2020 in Central America

Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama and Belize are historically the seven nations in Central America politically and geographically.
Central America geography

The following lists events that happened during 2020 in Central America: Belize Belize, Costa Rica Costa Rica, El Salvador El Salvador, Guatemala Guatemala, Honduras Honduras, Nicaragua Nicaragua, and Panama Panama.

The combined population of Central America is estimated at 44.53 million (2016).[1]

IncumbentsEdit

BelizeEdit

  Britain granted British Honduras self-government in 1964; on June 1, 1973, it was renamed Belize. Independence was achieved on September 21, 1981. The capital is Belmopan.[2]

Costa RicaEdit

  Authorities declared the independence of Central America on September 15, 1821, becoming part of the First Mexican Empire. From 1823 to 1838 it was part of the Federal Republic of Central America; in 1838 it became the Free State of Costa Rica, which gave way to the Republic of Costa Rica in 1848. The capital is San José.[4]

El SalvadorEdit

  In 1821 El Salvador became part of the First Mexican Empire, which gave way to the Federal Republic of Central America in 1823. That lasted until 1841. El Salvador was independent until it joined the Greater Republic of Central America from 1896 to 1898 when it became independent once again. The capital of the Republic of El Salvador is San Salvador.[6]

GuatemalaEdit

  The Captaincy General of Guatemala declared independence from Spain on September 15, 1821, when it was absorbed by the Mexican Empire. From 1823 to 1841it was part of the Federal Republic of Central America. On March 21, 1847, Guatemala declared itself an independent republic. The capital of the Republic of Guatemala is Guatemala City.[8]

HondurasEdit

  Honduras gained independence from Spain in 1821 and was a part of the Mexican Empire until 1823, when it became part of the Federal Republic of Central America. The Republic of Honduras was established 1838. Its capital is Tegucigalpa.[10]

NicaraguaEdit

  The Captaincy General of Guatemala was dissolved in September 1821, and Nicaragua became part of the First Mexican Empire. In 1823, Nicaragua joined the newly formed the United Provinces of Central America, (later the Federal Republic of Central America). Nicaragua finally became an independent republic in 1838. The capital of the Republic of Nicaragua is Managua.[12]

PanamaEdit

  The Independence of Panama from Spain was accomplished through a bloodless revolt between in November 1821 after which time it joined Gran Colombia. Panama separated from Colombia on November 3, 1903, and signed the a treaty establishing the Panama Canal Zone. The Canal Zone was abolished in 1979; the Panama Canal itself remained under joint U.S.–Panamanian control until 1999. Panama City is the capital of the Republic of Panama.[14]

Monthly eventsEdit

JanuaryEdit

  • January 1 – New Year's Day
  • January 7 – The Panama Canal watershed is at its fifth driest in 70 years, according to the Panama Canal Authority.[16]
  • January 9
    • Martyrs' Day (Panama)
    • Federal marshalls in Carson City, United States, arrest Salvadoran Rene Antonio “Scrapy” Hernandez-Mejia, whom they say was part of a terrorist organization. They intend to deport him back to El Salvador.[17]
  • January 14 – New President Alejandro Giammattei of Guatemala takes office after a five-hour delay due to protests. Outgoing president Morales is pelted with eggs.[18]
  • January 16
    • Guatemala breaks off diplomatic relations with Venezuela.[19]
    • Arrest warrants on corruption charges are issued for eight politicians in Guatemala; former congresswoman Aracely Chavarria and former mayor Angel Ren of Chiché, Guatemala, are arrested.[20]
  • January 18
  • January 20: Thousands of Honduran migrants and asylum-seekers battle with Mexican National Guard and try to force their way across the Suchiate River near Ayutla, San Marcos, Guatemala.[23]
    • The Guatemala government seizes two farms belonging to former Minister of Communications, Infrastructure, and Housing, Alejandro Sinibaldi.[24]
  • January 22 – Guatemala is seen as the fifth most corrupt country in the world.[25]
  • January 24 – Calm returns to the Mexico-Guatemala border after 800 Honduran immigrants were arrested on January 23.[26]
  • January 27: Guatemalan President Giammattei offers El Salvador an opportunity to build and operate a port in Guatemalan waters in the Atlantic.[27]
  • January 31
    • Eighty armed individuals attack the indigenous community of Mayagna Sauni, Nicaragua, located 400 kilometers from Managua, burning houses while leaving six dead and ten missing.[28]
    • Photographer Caroline Power discovers a "blanket" of plastic measuring 5 by 3 kilometres (3 by 2 mi) near Roatán Island, Honduras. It is believed to have been washed from the Motagua River during heavy rains in Guatemala.[29]

FebruaryEdit

  • February 1 – The United States deported a record 4,171 Guatemalans (3,000 men, 692 women, 479 minors), a 2.27% increase over 2019, during the month of January, according to the Instituto Guatemalteco de Migración (Guatemalan Institute of Migration, IGM).[30]
  • February 2
  • February 3
  • February 4
    • 200,000 people participate in an earthquake drill held on the 44th anniversary of the 1976 Guatemala earthquake in which 22,000 people died.[35]
    • A Costa Rican judge nullifies a same-sex marriage between two women and fires the Civil law notary who performed the marriage in 2015.[36]
    • Oscar Dávila, 44, is appointed to head the investigations into government corruption in Guatemala.[37]
  • February 5
    • Panamanian President Laurentino Cortizo fires Security Minister Rolando Mirones and Government Minister Carlos Romero after the February 3 prison escape of Gilberto Ventura Ceballos.[38]
    • The government of El Salvador says it is not ready to accept asylum-seekers and will not accept them from the United States.[39]
  • February 6 – In a visit to the Mexican Senate, the President of Guatemala, Alejandro Giammattei suggests the two countries construct ‘’Muros de Prosperidad’’ ("Prosperity Walls") in the form of an investment bank in the Mexican states of Chiapas and Tabasco and the Guatemalan departments of San Marcos, Quiché, and Huehuetenango in order to stem migration.[40]
  • February 7
  • February 8
  • February 9
    • Municipal elections in Costa Rica: Only 9 of 82 candidates for mayor are women, according to the ‘’Instituto Nacional de las Mujeres’’ (“National Institute of Women”), (INAMU).[47]
    • Legislators and the executive in El Salvador dispute a US$109 million loan earmarked for the police and military.[48]
    • The Chamber of Commerce, Industry and Agriculture of Panama (CCIAP) requests that foreigners be allowed to work in the country in order to promote economic development.[49]
  • February 11 – Nicaragua creates four new fuel companies in response to U.S. sanctions against the state-owned Albanisa because of alleged money laundering by members of the Daniel Ortega family.[50]
  • February 12 – Lawmakers in Guatemala pass a controversial law giving the president the authority to restrict non-governmental organizations (NGOs) that engage in "disruptive" activities.[51]
  • February 13 – A new metro line will go under the Panama Canal to reach western suburbs of Panama City at a cost of US$2.5 billion. It is part of a $4 billion infrastructure project including a bridge over the canal.[52]
  • February 14
    • Three police officers are killed in a shootout attempt to free MS-13 leader Alexander Mendoza "El Porky" in El Progreso, Yoro Department, Honduras. Mendoza escaped.[53]
    • Salvadoran President Nayib Bukele surrounds the Legislative Palace in San Salvador with followers, police, and army snipers after God tells him the legislature must approve a $109 million loan from the United States.[54]
  • February 15 – Authorities in Costa Rica seize a record five tons of cocaine worth $130 million in the port of Limón.[55]
  • February 18 – A campaign to reunite families separated by kidnapping and/or irregular adoption during the Guatemalan Civil War of 1960-96 has begun.[56]
  • February 24
    • Thelma Aldana, the former chief prosecutor known for fighting corruption, is granted asylum in the United States after being charged with embezzlement in Guatemala.[57]
    • New rules go into effect that make immigration to the United States more difficult.[58]
  • February 28 – El Salvador's president vetoes a reconciliation law that he says would allow criminals to get away with crimes against humanity during the Salvadoran Civil War[59]
  • February 29 – An appeals court in San Francisco rules against the U.S. government's "stay in Mexico" policy for asylum seekers, although the ruling is stayed until March 2.[60]

MarchEdit

  • March 6 – The first case of COVID-19 in Central America is reported in Costa Rica.[61] On March 13 the number of confirmed cases in the country had risen to 26.[62]
  • March 8 – International Women's Day
  • March 9
    • Baron Bliss Day, Belize
    • 1,346,991 cases of dengue fever have been reported in Latin America in the last 13 months. The countries with the highest rates are Nicaragua (2,271 cases per 100,000 inhabitants), Belize (1,021), Honduras (995.5), and El Salvador (375).[63]
  • March 13
  • March 14 – Panama repatriates 1,504 Colombian tourists from the cruise ship Monarch. Since the port of Cartagena, Colombia is closed, the people have to fly from Colón, Panama. About 300 people are still waiting to buy tickets.[66]
  • March 15 – In a historic first, all Peace Corps volunteers worldwide are withdrawn from their host countries.[67]
  • March 16 – Mexican deputy health minister Hugo Lopez-Gatell denies a charge by El Salvador president Nayib Bukele that Mexico let a dozen people with COVID-19 board a plane bound to El Salvador International Airport.[68]
  • March 18 – Costa Rica registers its first death from COVID-19.[69]
  • March 26 – The United States sends ICE planes previously used to deport undocumented immigrants to evacuate North Americans stranded in Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador. 64 people were transported from Honduras on March 24.[70]
  • March 28 – Panama and Costa Rica fail in attempts to move thousands of migrants from Africa, Asia, and Haiti amassed in shelters as a precaution against COVID-19. Panama has 901 confirmed infections and 17 deaths while Costa Rica has 295 confirmed cases and two deaths.[71]

AprilEdit

  • April 1 – U.S. President Donald Trump announces that he is stepping up pressure on Venezuelan President Nicolás Maduro. Trump sends anti-drug Navy ships and AWACS planes to the region near Venezuela in the largest military build-up in the region since the 1989 invasion of Panama to remove General Manuel Noriega from power.[72]
  • April 3
  • April 4
    • Belize closes its borders to all, including nationals. Nineteen Belizeans are confined at two facilities in Corozal Town.[75]
    • Nicaraguans ask where President Ortega is; he has not been seen in public since March 12.[76]
  • April 5-11: Holy Week
  • April 11
    • Juan Santamaría Day, Costa Rica
    • Honduras extends its red alert status for the coronavirus until April 19.[77]
  • April 12 – The U.S. Customs and Border Protection says it has used the COVID-19 pandemic as a pretext to expel over 10,000 Mexican and Central American asylum seekers to Mexico.[78]
  • April 20 – 1.8 million children return to school and 130,000 government employees return to work in Nicaragua despite fears of COVID-19. Nicaragua has had two deaths and nine reported cases of coronavirus. President Daniel Ortega, who had not been seen for 34 days, said Nicaraguans “haven’t stopped working, because if this country stops working, it dies.”[79]
  • April 21 – The United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean estimates that the coronavirus pandemic may result in a 5.3% in GDP in the region, resulting in a 4.4% increase in poverty and a 2.5% increase in extreme poverty—29 million people.[80]
  • April 23
    • The International Monetary Fund (IMF) extends El Salvador a credit of $389 million and demands budget cuts (including a 60% cut in pensions) and tax increases including fuel taxes and value-added tax (VAT).[81]
    • The United Nations Commission on Human Rights calls on Mexican and Central American governments to halt deportations during the coronavirus pandemic. 2,500 migrants are stuck in Panama because Honduras has closed its border. Mexico has dumped migrants in Guatemala, but Guatemala has not let them in. On April 23 the organization helped 41 migrants return to El Salvador from Mexico.[82]
  • April 24 – Lee Henley Huxiang, a Belizian national, is going to be prosecuted in China for helping pro-democracy activists in Hong Kong. Belize does not have diplomatic relations with China (People's Republic of China), but recognizes the government of Taiwan (Republic of China) instead.[83]
  • April 26
    • Mexico′s National Institute of Migration (INM) empties the 65 migrant detention centers it has across the country by returning 3,653 people to Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras in the hope of preventing outbreaks of COVID-19.[84]
    • Over a hundred Nicaraguan citizens are denied entry to Nicaragua as they flee the coronavirus and unemployment in other countries.[85]
  • April 27 – After a weekend with a record number of killings, El Salvador President Nayib Bukele authorizes the use of force against criminal gangs. He also cracks down on inmates inside prisons.[86][87]
  • April 28 – Juan Carlos Muñoz, vice-minister of the Presidency of Panama resigns after being accused of corruption.[88]
  • April 29
    • Two dozen Colombians deported from the United States have been found to have coronavirus. Other infections among deportees have been found in Haiti, Mexico, Guatemala, and Jamaica.[89]
    • Residents of Felipillo, Panama, block the Pan-American Highway for twelve hours, demanding the “bono solidario” (solidarity bonus) promised by the government in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.[90]
  • April 30

MayEdit

  • May 1 – International Workers' Day and Labour Day
  • May 3 – Fiesta de las Cruces (El Salvador)
  • May 4 – The European Union sanctions six high-ranking officials of the government of Nicaragua, including the police chief, for human rights violations in April 2018.[93]
  • May 17 – Salvadoran President Nayib Bukele′s “containment centers” where thousands of Salvadorans have been detained for more than a month at a time without judicial review, come under criticism from human rights advocates. The government has reported 1,265 cases and 26 deaths from the COVID-19 pandemic nationwide.[94]
  • May 12 – The Panama Canal is going dry because of a lack of rain.[95]
  • May 18
    • Commonwealth Day, Belize
    • COVID-19 pandemic: Nicaragua closes its borders with Costa Rica as the latter tests truck drivers. Sixty-one drivers test positive and are turned back. Costa Rica has 866 confirmed cases and ten deaths, and some question the veracity of Nicaragua's claim of only 25 cases and eight deaths.[96]
  • May 26 – Costa Rica becomes the first country in Cental America to legalize same-sex marriage.[97]
  • May 28 – Legisative leaders from Costa Rica and Panama meet with their counterparts from eight other Latin American countries to discuss a response to the COVID-19 pandemic.[98]
  • May 31 – Tropical Storm Amanda kills seventeen in El Salvador and Guatemala while causing flooding, power outages, destroying 50 homes and sending thousands to shelters.[99][100]

JuneEdit

  • June 3
    • COVID-19 pandemic: El Observatorio Ciudadano, an anonymous group of 90 doctors, epidemiologists, and other health providers, says that Nicaragua is following the Swedish model of fighting the pandemic, resulting in 3,275 infections and 805 deaths, as opposed to the official figures of 759 infections and 35 deaths.[101]
    • Migrants from Africa and the Caribbean continue their march north through Honduras despite the fact that the country has closed its borders.[102]

Predicted and scheduled eventsEdit

CultureEdit

Film, television, and theaterEdit

LiteratureEdit

MusicEdit

SportsEdit

DeathsEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Central America Population 2020". World Population Review. Retrieved February 9, 2020.
  2. ^ William J. Griffith; O. Nigel Bolland; Alfred E. Alford. "Belize". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved Apr 5, 2020.
  3. ^ a b c d e f The CIA World Fact Book: Belize Retrieved Feb 9, 2020
  4. ^ Gary S. Elbow; Charles L. Stansifer; Franklin D. Parker; Thomas L. Karnes. "Costa Rica". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved Apr 5, 2020.
  5. ^ a b c d The CIA World Fact Book: Costa Rica Retrieved Feb 9, 2020
  6. ^ Markus Schultze-Kraft; René Santamaria Varela; David G. Browning; Philip F. Flemion. "El Salvador". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved Apr 5, 2020.
  7. ^ a b c The CIA World Fact Book: El Salvador Retrieved Feb 9, 2020
  8. ^ William J. Griffith; Oscar H. Horst; Thomas P. Anderson; Charles L. Stansifer. "Guatemala". Encyclopaedia Britannica.
  9. ^ a b c d e CIA Fact Book: Central America: Guatemala Retrieved Jan 9, 2020
  10. ^ Wayne M. Clegern; J. Roberto Moncada R; Ralph Lee Woodward. "Honduras". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved Apr 5, 2020.
  11. ^ a b c The CIA World Fact Book: Honduras Retrieved Feb 9, 2020
  12. ^ Rosendo Arguello; Franklin D. Parker; Bernard Nietschmann; Thomas W. Walker; Manuel S. Orozco. "Nicaragua". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved Apr 5, 2020.
  13. ^ a b c The CIA World Fact Book: Nicaragua Retrieved Feb 9, 2020
  14. ^ BY: Richard L. Millett; Burton L. Gordon; Gustavo Anguizola. "Panama". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved Apr 5, 2020.
  15. ^ a b c The CIA World Fact Book: Panama Retrieved Feb 9, 2020
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  24. ^ Alejandro Sinibaldi loses two other farms that would have been acquired with the bribes of Odebrecht (in Spanish) Prensa Libre (Guatemala City), 20 Jan 2020, Retrieved 9 Feb 2020
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  33. ^ https://cnnespanol.cnn.com/video/nicaragua-tortura-denuncias-paramilitar-pkg-mario-medrano/ Organismos defensores de derechos humanos han documentado al menos 8 casos de tortura en Nicaragua (in Spanish)] 6 Feb 2020, Retrieved 9, 2020
  34. ^ The reward for information on Gilberto Ventura Ceballos is increased to $ 50,000 {in lang|es} La Prensa (Panama), 5 Feb 2020, retrieved 8 Feb 2020
  35. ^ Guatemala City conducts a mock response to an earthquake of 7.6 degrees (in Spanish) Sputnik, 4 Feb 2020, Retrieved 9 Feb 2020
  36. ^ Marriage annulled between two women in Costa Rica (in Spanish) CNN en Español, 4 Feb 2020, Retrieved 9 Feb 2020
  37. ^ "Guatemala names former drug czar head of new anti-graft body". AP. Feb 4, 2020. Retrieved Feb 9, 2020.
  38. ^ Escape by convict Ventura Ceballos triggers resignation of two ministers (in Spanish) La Estrella de Panamá, 5 Feb 2020, Retrieved 9 Feb 2020
  39. ^ El Salvador says it’s not ready to receive asylum seekers AP, 5 Feb 2020, Retrieved 9 Feb 2020
  40. ^ Michelle Mendoza (Feb 6, 2020). "Presidente de Guatemala propone a México contrarrestar la migración" [President of Guatemala proposes to Mexico to counteract migration]. CNN en Español (in Spanish). Retrieved Feb 8, 2020.
  41. ^ Alfredo Miranda (Feb 7, 2020). "Fin del embargo de 500 días al diario decano de Nicaragua" [End of the 500-day blockade on the dean of Nicaragua’s newspaper]. El País (in Spanish). Retrieved Feb 9, 2020.Mario Medrano (Feb 8, 2020). "Liberan insumos al diario La Prensa en Nicaragua, que estaban retenidos desde hace 75 semanas" [Supplies for the newspaper La Prensa in Nicaragua, which were held for 75 weeks, are released]. CNN en Español. Retrieved Feb 9, 2020.
  42. ^ Juan Carlos Paz (8 February 2020). "ACNUR asigna US$ 4,1 millones para atender a nicaragüenses y venezolanos solicitantes de asilo en Costa Rica" [OHCHR allocates US $ 4.1 million to serve 87,190 Nicaraguans (80%) and Venezuelans (7%) seeking asylum in Costa Rica]. CNN en Español (in Spanish).
  43. ^ Juan Carlos Paz (Feb 7, 2020). "Estados Unidos ofrece miles de visas de trabajo agrícola para guatemaltecos" [The United States offers thousands of agricultural work visas for Guatemalans]. CNN en Español (in Spanish). Retrieved Feb 9, 2020. Juan Carlos Paz (Feb 7, 2020). "Estados Unidos acuerda 1,000 visas de trabajo para salvadoreños" [United States agrees to 1,000 work visas for Salvadorans]. CNN en Español (in Spanish). Retrieved Feb 9, 2020.
  44. ^ Some Salvadorans deported from the US are killed, according to Human Rights Watch (in Spanish) CNN en Español, 7 Feb 2020, Retrieved 9 Feb 2020
  45. ^ García, Jacobo (Feb 8, 2020). "La zona cero en el cambio climático en América Latina" [The zero zone in climate change in Latin America]. El País (in Spanish). Retrieved Feb 9, 2020.
  46. ^ The "Recycling Challenge" campaign in El Salvador seeks to collect three million plastic bottles (in Spanish) CNN en Español, 8 Feb 2020, Retrieved 9 Feb 2020
  47. ^ Costa Rica: Low Voting for Female Candidates Generates Change Initiatives (in Spanish) Retrieved 9 Feb 2020
  48. ^ Merlin Delcid (9 February 2020). "Crece tensión entre poder ejecutivo y el legislativo por préstamo de US$ 109 millones" [Tension between the executive and legislative branches grows over a US $ 109 million loan]. CNN en Español (in Spanish).
  49. ^ Panama businessmen ask to open a labor market to qualified foreigners (in Spanish) La Estrella de Panamá, Retrieved 9 Feb 2020
  50. ^ "Nicaragua creates new fuel firms after December US sanctions". AP NEWS. 12 February 2020. Retrieved Apr 27, 2020.
  51. ^ Guatemala lawmakers OK controversial NGO regulations by Sonia Perez D., AP, 12 Feb 2020
  52. ^ Panama City metro expansion to go through tunnel under canal AP, 13 Feb 2020
  53. ^ Three Honduran policemen killed in shoot-out to free MS-13 leader Al Jazeera, 14 Feb 2020
  54. ^ Nayib Bukele shows his messianic face threatening El Salvador's congress El Universal (in English) 14 Feb 2020
  55. ^ 'Historic seizure': Costa Rica breaks record with five-ton cocaine bust by Zachary Halaschak, Washington Examiner, 17 Feb 2020
  56. ^ Campaign in Guatemala seeks to reunite stolen children during civil war with their families (in Spanish) AFP, 18 Feb 2020
  57. ^ Ex-Guatemala prosecutor granted asylum in U.S. AP, 24 Feb 2020
  58. ^ Crackdown on immigrants who use public benefits takes effect By ANITA SNOW, AP, 24 Feb 2020
  59. ^ El Salvador reconciliation law vetoed over impunity fears By MARCOS ALEMÁN, AP, 28 Feb 2020
  60. ^ Confusion on the Border as Appeals Court Rules Against Trump's 'Remain in Mexico' Policy Caitlin Dickerson, The New York Times, February 29, 2020
  61. ^ First cases of coronavirus in Colombia and Central America, while cruise ship is still stranded in California (in Spanish) AFP, 6 March 2020
  62. ^ Costa Rica up to 26 confirmed coronavirus cases: Updates from Friday Tico Times, 13 March 2020
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  64. ^ Central America agrees to regional plan vs. coronavirus; Costa Rican film festival suspended AFP and The Tico Times, 13 Mar 2020
  65. ^ "Honduras court overturns 58-year sentence for ex-first lady". AP NEWS. 13 March 2020. Retrieved Apr 27, 2020.
  66. ^ Panama repatriates cruise tourists for new coronavirus (in Spanish) AFP/MSN Noticias, 14 Mar 2020
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  68. ^ Mexico rejects El Salvador accusation it let coronavirus patients board plane Reuters, 16 Mar 2020
  69. ^ Costa Rica registers its first death due to COVID-19 (in Spanish) Informador, 18 Mar 2020
  70. ^ ICE deportation planes begin to ship stranded U.S. citizens home Reuters, 26 Mar 2020
  71. ^ Migrants in Central American limbo as coronavirus relocation plans falter By Alvaro Murillo, Reuters, 28 March 2020
  72. ^ Trump: US to deploy anti-drug Navy ships near Venezuela AP, 1 April 2020
  73. ^ Thousands of Central Americans detained for flaunting coronavirus rules Reuters, 3 Apr 2020
  74. ^ Venezuela mobilizes its artillery before threat of armed attacks (in Spanish) La Jornada (Mexico), 3 Apr 2020
  75. ^ Belize is now on war footing; PM Barrow announces closure of borders to nationals Breaking Belize News, 3 Apr 2020
  76. ^ Coronavirus | La larga ausencia en Nicaragua de Daniel Ortega, el único presidente de América Latina que no ha aparecido en público ante la crisis del COVID-19 (in Spanish) BBC Mundo, 4 Apr 2020
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  78. ^ The Trump administration uses COVID-19 as an argument to expel over 10,000 asylum seekers to Mexico (in English) El Universal, 12 Apr 2020
  79. ^ "Nicaragua sends students back to school despite virus fears". AP NEWS. 20 April 2020. Retrieved Apr 23, 2020.
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  81. ^ "FMI recomienda a Bukele subir el costo de impuestos e IVA para pagar deuda de 389 MDD" [IMF recommends Bukele raise the cost of taxes and VAT to pay debt of 389 MDD]. elgatopolitico.news (in Spanish). Retrieved Apr 23, 2020.
  82. ^ News, A. B. C. "UN alarmed by migrants caught in no-man's land at borders". ABC News. Retrieved Apr 24, 2020.
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  84. ^ "Mexico returns Central Americans, empties migrant centers". AP NEWS. 26 April 2020. Retrieved Apr 27, 2020.
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  88. ^ "Renuncia el viceministro de la Presidencia de Panamá, Juan Carlos Muñoz". CNN en Español (in Spanish). 29 April 2020. Retrieved May 2, 2020.
  89. ^ "Two dozen people deported to Colombia on U.S. flight found to have coronavirus: sources". news.yahoo.com. Retrieved Apr 30, 2020.
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  102. ^ "African, Caribbean migrants continue trek towards U.S. border". news.yahoo.com. Retrieved June 3, 2020.
  103. ^ Premios Lo Nuestro 2020: when is it, how to see it live, time, tickets and artists (in Spanish) by Mark Cube, Inivision, 20 Mar 2020, retrieved 29 Mar 2020
  104. ^ US men face Mexico, Costa Rica in Olympic qualifiers AP, Retrieved Feb 9, 2020
  105. ^ Xocomil Ultramarathon: the mountain race held at Lake Atitlan (in Spanish) Guatemala.com, Retrieved Feb 9, 2020
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  108. ^ Ricardo Rosales Román, former URNG leader and signatory of the 1996 Peace Accords, dies (in Spanish) Prensa Libre, 2 Jan 2020, Retrieved 9 Feb 2020
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  110. ^ Kidnap and execute with six shots a politician opposed to President Daniel Ortega (in Spanish) El Mundo (Spain), 20 Feb 2020
  111. ^ Ernesto Cardenal, Nicaraguan poet and priest died (in Spanish) La Jornada, 1 March 2020
  112. ^ Muere el expresidente de Honduras, Rafael Leonardo Callejas (in Spanish)
  113. ^ Bishop Dorrick Wright passes at age 74
  114. ^ Nicaraguan Legislator Dies of Covid-19
  115. ^ Fallece el cantautor nicaragüense Otto de la Rocha (in Spanish)

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