime aide". Nikkei Asian Review. Archived from the original on 3 September 2020. Retrieved 1 September 2020.
  71. ^ "Japan succession race kicks off, starring Abe's deputies and rival". Nikkei Asian Review. 29 August 2020. Archived from the original on 30 August 2020. Retrieved 29 August 2020.
  72. ^ Sieg, Linda (29 August 2020). "In race to replace Japan's Abe, loyalist Suga emerges as strong contender". Reuters. Archived from the original on 29 August 2020. Retrieved 29 August 2020.
  73. ^ "Yoshihide Suga Wins LDP Party Leadership Race With Overwhelming Support". JAPAN Forward. 14 September 2020. Archived from the original on 16 September 2020. Retrieved 14 September 2020.
  74. ^ "Yoshihide Suga set to become Japan's new PM". BBC News. 2020-09-14. Retrieved 2020-09-23.
  75. ^ Pannier, Bruce. "Backlash Against Kyrgyz Parliamentary Election Results Comes Instantly". Radio Free Europe/ Radio Liberty. RFE/RL, Inc. Retrieved 5 October 2020.
  76. ^ "Thousands protest over Kyrgyzstan election result". 5 October 2020. Retrieved 5 October 2020 – via BBC News.
  77. ^ "Kyrgyzstan election: Sunday's results annulled after mass protests". BBC. 6 October 2020.
  78. ^ "Kyrgyz president declares new state of emergency". AP NEWS. 2020-10-12. Retrieved 2020-10-13.
  79. ^ "Parliament in Kyrgyzstan endorses state of emergency". ABC News. Retrieved 2020-10-13.
  80. ^ a b Kyrgyzstan to hold constitution referendum on April 11 Interfax, 11 March 2021
  81. ^ "Страница не найдена - ЦИК КР". shailoo.gov.kg. Retrieved 2021-04-16.
  82. ^ "Malaysia recovers US$322 million in stolen 1MDB money: PM's office". CNA. Retrieved 2020-03-20.
  83. ^ "1MDB scandal: A timeline". CNA. Retrieved 29 June 2019.
  84. ^ "Photos – 1mdb-scandal-timeline – News – msn". www.msn.com. Retrieved 29 June 2019.
  85. ^ a b "Colombia protests prompt teargas, curfew and border closures". CNN. 22 November 2019. Retrieved 2019-11-22.
  86. ^ Tee, Kenneth (28 July 2020). "High Court finds Najib guilty of all seven charges in misappropriation of RM42m SRC International funds".
  87. ^ a b Beech, Hannah (31 January 2021). "Myanmar's Leader, Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, Is Detained Amid Coup". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 31 January 2021.
  88. ^ "Myanmar military seizes power, detains elected leader Aung San Suu Kyi". news.trust.org. Reuters. 1 February 2021.
  89. ^ "'Spring Revolution': Myanmar protests swell despite military junta's threat of force". Associated Press via Global News. 21 February 2021. Retrieved 15 March 2021.
  90. ^ Ratcliffe, Rebecca (22 February 2021). "Myanmar junta warns of lethal force as crowds gather for 'five twos revolution'". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 22 February 2021. Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  91. ^ "Anti-Coup Protest on Streets of Myanmar's Second City". US News. 3 February 2021. Archived from the original on 18 February 2021. Retrieved 4 February 2021.
  92. ^ "Daily Briefing in Relation to the Military Coup". Assistance Association for Political Prisoners. 28 March 2021. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
  93. ^ Mongolia: Election for Ulsyn Ikh Khural (Mongolian State Great Hural) IFES
  94. ^ "2020 Race Begins". Mongolia Weekly. Jan 19, 2020. Retrieved 2020-01-19.
  95. ^ "Mongolia's government resigns after a small protest". The Economist. 2021-01-28. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2021-02-02.
  96. ^ India, The Hans (16 December 2019). "Student unions back anti Citizenship Amendment Act protests". thehansindia.com. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  97. ^ Citizenship Amendment Bill: India's new 'anti-Muslim' law explained, BBC News, 11 December 2019.
  98. ^ Staff Reporter (15 December 2019). "A dark day for the country, says Jamaat-e-Islami chief". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 17 January 2020. He said Tamil Hindus from Sri Lanka had been persecuted and questioned why they had not been brought under the ambit of the CAA
  99. ^ "Understanding NRC: What it is and if it can be implemented across the country". The Economic Times. 23 December 2019. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  100. ^ Gringlas, Sam. "India Passes Controversial Citizenship Bill That Would Exclude Muslims". NPR.org.
  101. ^ Pokharel, Krishna (17 December 2019). "India Citizenship Protests Spread to Muslim Area of Capital". WSJ. Retrieved 17 January 2020. Protests against a new citizenship law favoring non-Muslim immigrants erupted in violence in a Muslim-dominated part of the Indian capital [...] "People are opposing this law because it discriminates against Muslims [...]
  102. ^ Saha, Abhishek (20 January 2019). "Explained: Why Assam, Northeast are angry". The Indian Express. Protesters have expressed fears that the prospect of citizenship will encourage migration from Bangladesh. They have cited several grounds for opposing this. Demography: This will change across Northeastern states, protesters say, as has already been happening in Assam and Tripura over decades of migration (see graphs). "Assamese could become the second language. Then there is also the question of loss of political rights and culture of the indigenous people,” said former Chief Minister Prafulla Mahanta, who was the face of the Assam Movement (1979-85) against illegal immigration, and one of the signatories to the Assam Accord at the culmination of the movement. (...) Protesters say the Bill goes against the Assam Accord and negates the ongoing update of the National Register of Citizens (NRC).
  103. ^ "India's parliament passes citizenship law, protests flare". Reuters. 11 December 2019. Retrieved 17 January 2020. The bill will take away our rights, language and culture with millions of Bangladeshis getting citizenship (...) people in Assam and surrounding states fear that arriving settlers could increase competition for land and upset the region’s demographic balance
  104. ^ Hyonhee Shin (2021-01-11). "Mixed signals for North Korean leader's sister as Kim seeks to cement power". Reuters.
  105. ^ "지방선거 득실 계산… 민주당-한국당, 접점없는 '개헌' 대치". The Dong-a Ilbo (in Korean). Naver. Retrieved 25 December 2017.
  106. ^ "South Korea's governing party wins election by a landslide". Al Jazeera. 16 April 2020. Archived from the original on 16 April 2020. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
  107. ^ "Sri Lankan parliament dissolved; elections set for April". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  108. ^ "General Election will be held on June 20". MSN.
  109. ^ "Sri Lanka general elections 2020 – LIVE UPDATES". EconomyNext. 5 August 2020. Retrieved 6 August 2020.[permanent dead link]
  110. ^ "Rajapaksas dominates South with landslide victory in Sri Lankan elections | Tamil Guardian". www.tamilguardian.com. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  111. ^ Iqbal Athas and Helen Regan. "Sri Lanka's Mahinda Rajapaksa declares victory in parliamentary elections". CNN. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  112. ^ "Sri Lanka Podujana Party wins 2020 general elections in a landslide". EconomyNext. 7 August 2020. Retrieved 7 August 2020.[permanent dead link]
  113. ^ "Rajapaksa declares election victory in Sri Lanka". BBC News. 7 August 2020. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  114. ^ "Sri Lanka : 2020 Parliamentary Election Results: SLPP wins six seats in Matara district, SJB one". www.colombopage.com. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  115. ^ "Rajapaksa brothers win by landslide in Sri Lanka's election". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  116. ^ "Sri Lanka ex-PM's UNP polls less than 5-pct in declared Colombo seats". EconomyNext. 6 August 2020. Retrieved 7 August 2020.[permanent dead link]
  117. ^ "Sri Lanka prepares for twice-delayed poll amid militarized COVID-19 response · Global Voices". Global Voices. 21 June 2020. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  118. ^ Srinivasan, Meera (13 July 2020). "Lanka election body 'monitoring' virus spike". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  119. ^ Elections To Tajikistan's Lower House To Take Place March 1, Upper House March 27 - Decree Urdu Point, 4 December 2019
  120. ^ a b "Tajikistan's long-serving ruler dispenses with all political opposition". The Economist. 7 March 2020.
  121. ^ Bengali, Shashank; Kirschbaum, Erik (16 October 2020). "A royal bubble bursts: Thailand's king faces trouble on two continents". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 20 October 2020.
  122. ^ "Vietnam ruling Communist Party chief Trong re-elected for third term". Reuters. Retrieved 31 January 2021.
  123. ^ "Dutch try to calm north-south economic storm over coronavirus". POLITICO. 2020-03-27. Retrieved 2020-12-10.
  124. ^ Welle, Deutsche. "Poland, Hungary face growing calls to drop EU budget veto | DW | 08.12.2020". DW.COM. Retrieved 2020-12-09.
  125. ^ "EU leaders back deal to end budget blockade by Hungary and Poland". POLITICO. 2020-12-10. Retrieved 2020-12-16.
  126. ^ "What is behind Austria's plan to outlaw 'political Islam'?". www.ft.com. Retrieved 2020-12-02.
  127. ^ "Belarus Authorities Cancel Opposition Campaigning Ahead Of Election". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  128. ^ "As Belarus Elects New Parliament, Lukashenka Says He Will Seek Another Presidential Term". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. 17 November 2019. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  129. ^ "Opposition Wins No Seats in Belarus Election". Civil Rights Defenders. 22 November 2019. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  130. ^ "Belarus election: Exiled leader calls weekend of 'peaceful rallies'". BBC News. 14 August 2020.
  131. ^ "Тихановская объявила себя победителем президентских выборов и предложила переговоры Лукашенко". meduza.io. Retrieved 10 August 2020.
  132. ^ "Belarus: EU imposes sanctions as Lukashenko orders police to clear the streets". Sky News. Retrieved 19 August 2020.
  133. ^ "Belgian Foreign Minister Sophie Wilmès in intensive care for COVID-19". POLITICO. 2020-10-22. Retrieved 2020-11-16.
  134. ^ "Croatian president sets parliamentary vote for July 5". ABC News. Associated Press. 20 May 2020. Retrieved May 20, 2020.
  135. ^ Welle (www.dw.com), Deutsche. "Estonia to get first female prime minister | DW | 24.01.2021". DW.COM. Retrieved 2021-02-03.
  136. ^ "Despite the horrors in Vienna and Paris, jihadism has declined". The Economist. 2020-11-03. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2020-11-15.
  137. ^ a b "Timeline: A series of attacks in France amid a debate over Islam". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2020-11-23.
  138. ^ "France recalls ambassador after Erdoğan attacks Macron over Islam". POLITICO. 2020-10-24. Retrieved 2020-11-16.
  139. ^ Siddiqui, Usaid. "Muslim world's falling-out with France deepens: Live news". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2020-11-23.
  140. ^ "France's Macron asks Muslim leaders to back 'republican values' charter". BBC News. 2020-11-19. Retrieved 2020-11-23.
  141. ^ "France's thankless war against jihadists in the Sahel". The Economist. 2020-11-12. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2020-11-16.
  142. ^ "Sarkozy stands trial accused of seeking to bribe judge". www.ft.com. Retrieved 2020-11-24.
  143. ^ Sarkozy: Former French president sentenced to jail for corruption
  144. ^ a b Corbert, Sylvie (1 March 2021). "France's Sarkozy convicted of corruption, sentenced to jail". Associated Press. Retrieved 1 March 2021.
  145. ^ Greece elects Katerina Sakellaropoulou as first female president NBC News, 22 Jan 2020
  146. ^ Stevis-Gridneff, Matina (2020-03-01). "Greece Suspends Asylum as Turkey Opens Gates for Migrants". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020-03-02.
  147. ^ "Greece ends month-long freeze on asylum applications". InfoMigrants. 2020-04-03. Retrieved 2020-12-28.
  148. ^ Republic of Iceland: Election for President 2020 IFES
  149. ^ "Absentee Voting for President Starts Monday". Iceland Review. 2020-05-24. Retrieved 2020-10-02.
  150. ^ Conte offre un patto, Renzi ritira le ministre. La crisi è servita, Huffington Post Italia
  151. ^ Italy's Conte wins Senate vote to keep fragile government afloat: final tally, Reuters
  152. ^ Italy: Ex-EU bank chief Mario Draghi sworn in as PM, Deutsche Welle
  153. ^ correspondent, Rory Carroll Ireland (2020-02-11). "Sinn Féin declares victory in Irish general election". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2020-02-11.
  154. ^ Agencies. "Sinn Fein shatters Ireland's political landscape to become second largest party". www.timesofisrael.com. Retrieved 2020-02-11.
  155. ^ "What is driving Sinn Féin's electoral surge in Ireland?". www.ft.com. Retrieved 2020-02-11.
  156. ^ "General Election 2020 Results". RTÉ News. 9 February 2020.
  157. ^ "Selection of the Ceann Comhairle". www.oireachtas.ie. Retrieved 28 February 2020.
  158. ^ "Seán Ó Fearghaíl has been re-elected Ceann Comhairle of Dáil Éireann". thejournal.ie. Retrieved 28 February 2020.
  159. ^ "Micheál Martin becomes new Irish PM after historic coalition deal". BBC News. 27 June 2020. Retrieved 28 June 2020.
  160. ^ "33rd Dáil elects Micheál Martin as new Taoiseach". Irish Examiner. 27 June 2020. Retrieved 27 June 2020.
  161. ^ "Maia Sandu, a reformist ex-prime minister, becomes president". The Economist. 2020-11-19. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2020-11-29.
  162. ^ "Moldova's new president calls for Russian troops to withdraw from territory". BBC News. 2020-11-30. Retrieved 2020-12-02.
  163. ^ North Macedonia Leaders Agree Election Date Balkan Insight, 15 June 2020
  164. ^ Government of North Macedonia officially postpones the elections European Western Balkans, 23 March 2020
  165. ^ Strybel, Robert (10 June 2020). "Poland to elect next president on June 28". ampoleagle.com.
  166. ^ Polish Elections to the Sejm and Senate of the Republic of Poland 2019
  167. ^ "Trybunał Konstytucyjny: Planowanie rodziny, ochrona płodu ludzkiego i warunki dopuszczalności przerywania ciąży". 22 October 2020.
  168. ^ "Dz.U. 1993 nr 17 poz. 78, Ustawa z dnia 7 stycznia 1993 r. o planowaniu rodziny, ochronie płodu ludzkiego i warunkach dopuszczalności przerywania ciąży". Sejm of the Polish Republic (in Polish).
  169. ^ Tilles, Daniel (2020-10-29). "Polish prosecutors seek charges against organisers of abortion protests for endangering public". Notes From Poland. Retrieved 2020-10-30.
  170. ^ Magdziarz, Anatol; Santora, Marc (2020-10-30). "Women Converge on Warsaw, Heightening Poland's Largest Protests in Decades". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020-10-30.
  171. ^ "Romania's Orban set to stay in power after tight vote: exit poll". POLITICO. 2020-12-06. Retrieved 2020-12-07.
  172. ^ Mary Ilyushina and Sheena McKenzie. "Russian government resigns as Putin proposes reforms that could extend his grip on power". CNN. Retrieved 2020-12-14.
  173. ^ "Голосование по поправкам в Конституцию пройдет 22 апреля". Ведомости. Retrieved 2020-02-26.
  174. ^ Закон Российской Федерации о поправке к Конституции Российской Федерации
  175. ^ "Putin strongly backed in controversial Russian reform vote". BBC News. 2020-07-02. Retrieved 2021-02-02.
  176. ^ Noble, Ben. "Vladimir Putin secures constitutional changes allowing him to rule until 2036 – what this means for Russia". The Conversation. Retrieved 2021-02-02.
  177. ^ "Russia menaces Alexei Navalny after he exposed its agents' ineptitude". The Economist. 2021-01-02. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2021-02-02.
  178. ^ "The world must not accept the jailing of Alexei Navalny". The Economist. 2021-01-23. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2021-02-02.
  179. ^ Welle (www.dw.com), Deutsche. "Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny sentenced to prison | DW | 02.02.2021". DW.COM. Retrieved 2021-02-03.
  180. ^ Serbian Parliamentary Elections – International Democrat Union
  181. ^ "2020: elections in the Western Balkans". RFE. 1 January 2020. (in Serbian)
  182. ^ Serbia postpones April 26 elections due to coronavirus outbreak – state election commission Reuters, 16 March 2020
  183. ^ "Serbian parliament left without clear opposition as the ruling party wins partially boycotted elections". European Western Balkans. 2020-06-22. Retrieved 2020-06-22.
  184. ^ "Serbian President Retracts COVID-19 Curfew After 60 Hurt in Violence". www.voanews.com. Voice of America. Retrieved 14 August 2020.
  185. ^ Svetski mediji o protestima u Srbiji: Protesti spontani, nedostaju institucije (Serbian) Media and Reform (in Serbian), retrieved 11 July 2020.
  186. ^ "Anti-corruption party wins Slovakia election". BBC News. 2020-03-01. Retrieved 2020-03-01.
  187. ^ "Slovenia's Marathon Anti-Govt Protests Enter 23rd Week". Balkan Insight. 2020-09-25. Retrieved 2020-10-30.
  188. ^ "Zašto Slovenci protestuju na biciklima". BBC News na srpskom (in Serbian). Retrieved 2020-10-30.
  189. ^ "Jansa is Eroding Press Freedom in Slovenia, IPI Warns". Balkan Insight. 2020-09-02. Retrieved 2020-10-30.
  190. ^ "Will Janez Janša take Slovenia down the same populist road as Hungary?". euronews. 2020-10-28. Retrieved 2020-10-30.
  191. ^ "In a Hungarian Corner of Slovenia, a Homegrown Orban". Balkan Insight. 2020-01-30. Retrieved 2020-10-30.
  192. ^ Tom Edgington (31 January 2020). "Brexit: What is the transition period?". BBC News. Archived from the original on 31 January 2020. Retrieved 1 February 2020.
  193. ^ Blackall, Molly (3 April 2021). "Northern Ireland's first minister joins calls for calm after Belfast riots". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 April 2021.
  194. ^ "Loyalist group withdraws support for Good Friday Agreement". BBC News. 4 March 2021. Retrieved 5 April 2021.
  195. ^ Middle East Eye
  196. ^ TRT World
  197. ^ "Пашинян заявляет о подписании мирного соглашения". BBC Russian Service (in Russian). 10 November 2020. Retrieved 10 November 2020.
  198. ^ "Armenia, Azerbaijan and Russia sign Nagorno-Karabakh peace deal". BBC News. 10 November 2020. Retrieved 10 November 2020.
  199. ^ "Azerbaijan, Armenia sign peace deal to end conflict". GulfToday. 2020-11-10. Retrieved 2020-11-10.
  200. ^ Kramer, Andrew E. (2020-11-10). "Facing Military Debacle, Armenia Accepts a Deal in Nagorno-Karabakh War". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020-11-10.
  201. ^ "Протестующие в Ереване избили спикера парламента Армении". РИА Новости (in Russian). 2020-11-10. Retrieved 2020-11-11.
  202. ^ "Demonstrators seized the building of the Armenian parliament". interfax.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 2020-11-11.
  203. ^ "Armenia's foreign minister resigns week after ceasefire deal with Azerbaijan". Al-Arabiya. 2020-11-16. Retrieved 2020-12-16.
  204. ^ "Armenian defence minister tenders resignation: Report". Al Jazeera. 2020-11-20. Retrieved 2020-12-16.
  205. ^ "Head of Armenian defense ministry's military control service resigns". Armenpress. 2020-11-18. Retrieved 2020-12-16.
  206. ^ "Official representative of Armenia's Defense Ministry resigns". 2020-11-12.
  207. ^ "Sarkissian Defends Opposition To Army Chief's Sacking". Azatutyun. 1 March 2021. Retrieved 2021-03-01.
  208. ^ News, A. B. C. "Armenia's president refuses order to dismiss military chief". ABC News.
  209. ^ a b Azerbaijan to hold snap parliamentary election on February 9 Al Jazeera, 5 December 2019
  210. ^ "Azerbaijan's Ruling Party Calls For Dissolution Of Parliament". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 2019-12-02.
  211. ^ sabah, daily (2020-11-18). "Azerbaijanis protest presence of Russian troops in Nagorno-Karabakh". Daily Sabah. Retrieved 2020-12-02.
  212. ^ "Another sham election highlights Egypt's problems". The Economist. 2020-10-22. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2020-12-14.
  213. ^ 9 questions about the US-Iran crisis you were too embarrassed to ask By Alex Ward and Zack Beauchamp, Vox, 13 Jan 2020
  214. ^ "How America and its allies are keeping tabs on Iran at sea". The Economist. 2020-01-02. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2020-11-16.
  215. ^ "Iran denies reports of fresh explosion". BBC News. 10 July 2020. Retrieved July 15, 2020.
  216. ^ Ramin Mostaghim, Angela Dewan and Sara Mazloumsaki. "Iran's supreme leader vows revenge after top nuclear scientist apparently assassinated". CNN. Retrieved 2020-11-29.
  217. ^ a b "Iraq power vacuum as political crisis hits PM post". bbc.com. BBC. March 2, 2020. Retrieved March 3, 2020.
  218. ^ Saadoun, Mustafa (2020-02-24). "Nasiriyah becomes the Iraqi protest capital". al-monitor.com. Retrieved 2020-06-12.
  219. ^ "Protester shot dead in fresh Iraq violence".
  220. ^ Abdul-Zahra, Qassim; Faraj, Murtada (2020-02-23). "Iraqi officials: 1 protester shot dead in fresh violence". 660citynews.com. Retrieved 2020-06-12.
  221. ^ "Iraqi Nurse Spends Her Weekends Stitching Wounds at Protest Site".
  222. ^ "Iraqi students hold anti-government protests".
  223. ^ "Uncertainty looms as Iraqi PM-designate Allawi steps down". Iraq's crisis deepens as Mohammed Tawfiq Allawi halts efforts to form new government amid political infighting. Mar 2, 2020, Al Jazeera.
  224. ^ "Iraq's Allawi bows out as PM-designate, rockets hit Green Zone".
  225. ^ "Iraq's PM-designate Allawi steps down".
  226. ^ "Iraq's Prime Minister-designate Mohammed Allawi withdraws from race".
  227. ^ "Iraqi spy chief Mustafa Al Kadhimi rumoured to be prime ministerial contender". The National (Abu Dhabi). Retrieved 31 January 2020.
  228. ^ "Iraq names its third prime minister in 10 weeks". Reuters. Retrieved 10 April 2020.
  229. ^ Aldroubi, Mina (6 May 2020). "Iraqi Parliament confirms Mustafa Al Kadhimi as new Prime Minister". The National. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
  230. ^ "Iraq hospitals fear 'losing control' as coronavirus cases surge". Al Jazeera. September 5, 2020.
  231. ^ "Will Israel's third election in a year at last produce a government?". The Economist. 2020-02-29. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2020-11-24.
  232. ^ "Netanyahu, Sudanese leader meet in Uganda, agree to start normalizing ties". Haaretz.com. Retrieved 2020-11-24.
  233. ^ "Israel and Saudi Arabia send a clear signal to Iran—and Joe Biden". The Economist. 2020-11-23. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2020-11-24.
  234. ^ Assad, Abdulkader (2020-02-26). "UNSMIL kicks off political talks in Geneva despite boycott of major Libyan lawmakers". The Libya Observer. Archived from the original on 2020-02-27. Retrieved 2020-02-27.
  235. ^ "UNSMIL political track talks to go ahead despite pullout by Tobruk HoR and Tripoli State Council". Libya Herald. 2020-02-27. Archived from the original on 2020-02-27. Retrieved 2020-02-27.
  236. ^ "Western Saharan rebels launch attacks on Moroccan troops". www.ft.com. Retrieved 2020-11-16.
  237. ^ Is This the End of Rojava? - The Kurdish region of northeast Syria was autonomous for seven years, but had to ask the Syrian government for protection after an invasion by Turkey. By Mireille Court and Chris Den Hond, FEBRUARY 18, 2020, thenation.com.
  238. ^ Sanctions on Syrian government also threaten Washington's Kurdish allies. While US and international sanctions aren't specifically targeted at Kurdish-ruled northeast Syria, the area is impacted all the same with trade practically halted and because of the sudden plunge of the Syrian pound. by Jared Szuba, June 9, 2020.
  239. ^ "Protests hit Druze city in Syria for fourth day".
  240. ^ "Syria war: Assad sacks PM as economic crisis sparks protests".
  241. ^ Syrian pound hits record low ahead of new U.S. sanctions: dealers. The Syrian pound sank to a new record low on Monday as investors scrambled for dollars ahead of new U.S. sanctions later this month, which many fear will tighten the noose around President Bashar al Assad's government, dealers and bankers said. June 8, 2020, Reuters.
  242. ^ Syrian currency collapse throws country into uncertainty The Syrian regime thought it was finally out of the woods in its almost decade-long civil war. By SETH J. FRANTZMAN JUNE 8, 2020, jpost. com.
  243. ^ Syrian currency loses more value as sanctions hit June 11, 2020, Associated Press.
  244. ^ Charting the dramatic collapse of Syria's national currency, by Hugo Goodridge, June 4, 2020. Despite fears of a spill over from Syria affecting neighbouring Lebanon, it was conversely the collapse of the Lebanese pound that plunged Syria deeper into its economic quagmire. Rising Lebanese debts and a lack of financial ability to pay off these debts, with a seeming absence of political will to find a solution, led to capital controls being imposed. Throughout the war in Syria, Lebanon had been used by Syrians as a reliable place to withdraw dollars. "Syrians, who bought a lot of their dollars in Lebanon, suddenly couldn't access dollars, the value of the Syrian pound started to collapse.
  245. ^ "Turkey is set to send troops to Libya". The Economist. 2020-01-11. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2020-11-16.
  246. ^ Gall, Carlotta (2020-03-01). "Turkey Declares Major Offensive Against Syrian Government". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020-03-02.
  247. ^ "Turkey lets refugees exit towards Europe". BBC News. 2020-02-28. Retrieved 2020-03-02.
  248. ^ Keddie, Patrick. "What's Turkey's role in the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict?". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2020-12-10.
  249. ^ Orkaby, Asher (25 March 2015). "Houthi Who?". Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 27 March 2015. Retrieved 25 March 2015.
  250. ^ Will the 2020s be the decade of Africa's economic transformation? by Arkebe Okubay, ODI.org, 14 Jan 2020
  251. ^ "Making sense of west Africa's new currency". The Economist. 2020-01-04. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2020-11-16.
  252. ^ "West Africa Regional Overview". African Development Bank Group. 2020. Retrieved Feb 3, 2020.
  253. ^ Conflict is still Africa's biggest challenge in 2020 by Simon Allison, Relief Web, 6 Jan 2020
  254. ^ Richard Washington (Dec 15, 2019). "How Africa will be affected by climate change". BBC World News. Retrieved Feb 3, 2020.
  255. ^ Nigeria hit by deadly bomb attack near Cameroon Deutsche Welle, 7 Jan 2020
  256. ^ French summit aims to boost counterterror fight in W. Africa Niger army chief fired after 89 killed in extremist attack
  257. ^ US calls for smaller UN force in Mali, Russia says no change By Edith M. Lederer, AP, 15 Jan 2020, retrieved 8 Feb 2020
  258. ^ Female Genital Mutilation Still Prevalent in West Africa By Annika Hammerschlag, Voice of America, 6 February 2020
  259. ^ US sanctions South Sudan's vice president over abuses by Cara Anna, AP, 8 Jan 2020, retrieved 15 Feb 2020
  260. ^ Comoros: Two Reporters Arrested in Comoros, Placed Under Judicial Control allAfrica, 16 Jan 2020, retrieved 11 Feb 2020
  261. ^ Tanzania: Obstructions to LGBT Health, Rights
  262. ^ 2020 African election calendar EISA
  263. ^ "Burkina Faso's Kaboré wins re-election, according to full preliminary results". France 24. 2020-11-26. Retrieved 2020-11-27.
  264. ^ Wilkins, Henry. "Burkinabe ex-President Compaore charged in Thomas Sankara murder". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2021-04-16.
  265. ^ Burundi's main opposition leader announces election bid Andalou, 18 November 2019
  266. ^ "Burundi bishops denounce suspect presidential election". Catholic News Agency. Retrieved 2020-05-30.
  267. ^ "Burundi opposition takes presidential election dispute to court". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2020-05-30.
  268. ^ "Burundi election results: What next?". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2020-05-30.
  269. ^ Cameroun - Législatives et municipales 2020: Selon ELECAM, aucun incident majeur «de nature à troubler le déroulement du scrutin» n'a été signalé dans le pays Cameroon-Info, 10 February 2020
  270. ^ Low Turnout Frustrates Election In North West, South West Regions, Cameroon News Agency, Feb 9, 2020. Accessed Feb 11, 2020.
  271. ^ "Opposition MP arrested on the eve of the legislative elections". VOA. 15 January 2020. (in French)
  272. ^ "Comoros leader urges opposition to drop vote boycott". Yahoo News. 14 November 2019.
  273. ^ "Comorians at the polls for the first round of the legislative elections". RFI. 19 January 2020. (in French)
  274. ^ Duhem, Vincent (2020-11-02). "Côte d'Ivoire election 2020: Opposition struggles to find common ground". The Africa Report. Retrieved 2020-11-03.
  275. ^ "At least two killed, dozens injured in Cote d'Ivoire election violence". RFI. 2020-11-01. Retrieved 2020-11-03.
  276. ^ "Ambrose Dlamini: Eswatini's PM dies after testing positive for Covid-19". BBC News. 2020-12-14. Retrieved 2020-12-14.
  277. ^ Why are Ethiopian leaders calling Eritrea's president ‘Hitler’?, An escalating war of words is taking place between Eritrea and Ethiopia, as the two countries face-off over a flaring border dispute that historically claimed the lives of over 100,000 people. February 27, 2020. trtworld.com.
  278. ^ Ethiopian cardinal, other church leaders barred from entering Eritrea, Fredrick Nzwili, CNSFeb 28, 2020, CATHOLIC NEWS SERVICE.
  279. ^ UN Decries Lack of Reforms and Widespread Abuse in Eritrea, By Lisa Schlein, March 01, 2020.
  280. ^ Ethiopia Approves Controversial Law on Hate Speech and Disinformation, By Staff Reporter, ezega.com.
  281. ^ Is Ethiopia sliding backwards under Abiy Ahmed? We challenge an adviser to Ethiopia's prime minister on his record. 14 Feb 2020, al-jazeera.
  282. ^ How popular is Abiy Ahmed in Ethiopia as election looms?, February 27, 2020.
  283. ^ "Ethiopia's Abiy faces outcry over crackdown on rebels". france24.com. 2020-02-29. Retrieved 2020-06-12.
  284. ^ Amnesty: Ethiopian police must account for missing opposition leader, March 3, 2020.
  285. ^ Amnesty International Rages As Nobel Peace Prize Winner Abiy Ahmed Unleashes Police On Opposition In Oromia, Ethiopia. Vendor Killed, Musician Injured By TODAY NEWS AFRICA
  286. ^ Ouloch, Fred; Karashani, Bob (2020-02-25). "Abiy's citizen-focused govt bringing more refugees home". theeastafrican.co.ke.
  287. ^ a b c "Ethiopia lurches towards civil war". The Economist. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2020-11-12.
  288. ^ "Ethiopia: Tigray leader confirms bombing Eritrean capital". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2020-11-16.
  289. ^ "Ethiopia: Investigation reveals evidence that scores of civilians were killed in massacre in Tigray state". www.amnesty.org. Retrieved 2020-11-16.
  290. ^ Dontoh, Ekow; Dzawu, Moses Mozart (8 December 2020). "Ghana's President Akufo-Addo Wins Second Term by Slim Margin". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
  291. ^ Kokutse, Francis (10 December 2020). "Ghana's main opposition party will contest election results". AP News. Retrieved December 11, 2020.
  292. ^ Guinea postpones legislative election and referendum Daily Nation, 2 March 2020
  293. ^ Guinée: couplage du référendum constitutionnel avec les législatives du 1er mars RFI, 5 February 2020
  294. ^ Guinée : Alpha Condé annonce le report des législatives et du référendum constitutionnel Jeune Afrique, 28 February 2020
  295. ^ Invite au référendum : « le président a parlé au conditionnel », rassure Kassory Conakry Infos, 25 September 2019
  296. ^ Guinea NDI
  297. ^ "Guinea: Unrest possible ahead of January 2019 legislative elections /update 12". GardaWorld. Retrieved 2019-01-16.
  298. ^ Guinée : la Ceni fixe la date des élections législatives à la fin 2019 Jeune Afrique, 7 May 2019
  299. ^ GUINEE – Elections législatives : La date du 28 décembre ne fait pas consensus au sein de la Céni Le Quotidien, 18 September 2019
  300. ^ President approves February vote in turbulent Guinea Yahoo News, 12 November 2019
  301. ^ "Democracy is faltering in Tanzania and Ivory Coast". The Economist. 2020-11-05. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2020-11-16.
  302. ^ "An attack on American forces in Kenya raises questions and concerns". The Economist. 2020-01-11. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2020-11-16.
  303. ^ PPCC to single source election materials The New Dawn, 7 June 2020
  304. ^ a b Supreme Court Dumps Referendum Daily Observer, 19 November 2020
  305. ^ "A historic day for Malawi's democracy". The Economist. 2020-02-06. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2020-12-21.
  306. ^ "Mali: first round of legislative elections set for March 29". Jeune Afrique. 23 January 2020. (in French)
  307. ^ AFP, Le Figaro fr avec (2018-09-13). "Mali: les élections législatives reportées d'un mois". Le Figaro.fr (in French). Retrieved 2020-01-02.
  308. ^ "Mali: Legislative elections postponed to June 2019 /update 16". GardaWorld. Retrieved 2020-01-02.
  309. ^ Welle, Deutsche, Mali: les vraies raisons du report des législatives | DW | 16.10.2018 (in French), retrieved 2020-01-02
  310. ^ "Mali : adoption d'un projet de loi prolongeant le mandat des députés jusqu'en 2020". JeuneAfrique.com (in French). 2019-06-08. Retrieved 2020-01-02.
  311. ^ "Malian parliamentary elections marred by kidnappings, attacks". Al Jazeera. March 31, 2020.
  312. ^ a b c d e Mali crisis: From disputed election to president's resignation Al Jazeera, 18 Aug 2020, retrieved 12 September 2020
  313. ^ a b Diallo, Tiemoko; McAllister, Edward (20 June 2020). Fincher, Christina; Harrison, Mike (eds.). "West African bloc urges Mali to re-run disputed elections amid mass protests". Reuters.
  314. ^ "Mali: President Keita meets protest leader Mahmoud Dicko". Al Jazeera English. A video posted on the presidency's Twitter account showed the meeting between President Ibrahim Boubacar Keita and Mahmoud Dicko, an imam and leading figure of the so-called June 5 movement, in the capital, Bamako, on Saturday.
  315. ^ "Anti-gov't protests resume in Mali after weeks-long pause". Al Jazeera. 11 Aug 2020. Retrieved 12 Sep 2020.
  316. ^ "Calls for calm as Mali gov't criticised for response to protests". Al Jazeera English. 13 July 2020. Bloody protests broke out in the capital, Bamako, on Friday and Saturday, with reports saying security forces fired live rounds during clashes with demonstrators, some of whom had occupied state buildings. [...] A senior official at an emergency department of a major hospital in Bamako was quoted by AFP news agency as saying 11 people died and 124 were injured since Friday.
  317. ^ "Gunfire heard at Mali army base, warnings of possible mutiny". www.aljazeera.com. Archived from the original on 18 August 2020. Retrieved 18 August 2020.
  318. ^ "Mali coup: Military promises elections after ousting president". BBC News. 19 August 2020. Archived from the original on 19 August 2020. Retrieved 19 August 2020.
  319. ^ Welle, Deutsche. "Possible coup underway in Mali | DW | 18 August 2020". DW.COM. Archived from the original on 18 August 2020. Retrieved 18 August 2020.
  320. ^ "Mali: Gunfire heard at Kati military camp near Bamako". The Africa Report.com. 18 August 2020. Archived from the original on 18 August 2020. Retrieved 18 August 2020.
  321. ^ "Mali soldiers detain senior officers in apparent mutiny". AP NEWS. 18 August 2020. Archived from the original on 18 August 2020. Retrieved 18 August 2020.
  322. ^ Tih, Felix (18 August 2020). "Gunshots heard at military camp near Mali capital". Anadolu Agency. Archived from the original on 18 August 2020. Retrieved 18 August 2020.
  323. ^ "Mali president resigns after detention by military, deepening crisis". Reuters. 19 August 2020. Archived from the original on 18 August 2020. Retrieved 19 August 2020.
  324. ^ "Soldiers arrested in Niger after 'attempted coup'". France 24. Agence France-Presse. 31 March 2021. Retrieved 31 March 2021.
  325. ^ "Peaceful protesters against Nigerian police violence are shot". The Economist. 2020-10-21. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2020-12-14.
  326. ^ "Presidential, legislative election dates in Seychelles confirmed: Oct 22-24". Seychelles News Agency. 11 August 2020. Retrieved 16 September 2020.
  327. ^ "Seychelles' president approves Election Act amendment, creating permanent chief electoral officer position". Seychelles News Agency. 27 December 2018. Retrieved 16 September 2020.
  328. ^ "Seychelles' President decides to hold presidential, legislative elections together". Seychelles News Agency. 30 July 2020. Retrieved 16 September 2020.
  329. ^ "Opposition parties in Seychelles say they are ready to contest early legislative election". Seychelles News Agency. 31 July 2020. Retrieved 16 September 2020.
  330. ^ Can South Sudan's men of war lead the country to peace?, by Peter Oborne & Jan-Peter Westad, February 15, 2020. Middle East Eye website.
  331. ^ Sudan peace talks: Agreement on eastern track finalised, February 23 - 2020, dabangasudan website.
  332. ^ The trouble with South Sudan's transitional government BY AMIR IDRIS, oped, 02/28/20, thehill.com.
  333. ^ South Sudan Forges Unity Government, Renewing Fragile Hope For Peace February 22, 2020, by Colin Dwyer, NPR.
  334. ^ South Sudan's rivals form unity government meant to end war By MAURA AJAK, February 22, 2020, Associated Press.
  335. ^ South Sudan rivals Salva Kiir and Riek Machar strike unity deal, 22 February 2020, BBC.
  336. ^ Unity Government Rekindles Hopes for Peace in South Sudan by ASHLEY QUARCOO, FEBRUARY 27, 2020, Carnegie Endowment website.
  337. ^ South Sudan's rival leaders form coalition government. Opposition leader Riek Machar was sworn in on Saturday as the deputy of President Salva Kiir. 22 Feb 2020. Al Jazeera.
  338. ^ Senior State Department Official On Developments in South Sudan's Peace Process, Source US State Dept. Published 26 Feb 2020.
  339. ^ Appointing of civilian governors, MPs remains obstacles for Sudan's peace, March 1 - 2020 dabangasudan website.
  340. ^ European Union announces €100 million to support the democratic transition process in Sudan, February 29, 2020, EU official website.
  341. ^ "South Africa's Zuma faces criminal investigation". www.ft.com. Retrieved 2020-11-24.
  342. ^ "National Salvation Rebels Kill Six Presidential Bodyguards in South Sudan". Voice of America. 20 August 2020. Retrieved 28 August 2020.
  343. ^ "South Sudan Kiir agrees to re-establish the 10 states - Sudan Tribune: Plural news and views on Sudan". www.sudantribune.com. Retrieved 2020-02-15.
  344. ^ "Kiir agrees to relinquish controversial 32 states". Radio Tamazuj. Retrieved 2020-02-15.
  345. ^ "South Sudan's rival leaders form coalition government". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2020-02-22.
  346. ^ "More than 100 killed in South Sudan clashes". Xinhua. 12 August 2020. Retrieved 28 August 2020.
  347. ^ "Tanzania to go to polls on October 28, National Electoral". The Citizen. Retrieved 2020-07-22.
  348. ^ "Tanzania elections: President Magufuli in landslide win amid fraud claims". BBC News. 31 October 2020. Retrieved 1 November 2020.
  349. ^ a b "Tanzania opposition loses key seats in vote marred by fraud claim". Al Jazeera. 2020-10-29. Retrieved 2020-10-30.
  350. ^ Odula, Tom (24 October 2020). "Observers say Tanzania's presidential vote is already flawed". Associated Press. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
  351. ^ "Tanzania electoral watch panel condemns arrest of opposition leaders". The Citizen. November 3, 2020. Retrieved January 20, 2021.
  352. ^ "US State Department calls for investigation into poll irregularities". The Citizen. November 3, 2020. Retrieved January 20, 2021.
  353. ^ "Common Wealth ready to help, urges Tanzania to investigate polls irregularities". The Citizen. November 3, 2020. Retrieved January 20, 2021.
  354. ^ "Tanzania – Declaration by the High Representative on behalf of the EU on the elections in Tanzania". www.consilium.europa.eu. Retrieved 2020-11-13.
  355. ^ Togolese to vote in presidential election on 22 February 2020 Panapress, 6 December 2019
  356. ^ Togo President Gnassingbé wins re-election Deutsche Welle, 24 February 2020
  357. ^ Preliminary Declaration ECOWAS, 24 February 2020
  358. ^ "Togolese opposition denounces vote irregularities". Africa News.
  359. ^ a b "Togo 's Implausible Election Results". Africa Center for Strategic Studies. Retrieved 2020-04-02.
  360. ^ "Togo National Assembly summons opposition leader, accuses him of plotting coup". Ghana News Agency. Retrieved 2020-04-02.
  361. ^ "The Ugandan state shoots scores of citizens dead". The Economist. 2020-11-28. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2020-12-02.
  362. ^ a b "How to stop Zambia from turning into Zimbabwe". The Economist. 2020-11-14. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2020-11-15.
  363. ^ a b c d "Zambia is starting to look like Zimbabwe, the failure next door". The Economist. 2020-11-14. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2020-11-18.
  364. ^ a b Latin America in 2020: Stories to watch by Charlotte Mitchell, Al Jazeera, 2 Jan 2020, Retrieved 24 Jan 2020
  365. ^ "Don't mess up Bolivia's miracle". The Economist. 2020-10-24. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2020-12-14.
  366. ^ "Chile's momentous referendum on its constitution". The Economist. 2020-10-24. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2020-12-14.
  367. ^ "Hundreds of Thousands Protested Colombia's Conservative Government. Here's What to Know". Time. Retrieved 2019-11-24.
  368. ^ "Cuba's Raul Castro confirms he's stepping down, says he's 'fulfilled his mission'". NBC News. Retrieved 2021-04-19.
  369. ^ PHOTOS: Dominicans Hold Massive #Trabucazo2020 Demonstration For Democracy By TATIANA FERNANDEZ GEARA, MAR 2, 2020, latinousa.org.
  370. ^ Cabrera, José María León (2020-04-07). "Ecuador's Former President Convicted on Corruption Charges". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020-04-08.
  371. ^ "Ecuador ex-president Correa jailed in absentia". BBC News. 2020-04-07. Retrieved 2020-04-08.
  372. ^ "L'ex-président de l'Équateur Rafael Correa condamné à huit ans de prison". France 24 (in French). 2020-04-08. Retrieved 2020-04-08.
  373. ^ "Tribunal sentencia de 8 años para Rafael Correa y Jorge Glas como autores mediatos en caso Sobornos". El Universo (in Spanish). 2020-04-07. Retrieved 2020-04-07.
  374. ^ Ecuador, Metro. "Rafael Correa culpable por cohecho pasivo agravado, 8 años de prisión". Metro Ecuador (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-04-07.
  375. ^ "Rafael Correa, Jorge Glas y otros son sentenciados a 8 años de cárcel por cohecho en caso Sobornos 2012-2016". El Comercio. Retrieved 2020-04-07.
  376. ^ "Ecuador goes with conservative banker in presidential vote". Associated Press. 11 April 2021.
  377. ^ Leon Cabrera, Jose Maria (11 April 2021). "Conservative Ex-Banker Headed to Victory in Presidential Election in Ecuador". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 April 2021.
  378. ^ "Guillermo Lasso: Conservative ex-banker elected Ecuador president". BBC World News. 12 April 2021. Retrieved 14 April 2021.
  379. ^ "Ecuador election: former banker Lasso is surprise winner". The Guardian. 11 April 2021.
  380. ^ "Lasso wins Ecuador presidency in upset over socialist rival". Yahoo. 11 April 2021.
  381. ^ "Crisis en El Salvador: cuáles son los motivos de la fuerte tensión entre el presidente Nayib Bukele y el Congreso". 10 February 2020. Retrieved 7 March 2020.
  382. ^ Señala AMLO que su reto para 2020 es serenar a México Aristegui Noticias, 2 Jan 2020 Una "reaparición fortalecida" del narco y la presión de Trump: la seguridad será el mayor reto de AMLO en 2020 by Patricia Velez Santiago, Univision Noticias, 2 Jan 2020
  383. ^ Sector salud, el principal reto para el gobierno de AMLO en 2020 El Sol de Mexico, 29 December 2019
  384. ^ "TOP 5: RETOS DE AMLO EN 2020" [Top 5: Challenges for AMLO in 2020]. Diario Contrapeso Ciudadano (in Spanish). Jan 8, 2020.
  385. ^ Define AMLO los dos retos por resolver este 2020: Seguridad Pública y Seguridad Social. Billie Parker Noticias, 14 Jan 2020
  386. ^ AMLO responde a Jorge Ramos: en diciembre, resultados sobre seguridad by Sara Pantoja, Proceso, 15 Jan 2020
  387. ^ More than 15,000 march in Monterrey (in Spanish) by Caroline Leon, Milenio, 9 Mar 2020 Thousands of women march on CDMX between slogans, graffiti, and claims for justice (in Spanish) Expansion Politica, 8 Mar 2020
  388. ^ Fury fuels historic women's strike in Mexico By Will Grant BBC News, 9 Mar 2020 "Today, they did not arrive": This is how Mexico looks for # El9NadieSeMueve (in Spanish) by Gustavo Álvarez, 24 Horas, 9 Mar 2020 Women's strike paralyzes the Chamber of Deputies by Fernando Damián, Milenio, 9 Mar 2020 Bank branches closed in response to women's strike (in Spanish) La Jornada, 9 Mar 2020
  389. ^ Taylor, Derrick Bryson (June 2, 2020). "George Floyd Protests: A Timeline". The New York Times. Archived from the original on June 2, 2020. Retrieved June 2, 2020.
  390. ^ Rumpf, Sarah (May 29, 2020). "Derek Chauvin Had Knee on George Floyd's Neck for Almost 3 Minutes AFTER Floyd Was Unresponsive: Officials". Mediaite. The defendant had his knee on Mr. Floyd's neck for 8 minutes and 46 seconds in total. Two minutes and 53 seconds of this was after Mr. Floyd was non-responsive, concludes the complaint.
  391. ^ Lovett, Ian (2020-06-04). "1992 Los Angeles Riots: How the George Floyd Protests Are Different". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2020-06-07.
  392. ^ Betz, Bradford (May 31, 2020). "George Floyd unrest: Riots, fires, violence escalate in several major cities". Fox News. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
  393. ^ "Widespread unrest as curfews defied across US". BBC News. 2020-05-31. Retrieved 2020-06-07.
  394. ^ Kindy, Kimberly; Jacobs, Shayna; Farenthold, David (June 5, 2020). "In protests against police brutality, videos capture more alleged police brutality". Washington Post. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
  395. ^ Warren, Katy; Hadden, Joey (June 4, 2020). "How all 50 states are responding to the George Floyd protests, from imposing curfews to calling in the National Guard". Business Insider. Retrieved June 8, 2020.
  396. ^ Browne, Ryan; Lee, Alicia; Rigdon, Renee. "There are as many National Guard members activated in the US as there are active duty troops in Iraq, Syria and Afghanistan". CNN. Retrieved June 2, 2020.
  397. ^ Brantley, Max (June 1, 2020). "Governor reveals National Guard activated and participated in shutdown of Sunday demonstration". Arkansas Times. Retrieved June 3, 2020.
  398. ^ "Associated Press tally shows at least 9,300 people arrested in protests since killing of George Floyd". Associated Press. June 3, 2020. Retrieved June 3, 2020.
  399. ^ Condon, Bernard; Richmond, Todd; Sisak, Michael R. (June 3, 2020). "What to know about 4 officers charged in George Floyd's death". ABC7 Chicago. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
  400. ^ a b Peru's political storm: a timeline of events Los Angeles Times, 4 October 2019
  401. ^ "Congreso peruano aprueba moción de vacancia y destituye al Presidente Martín Vizcarra". El Mercurio (in Spanish). 9 November 2020. Retrieved 9 November 2020.
  402. ^ "El jefe del Congreso, Manuel Merino, asumirá este martes como nuevo Presidente de Perú". El Mercurio (in Spanish). 9 November 2020. Retrieved 9 November 2020.
  403. ^ "Peru's swears in new leader as political turmoil hits nation". Star Tribune. Retrieved 2020-11-13.
  404. ^ "They threw out the president. Now Peru's anti-corruption drive looks in doubt". Los Angeles Times. 2020-11-12. Retrieved 2020-11-13.
  405. ^ "Golpe de estado editorial". La República (in Spanish). 2020-11-10. Retrieved 2020-11-13.
  406. ^ "Manuel Merino presentó al Gabinete de Antero Flores-Aráoz en medio de protestas NNAV |TVPE |VIDEO |VIDEOS |PAIS | VIDEOS". El Comercio (in Spanish). 2020-11-12. Retrieved 2020-11-13.
  407. ^ "Manuel Merino: crean pedido para rechazar vacancia contra Martín Vizcarra y el golpe de Estado". Líbero (in Spanish). 2020-11-11. Retrieved 2020-11-13.
  408. ^ "Trujillo: miles de ciudadanos marchan contra gobierno de Manuel Merino". El Popular (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-11-13.
  409. ^ "Inconformes consideran toma de protesta de Manuel Merino como golpe de Estado". Noticieros Televisa (in Spanish). 2020-11-10. Retrieved 2020-11-13.
  410. ^ "Peru interim president resigns after demonstrators killed". www.ft.com. Retrieved 2020-11-16.
  411. ^ "Peru elects new president in attempt to restore stability". www.ft.com. Retrieved 2020-11-18.
  412. ^ "Two Venezuela lawmakers declare themselves Speaker". 2020-01-06. Retrieved 2020-01-06.
  413. ^ "Juan Guaidó llegó a Colombia y se reunirá con Mike Pompeo". Infobae (in Spanish). Retrieved 19 January 2020.
  414. ^ "Department of State Offers Rewards for Information to Bring Venezuelan Drug Traffickers to Justice". state.gov. 26 March 2020.
  415. ^ a b c "Alleged Nicolas Maduro co-conspirator is in US custody: Report". AlJazeera. 28 March 2020. Retrieved 2020-04-08.
  416. ^ "Guaidó niega haber firmado contrato con Clíver Alcalá para supuesta "operación armada"". El Espectador (in Spanish). 30 March 2020. Retrieved 8 April 2020.
  417. ^ Berwick, Angus (28 March 2020). "Alleged Maduro accomplice surrenders to U.S. agents, will help prosecution: sources". Reuters. Retrieved 2020-04-08.
  418. ^ "Venezuela attack: Former US special forces soldier says he led botched plot to overthrow President Maduro". Sky News. Retrieved 2020-05-05.
  419. ^ "Economic Response to the Coronavirus". Treasury.gov.au. Retrieved January 20, 2021.
  420. ^ Deguara, Brittney (17 August 2020). "Live: Jacinda Ardern delays election to October 17 amid coronavirus outbreak". Stuff. Archived from the original on 17 August 2020. Retrieved 17 August 2020.
  421. ^ "Election 2020: Parliament dissolves, setting stage for election campaign". Stuff. 2020-09-06. Retrieved 2020-09-06.
  422. ^ "Euthanasia bill to go to referendum after knife-edge vote in Parliament". NZ Herald. 23 October 2019. Archived from the original on 26 October 2019. Retrieved 26 October 2019.
  423. ^ Cooke, Henry (13 November 2019). "MPs vote in favour of End of Life Choice Bill at final reading". Archived from the original on 13 November 2019. Retrieved 13 November 2019.
  424. ^ "New Zealand Election Results". Electoral Commission. Retrieved 18 October 2020.
  425. ^ Roy, Eleanor Ainge; Graham-McLay, Charlotte (2020-10-17). "Jacinda Ardern hails 'very strong mandate' after New Zealand election landslide". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2020-10-17.
  426. ^ "New Zealand election: Jacinda Ardern's Labour Party scores landslide win". BBC News. 2020-10-17. Retrieved 2020-10-17.
  427. ^ a b c "Elections in New Zealand - Wikipedia". en.m.wikipedia.org. Retrieved 2020-10-18.


Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).