The Nagorno-Karabakh conflict is a territorial and ethnic conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan over the disputed region of Nagorno-Karabakh and seven surrounding districts, which are de facto controlled by the self-declared Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, but are internationally recognized as de jure part of Azerbaijan. The conflict has its origins in the early 20th century, when predominantly Armenian-populated and historically Armenian Nagorno-Karabakh region was made an autonomous oblast in Soviet Azerbaijan by the decision of Joseph Stalin. The present conflict began in 1988 when the Karabakh Armenians demanded that Karabakh is transferred from Soviet Azerbaijan to Soviet Armenia. The conflict escalated into a full-scale war in the early 1990s.
A cease-fire signed in 1994 provided for two decades of relative stability, which significantly deterioriated along with Baku’s increasing frustration with the status quo, at odds with Yerevan’s efforts to cement it. A four day escalation in April 2016 marks the worst fighting to date since the cease-fire. Since then, the danger of resumed large-scale hostilities has greatly increased.
As of 2017, public opinion on both sides has been noted as "increasingly entrenched, bellicose and uncompromising". In this context, mutual concessions that might lower tensions in the longer term could in the shorter run threaten internal stability and the survival of ruling elites, hence leaving little incentive for compromise.
Nagorno-Karabakh War (1988–94)
The Nagorno-Karabakh War, also known as the Artsakh Liberation War in Armenia and Nagorno-Karabakh, was an armed conflict that took place in the late 1980s to May 1994, in the enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh in southwestern Azerbaijan, between the majority ethnic Armenians of Nagorno-Karabakh backed by the Republic of Armenia, and the Republic of Azerbaijan. As the war progressed, Armenia and Azerbaijan, both former Soviet Republics, entangled themselves in a protracted, undeclared war in the mountainous heights of Karabakh as Azerbaijan attempted to curb the secessionist movement in Nagorno-Karabakh. The enclave's parliament had voted in favor of uniting itself with Armenia and a referendum, boycotted by the Azerbaijani population of Nagorno-Karabakh, was held, whereby most of the voters voted in favor of independence. The demand to unify with Armenia, which began anew in 1988, began in a relatively peaceful manner; however, in the following months, as the Soviet Union's disintegration neared, it gradually grew into an increasingly violent conflict between ethnic Armenians and ethnic Azerbaijanis, resulting in claims of ethnic cleansing by both sides.
Inter-ethnic clashes between the two broke out shortly after the parliament of the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast (NKAO) in Azerbaijan voted to unify the region with Armenia on 20 February 1988. The circumstances of the dissolution of the Soviet Union facilitated an Armenian separatist movement in Soviet Azerbaijan. The declaration of secession from Azerbaijan was the final result of a territorial conflict regarding the land. As Azerbaijan declared its independence from the Soviet Union and removed the powers held by the enclave's government, the Armenian majority voted to secede from Azerbaijan and in the process proclaimed the unrecognized Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh.
Full-scale fighting erupted in the late winter of 1992. International mediation by several groups including the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) failed to bring an end resolution that both sides could work with. In the spring of 1993, Armenian forces captured regions outside the enclave itself, threatening the involvement of other countries in the region. By the end of the war in 1994, the Armenians were in full control of most of the enclave and also held and currently control approximately 9% of Azerbaijan's territory outside the enclave. As many as 230,000 Armenians from Azerbaijan and 800,000 Azerbaijanis from Armenia and Karabakh have been displaced as a result of the conflict. A Russian-brokered ceasefire was signed in May 1994 and peace talks, mediated by the OSCE Minsk Group, have been held ever since by Armenia and Azerbaijan.
Some clashes occurred in the years following the 1994 ceasefire.
2008 Mardakert skirmishes
The 2008 Mardakert skirmishes began on 4 March after the 2008 Armenian election protests. It involved the heaviest fighting between ethnic Armenian and Azerbaijani forces over the disputed region of Nagorno-Karabakh since the 1994 ceasefire after the Nagorno-Karabakh War.
Armenian sources accused Azerbaijan of trying to take advantage of ongoing unrest in Armenia. Azerbaijani sources blamed Armenia, claiming that the Armenian government was trying to divert attention from internal tensions in Armenia.
Following the incident, on March 14 the United Nations General Assembly by a recorded vote of 39 in favour to 7 against adopted Resolution 62/243, demanding the immediate withdrawal of all Armenian forces from the occupied territories of Azerbaijan.
The February 2010 Nagorno-Karabakh skirmish was a scattered exchange of gunfire that took place on February 18 on the line of contact dividing Azerbaijani and the Karabakh Armenian military forces. Azerbaijan accused the Armenian forces of firing on the Azerbaijani positions near Tap Qaraqoyunlu, Qızıloba, Qapanlı, Yusifcanlı and Cavahirli villages, as well as in uplands of Agdam Rayon with small arms fire including snipers. As a result, three Azerbaijani soldiers were killed and one wounded.
The 2010 Mardakert skirmishes were a series of violations of the Nagorno-Karabakh War ceasefire. They took place across the line of contact dividing Azerbaijan and the ethnic Armenian military forces of the unrecognized but de facto independent Nagorno-Karabakh Republic. Both sides accused the other of violating the ceasefire regime. These were the worst violations of the cease fire (which has been in place since 1994) in two years and left Armenian forces with the heaviest casualties since the Mardakert skirmishes of March 2008.
Between 2008 and 2010, 74 soldiers were killed on both sides.
2011–2013 continued fighting
In late April 2011, border clashes left three Nagorno-Karabakh soldiers dead, while on 5 October, two Azerbaijani and one Armenian soldier were killed. In all during the year, 10 Armenian soldiers were killed.
The following year, border clashes between the armed forces of Armenia and Azerbaijan took place from late April through early June. The clashes resulted in the deaths of five Azerbaijani and four Armenian soldiers. In all during 2012, 19 Azerbaijani and 14 Armenian soldiers were killed. Another report put the number of Azerbaijani dead at 20.
Throughout 2013, 12 Azerbaijani and 7 Armenian soldiers were killed in border clashes.
2014 clashes and helicopter shootdown
In 2014, several border clashes erupted that had resulted in 16 fatalities on both sides by 20 June.
On 2 August, Azerbaijani authorities announced that eight of their soldiers had been killed in three days of clashes with NKO forces, the biggest single death toll for the country's military since the 1994 war. NKO denied any casualties on their side, while saying the Azerbaijanis had suffered 14 dead and many more injured. Local officials in Nagorno-Karabakh reported at least two Armenian military deaths in what was the largest incident in the area since 2008. Five more Azerbaijani troops were killed the following night, bringing the death toll from the August clashes to at least 15. The violence prompted Russia to issue a strong statement, warning both sides not to escalate the situation further.
By August 5, 2014 the fighting that started on 27 July had left 14 Azerbaijani and 5 Armenian soldiers dead. Overall, 27 Azerbaijani soldiers had died since the start of the year in border clashes.
In a separate incident in July 2014, the NKR Defense Army announced that troops had killed one and arrested two members of an Azerbaijani subversive group that had penetrated the contact line. In addition to spying on Armenian troop movements and military installations and civilian settlements in Karvachar (Kelbajar), the team was charged with the murder of Smbat Tsakanyan, a seventeen-year-old Armenian boy and resident of the village of Jumen. Both surviving members of the group were sentenced to life in prison by an Armenian court. In July 2015, video footage recorded by the team was released to the public and aired on Armenian state television.
On November 12, 2014, the Azerbajani armed forces shot down a Nagorno-Karabakh Defense Army Mil Mi-24 helicopter over Karabakh's Agdam district. Three servicemen were killed in the incident. Armenia’s Defense Ministry stated the aircraft was unarmed and called its downing an "unprecedented provocation". Azerbaijani authorities claimed the helicopter was "trying to attack" Azerbaijani army positions. Armenian authorities stated that Azerbaijan will face "grave consequences". With the crash, 2014 became the deadliest year for Armenian forces since the 1994 ceasefire agreement, with 27 soldiers killed in addition to 34 fatalities on the Azerbaijani side. Six Armenian civilians also died in 2014, while by the end of the year the number of Azerbaijanis killed rose to 39 (37 soldiers and 2 civilians).
2015 sporadic fighting
Over the years, Azerbaijan had been growing impatient with the status quo. In this regard, propelled by oil and gas windfall, the country embarked in a military build-up. In 2015 alone, Baku spent $3bn on its military, more than Armenia’s entire national budget.
Throughout January and February 2016, four Armenian and four Azerbaijani soldiers were killed in fighting at the Nagorno-Karabakh border. The first casualty of 2016 was a Nagorno-Karabakh soldier Aramayis Voskanian, who was killed by Azerbaijani sniper fire while serving in the eastern direction of the Line of Contact. In mid-February, Hakob Hambartsumyan, an Armenian herdsman from Vazgenashen, was killed by an Azerbaijani sniper. In March, two Azerbaijani and one Armenian soldier were killed in clashes along the border between Azerbaijan and Armenia.
Between 1 and 5 April 2016, heavy fighting along the Nagorno-Karabakh frontline left 88 Armenian and 31–92 Azerbaijani soldiers dead. One Armenian and three Azerbaijani soldiers were also missing. In addition, 10 civilians (six Azerbaijani and four Armenian) were also killed. During the clashes, an Azerbaijani military helicopter, 13 unmanned drones were shot down and an Azerbaijani tank was destroyed.
Between 8 and 17 May 2016, sporadic fighting left 14 Armenian and three Azerbaijani soldiers dead, as well as one Azerbaijani civilian. On 5 October 2016, Armenian artillery shelled Azerbaijani positions on the line of contact with one Azerbaijani soldier being killed. One Armenian soldier was killed on 11 October 2016 in a skirmish on the line of contact. On 15 November, an Azerbaijani soldier was killed on the line of contact. On 27 November, Azerbaijani forces reported shooting down an Armenian drone which had crossed the line of contact.
A Nagorno-Karabakh soldier was killed in action with Azerbaijiani forces on 6 February 2017 On 8 February 2017, one Nagorno-Karabakh soldier was killed and another wounded in a firefight with Azerbajiani troops along the line of contact. On 24 February 2017, Azerbaijani forces shelled the Armenian positions near the village of Talish with artillery. The next day a large firefight broke out with Azerbajiani forces approaching Armenian lines in the same area, 5 Azerbaijani soldiers were killed in the ensuing engagement.
On 15 May 2017, a Karabakh Osa air defense system was damaged or destroyed by a guided missile launched by Azerbaijani forces. On 20 May 2017, a Armenian soldier was killed in a firefight with Azeri troops, the Azerbaijani military utilized anti-tank grenades and 60mm mortar fire in the action. On 26 May 2017, a Nagorno-Karabakh soldier was killed in a skirmish with Azerbajiani forces involving mortars and grenade launches. On 16 June 2017 three Nagorno-Karabakh soldiers were killed by Azeri forces. On 22 June 2017 four Azeri soldiers were killed by Nagorno-Karakakh soldiers. On July 4 an Azeri woman and her two-year-old grandchild were killed as a result of shelling by Armenian forces. On 7 July several Armenian soldiers were killed by Azerbaijani Forces. On 10 July 2017 a Nagorno-Karabakh soldier was killed in shelling by the Azerbaijani forces. On 25 July 2017, Azerbaijan claimed that one of its soldiers was wounded by a munition dropped from an Armenian UCAV.
Although no exact casualty figures exist, by 2009, as many as 3,000 people, mostly soldiers, had been killed, according to most observers.[verification needed] In 2008, the fighting became more intense and frequent. With 72 deaths recorded throughout the year, 2014 became the bloodiest since the war ended. According to the Union of Relatives of the Artsakh War Missing in Action Soldiers, as of 2014, 239 Karabakhi soldiers remain officially listed as unaccounted for. Between 1 and 5 April 2016, heavy fighting along the Nagorno-Karabakh frontline left 27 Armenian and 28 Azerbaijani soldiers dead. 26 Armenian soldiers were also missing. In addition, six civilians (four Armenian and two Azerbaijani) were killed.
|2010||7 soldiers||18 soldiers||25 soldiers|
|2011||10 soldiers||4+ soldiers, 1 civilian||14+ soldiers, 1 civilian|
|2012||14 soldiers||20 soldiers||34 soldiers|
|2013||7 soldiers||12 soldiers||19 soldiers|
|2014||27 soldiers, 6 civilians||37 soldiers, 2 civilians||64 soldiers, 8 civilians|
|2015||42 soldiers, 5 civilians||64 soldiers||77 soldiers, 5 civilians|
|2016||107 soldiers, 5 civilians||+101 soldiers, 7 civilians||+147–208 soldiers, 12 civilians|
- "‘Nagorno-Karabakh is Turkey's problem too,' says Erdoğan". Today's Zaman. 13 November 2013. Archived from the original on October 12, 2014. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
...Erdoğan noted that Turkey's unconditional support for Azerbaijan...
- Özden Zeynep Oktav (2013). Turkey in the 21st Century: Quest for a New Foreign Policy. Ashgate Publishing. p. 126. ISBN 9781409476559.
...Turkey's support for Azerbaijan in the conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh...
- Flanagan, Stephen J.; Brannen, Samuel (2008). Turkey's Shifting Dynamics: Implications for U.S.-Turkey Relations. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies. p. 17. ISBN 9780892065363.
Turkey's border with Armenia has remained sealed since 1994, due to Turkish support for Azerbaijan in the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict.
- "‘Pakistan will continue supporting Azerbaijan on Nagorno-Karabakh’". Daily Times. 14 March 2015. Archived from the original on 23 January 2016.
- Hunter, Shireen (2004). "Russia and the Transcaucasus: The Impact of the Islamic Factor". Islam in Russia: The Politics of Identity and Security. M.E. Sharpe. p. 349.
Aliev thanked Pakistan for its support in the Karabakh conflict.
- Murinson, Alexander (October 2014). "The Ties Between Israel and Azerbaijan" (PDF). Mideast Security and Policy Studies No. 110. Begin–Sadat Center for Strategic Studies. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 November 2014.
Israel supported the Azeri side in this conflict by supplying Stinger missiles to Azerbaijani troops during the war.
- Nemtsova, Anna (5 April 2016). "In Nagorno-Karabakh, a Bloody New War With Putin on Both Sides". The Daily Beast.
...Russia sold hundreds of tanks to Armenia’s long time enemy, Azerbaijan. Last year the contracts for Russian military exports to Azerbaijan included armored vehicles, artillery and mortar systems.
- "Russia set to continue arms supplies to Azerbaijan and Armenia — official". TASS. 8 April 2016.
- Hakobyan, Tatul (21 February 2017). "Երկու հազար կյանք. հայկական բանակի զոհերը 1994-ի զինադադարից ի վեր" (in Armenian). ANI Armenian Research Center.
Այսպիսով, կարող ենք ասել, որ 1994-ի զինադադրից ի վեր հայկական բանակում զոհերի թիվը՝ մարտական և ոչ մարտական միասին, կազմել է շուրջ 2.000 հոգի:
- "Caspian Defense Studies Institute: More than 2000 injured or dead in Karabakh war". Metdan TV. Retrieved 18 May 2016.
- de Waal 2003, p. 285.
- Winds of Change in Nagorno Karabakh Archived 2011-12-06 at the Wayback Machine.. Euronews. 28 November 2009.
- Uppsala Conflict Data Program, Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh - civilians, viewed 2013-05-03
- "Azerbaijani Soldier Shot Dead by Armenian Forces". Naharnet. Retrieved 22 October 2014.
- See 
- "Armenia and Azerbaijan: Preventing War" (PDF). Europe Briefing N°60. International Crisis Group. 8 February 2011. p. 3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 May 2016.
There are no exact casualty figures since 1994, but most observers agree that as many as 3,000 people, mostly soldiers, have died. Crisis Group phone interview, Jasur Sumerinli, military expert, August 2009.
- "Stalin’s Legacy: The Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict - Association for Diplomatic Studies and Training". 6 August 2013. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
- Vartanyan, Olesya; Grono, Magdalena (14 July 2017). "Armenia and Azerbaijan collision course over Nagorno-Karabakh". openDemocracy. Retrieved 14 July 2017.
- "Nagorno-Karabakh's Gathering War Clouds". Crisis Group. 1 June 2017. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
- Rieff, David (June 1997). "Without Rules or Pity". Foreign Affairs. Council on Foreign Relations. 76 (2). Retrieved 13 February 2007.
- Lieberman, Benjamin (2006). Terrible Fate: Ethnic Cleansing in the Making of Modern Europe. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee. pp. 284–292. ISBN 1-56663-646-9.
- Croissant, Michael P. (1998). The Armenia-Azerbaijan Conflict: Causes and Implications. London: Praeger. ISBN 0-275-96241-5.
- It should be noted that at the time of the dissolution of the USSR, the United States government recognized as legitimate the pre-Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact 1933 borders of the country (the Franklin D. Roosevelt government established diplomatic relations with the Kremlin at the end of that year). Because of this, the George H. Bush administration openly supported the secession of the Baltic SSRs, but regarded the questions related to the independence and territorial conflicts of Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan and the rest of the Transcaucasus as internal Soviet affairs.
- Four UN Security Council resolutions, passed in 1993, called on withdrawal of Armenian forces from the regions falling outside of the borders of the former NKAO.
- Using numbers provided by journalist Thomas de Waal for the area of each rayon as well as the area of the Nagorno-Karabakh Oblast and the total area of Azerbaijan are (in km2): 1,936, Kelbajar; 1,835, Lachin; 802, Kubatly; 1,050, Jebrail; 707, Zangelan; 842, Aghdam; 462, Fizuli; 75, exclaves; totaling 7,709 km2 (2,976 sq mi) or 8.9%: De Waal. Black Garden, p. 286.
- The Central Intelligence Agency. "The CIA World Factbook: Transnational Issues in Country Profile of Azerbaijan". Retrieved 14 February 2007. Military involvement denied by the Armenian government.
- Hairenik. "Loose Restraints: A Look at the Increasingly Shaky Karabagh Ceasefire". Armenian Weekly.
- "Karabakh casualty toll disputed". BBC News. 2008-03-05. Archived from the original on 9 March 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-05.
- "Fatal Armenian-Azeri border clash". BBC News. 2008-03-05. Archived from the original on 5 March 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-05.
- "Armenia/Azerbaijan: Deadly Fighting Erupts In Nagorno-Karabakh". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 2008-03-04. Archived from the original on 6 March 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-05.
- General Assembly adopts resolution reaffirming territorial integrity of Azerbaijan... UN.org
- "Azerbaijan announces names of soldiers killed and wounded by Armenian fire". News.az. Archived from the original on February 21, 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-27.
- "Azerbaijan: Baku Claims Three Dead in Karabakh Crossfire". Eurasianet. Archived from the original on July 26, 2011. Retrieved 2010-11-27.
- "Three Azerbaijani Soldiers Killed Near Nagorno-Karabakh". RFE/RL. Archived from the original on 27 November 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-27.
- Fuller, Liz. "OSCE, EU Condemn Karabakh 'Armed Incident'." RFE/RL. June 22, 2010. Retrieved 22 June 2010.
- Cite error: The named reference
crisiswas invoked but never defined (see the help page).
- "Azerbaijan goes beyond all permissible limits, two Artsakh servicemen killed". Armeniansworld.com. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
- Vika Elchyan. "Armenia, Azerbaijan Report More Deadly Skirmishes". ArmeniaDiaspora.com. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
- "Armenian Army Death Toll Down In 2011". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 4 July 2015.
- "Bloody clashes between Azerbaijan and Armenia over disputed territory". the Guardian. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
- "Armenia Says Two Soldiers Killed In Fresh Border Skirmishes". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 2014-06-20. Retrieved 2014-08-02.
- "At least eight Azerbaijani soldiers killed on border with Armenia". Todayszaman.com. Archived from the original on August 2, 2014. Retrieved 2014-08-02.
- Guliyev, Emil. "Azeri troops killed in clashes with Armenia as tensions flare - Yahoo News". News.yahoo.com. Retrieved 2014-08-02.
- "Five more killed in clashes between Azeris, ethnic Armenians (Reuters, August 2, 2014)". Uk.reuters.com. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
- "PUTIN MEDIATES AZERI-ARMENIAN TALKS". Archived from the original on 13 August 2014. Retrieved 13 August 2014.
- "Traces of Azerbaijani Infiltration in Karvachar." Civilnet.am. July 22, 2014.
- See (in Armenian) "ՔԱՐՎԱՃԱՌԻ ԴԻՎԵՐՍԱՆՏՆԵՐԸ" [The diversionary group of Karvachar]. H1 Television. July 13, 2015.
- "Azerbaijan Risks New Armenia Conflict as Chopper Downed". 12 November 2014. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
- "Armenia vows 'grave consequences' after helicopter downed". 12 November 2014. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
- Armenian helicopter shot down in Karabakh, 3 crew presumed dead (Armenian Reporter, November 12, 2014) Archived December 18, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Armenian-Azerbaijani Attrition War Escalates". Armenian Weekly. Retrieved 14 January 2016.
- "64 Azeri soldiers killed in 10 months of 2015: survey". PanARMENIAN.Net. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
- Piri Medya (18 December 2015). "Azerbaijani soldier killed on contact line with Armenia: ministry". Yeni Şafak.
- "Clashes Intensify Between Armenia and Azerbaijan Over Disputed Land". The New York Times. 1 February 2015.
- "Armenian says soldier killed in border clash with Azerbaijan". reuters. Retrieved 29 November 2015.
- "Soldiers killed in clashes near Azerbaijan's breakaway Nagorno-Karabkh region". reuters. Retrieved 29 November 2015.
- "Armenian soldiers killed in clashes with Azeri troops near Karabakh". reuters. Retrieved 29 November 2015.
- "Defense Ministry: 7 Armenian and 3 Azeri Soldiers Killed in Intense Fighting".
- "Two killed in clashes between Armenian-backed Karabakh troops and Azeri army". reuters. Retrieved 29 November 2015.
- "Two Armenian soldiers killed in Azerbaijani act of sabotage".
- "bne IntelliNews - Over 20 Armenian and Azerbaijani soldiers killed in Jan-Feb". Retrieved 26 February 2017.
- Staff, Weekly. "19-Year-Old NKR Serviceman Becomes First Armenian Casualty of 2016". Armenian Weekly. Retrieved 2016-02-04.
- "Azerbaijani Sniper Kills Armenian Soldier". Asbarez.com.
- "Karabakh: One Armenian civilian killed by Azeri sniper - Karabakh | ArmeniaNow.com". www.armenianow.com. Retrieved 2016-02-12.
- "Azerbaijan: Two Servicemen Killed In Clashes With Armenian Army". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
- Sargssyan Studio. "Times.am - Armenian soldier fatally wounded and killed in Azerbaijani grenade explosion". Retrieved 13 May 2016.
- "Karabakh War Casualty Update: Armenia puts April death toll at 92".
- "Siyahı: 93 hərbçi şəhid olub, 6 mülki şəxs dünyasını dəyişib (YENİLƏNİR)". Meydan TV.
- "Karabakh army downs 13th Azerbaijani drone". PanARMENIAN.Net.
- "Минобороны Азербайджана назвало потери в боях". Retrieved 26 February 2017.
- "PressTV-‘2 Armenian troops killed in Karabakh’". Retrieved 26 February 2017.
- "Azerbaijan says one soldier killed in fighting over Nagorno-Karabakh". 14 April 2017. Retrieved 26 February 2017 – via Reuters.
- Holding, APA Information Agency, APA. "Azerbaijani soldier killed during Armenian provocation". Retrieved 26 February 2017.
- "Armenian contract serviceman killed in Azeri firing". 11 October 2016. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
- "Armenian troops keep high tension on contact line, kill Azerbaijani servicemen". 16 November 2016. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
- "Azerbaijan downs Armenian drone on conflict frontline". Retrieved 26 February 2017.
- Mkrtchyan, Hasmik; Antidze, Margarita (16 June 2017). "Armenian-backed separatists say three soldiers killed by Azeri forces". Yerevan: Reuters.
- "4 Azerbaijani Soldiers Killed after Artsakh Forces Rebuff Attack". 22 June 2017.
- Mkrtchyan, Hasmik; Antidze, Margarita; Bagirova, Nailia (4 July 2017). "Azeri woman and child killed by Armenian forces near Nagorno-Karabakh boundary: defense ministry". Baku/Yerevan: Reuters.
- = (7 July 2017). "Azerbaijani army hits Armenian positions". Archived from the original on 8 July 2017. Retrieved 15 July 2017.
- "Karabakh soldier killed in Azerbaijani fire". Stepanakert. 10 July 2017. Archived from the original on 10 July 2010.
- Armenia and Azerbaijan: Preventing War Archived 2016-05-20 at the Wayback Machine.
- Armenialiberty. "Armenialiberty:Two Azeri Soldiers Killed In ‘Armenian Truce Violation’- ecoi.net - European Country of Origin Information Network".
- "StephenMBland". Retrieved 26 February 2017.
- "Armenian side recognizes losses (UPDATE)". 5 April 2016. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
- "18 Armenian, 12 Azerbaijani troops killed in fighting". 2 April 2016.
- "Tensions run high between Azerbaijan, Armenia despite truce". Retrieved 26 February 2017.
- "Russia doesn’t accuse Turkey of Karabakh escalation: Lavrov". PanARMENIAN.Net. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
- "Azerbaijan Claims Two Civilians Killed in Nagorno-Karabakh Over Past 2 Days". Sputnik News.
- "44 смертных случая в Вооруженных Силах Армении". 1in.am. Retrieved 4 July 2015.
- "Azerbaijani child killed near Karabakh, ministry says". Hurriyet Daily News. Retrieved 4 July 2015.