Nagorno-Karabakh conflict

The Nagorno-Karabakh conflict is a territorial and ethnic conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan over the disputed region of Nagorno-Karabakh and seven surrounding districts, which are de facto controlled by the self-declared Republic of Artsakh, but are internationally recognized as de jure part of Azerbaijan. The conflict has its origins in the early 20th century. Under the Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin decided to make the Nagorno-Karabakh region an autonomous oblast of Soviet Azerbaijan.[44] The present conflict began in 1988, when the Karabakh Armenians demanded that Karabakh be transferred from Soviet Azerbaijan to Soviet Armenia. The conflict escalated into a full-scale war in the early 1990s.

Nagorno-Karabakh conflict
Artsakh Occupation Map.png
Current military situation in Nagorno-Karabakh
DateFebruary 1988–present
full-scale war: 1992–94[35][36]
Location
Status Ongoing
Belligerents

 Artsakh (Nagorno-Karabakh)
 Armenia

Arms supply:

Non-combat support:

 Azerbaijan
 Soviet Union (1988–91)[17]

Foreign groups (1992–94):

Supported by:

Arms supply:

Commanders and leaders
Current:
Armenia Nikol Pashinyan (Prime Minister of Armenia, Commander-in-Chief)
Armenia David Tonoyan (Defence Minister of Armenia)
Armenia Artak Davtyan (Chief of the General Staff of Armenia)
Republic of Artsakh Bako Sahakyan (President of Artsakh, Commander-in-Chief)
Republic of Artsakh Karen Abrahamyan (Defence Minister of Artsakh)
Current:
Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev
(President of Azerbaijan, Commander-in-Chief)
Azerbaijan Zakir Hasanov (Defence Minister of Azerbaijan)
Azerbaijan Najmaddin Sadigov (Chief of the General Staff of Azerbaijan)
Units involved

Army Artsakh.jpg Artsakh Defence Army
Armmil zinanshan.jpg Armed Forces of Armenia

Coat of arms of the Azerbaijani Armed Forces.png Azerbaijani Armed Forces

Strength
Armenia: 45,850 active servicemen
NKR: 14,500 active servicemen
Azerbaijan: 66,940 active servicemen
Casualties and losses
214 soldiers, 16 civilians killed (2008–2016) 1,008 soldiers and 90+ civilians killed, 1,205 soldiers and 140 civilians wounded, 30+ soldiers and 12 civilians captured (1994–2016)[37]
28,000–38,000 killed (1988–1994)[42]
3,000 killed (May 1994–August 2009)[43]
545–551+ killed (2010–2020)

A ceasefire signed in 1994 provided for two decades of relative stability, which significantly deteriorated along with Azerbaijan's increasing frustration with the status quo, at odds with Armenia's efforts to cement it.[45] A four-day escalation in April 2016 became the deadliest ceasefire violation to date. Since then, the possibility of resumed major hostilities has greatly increased.[46]

Background

With Perestroika and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1989, ethnic tensions between Armenians and Azerbaijanis increased in the Nagorno-Karabakh region.

As of 2017, public opinion on both sides has been noted as "increasingly entrenched, bellicose and uncompromising".[45] In this context, mutual concessions that might lower tensions in the longer term could in the shorter run threaten internal stability and the survival of ruling elites, hence leaving little incentive for compromise.[45]

Timeline

Nagorno-Karabakh War (1988–94)

The Nagorno-Karabakh War, also known as the Artsakh Liberation War in Armenia and Nagorno-Karabakh, was an armed conflict that took place in the late 1980s to May 1994, in the enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh in southwestern Azerbaijan, between the majority ethnic Armenians of Nagorno-Karabakh backed by the Republic of Armenia, and the Republic of Azerbaijan. As the war progressed, Armenia and Azerbaijan, both former Soviet Republics, entangled themselves in a protracted, undeclared war in the mountainous heights of Karabakh as Azerbaijan attempted to curb the secessionist movement in Nagorno-Karabakh.

The enclave's parliament had voted in favor of uniting with Armenia. A a referendum, boycotted by the Azerbaijani population of Nagorno-Karabakh, was held, whereby most of the voters voted in favor of independence. The demand to unify with Armenia, which began anew in 1988, began in a relatively peaceful manner. As the Soviet Union's dissolution neared, the tensions gradually grew into an increasingly violent conflict between ethnic Armenians and ethnic Azerbaijanis. Both sides made claims of ethnic cleansing and pogroms conducted by the other.[47][48]

Inter-ethnic clashes between the two broke out shortly after the parliament of the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast (NKAO) in Azerbaijan voted to unify the region with Armenia on 20 February 1988. The circumstances of the dissolution of the Soviet Union facilitated an Armenian separatist movement in Soviet Azerbaijan. The declaration of secession from Azerbaijan was the final result of a territorial conflict regarding the land.[49] As Azerbaijan declared its independence from the Soviet Union and removed the powers held by the enclave's government, the Armenian majority voted to secede from Azerbaijan. In the process they proclaimed the unrecognized Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh.[50]

Full-scale fighting erupted in the late winter of 1992. International mediation by several groups, including the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), failed to bring resolution. In the spring of 1993, Armenian forces captured territory outside the enclave itself, threatening to catalyze the involvement of other countries in the region.[51] By the end of the war in 1994, the Armenians were in full control of most of the enclave and also held and currently control approximately 9% of Azerbaijan's territory outside the enclave.[52] As many as 230,000 Armenians from Azerbaijan and 800,000 Azerbaijanis from Armenia and Karabakh have been displaced as a result of the conflict.[53] A Russian-brokered ceasefire was signed in May 1994 and peace talks, mediated by the OSCE Minsk Group, have been held ever since by Armenia and Azerbaijan.

Some clashes occurred in the years following the 1994 ceasefire.[54]

Border clashes (1994–2016)

 
The situation in the area after the 1994 ceasefire

The 2008 Mardakert clashes began on 4 March after the 2008 Armenian election protests. It involved the heaviest fighting between ethnic Armenian[55] and Azerbaijani forces[56] over the disputed region of Nagorno-Karabakh[56][57] since the 1994 ceasefire after the Nagorno-Karabakh War.

Armenian sources accused Azerbaijan of trying to take advantage of ongoing unrest in Armenia. Azerbaijani sources blamed Armenia, claiming that the Armenian government was trying to divert attention from internal tensions in Armenia.

Following the incident, on March 14 the United Nations General Assembly by a recorded vote of 39 in favour to 7 against adopted Resolution 62/243, demanding the immediate withdrawal of all Armenian forces from the occupied territories of Azerbaijan.[58]

2010 violence

The 2010 Nagorno-Karabakh clash was a scattered exchange of gunfire that took place on February 18 on the line of contact dividing Azerbaijani and the Karabakh Armenian military forces. Azerbaijan accused the Armenian forces of firing on the Azerbaijani positions near Tap Qaraqoyunlu, Qızıloba, Qapanlı, Yusifcanlı and Cavahirli villages, as well as in uplands of Agdam Rayon with small arms fire including snipers.[59][60] As a result, three Azerbaijani soldiers were killed and one wounded.[61]

The 2010 Mardakert clashes were a series of violations of the Nagorno-Karabakh War ceasefire. They took place across the line of contact dividing Azerbaijan and the ethnic Armenian military forces of the unrecognized but de facto independent Nagorno-Karabakh Republic. Both sides accused the other of violating the ceasefire regime. These were the worst violations of the cease fire (which has been in place since 1994) in two years and left Armenian forces with the heaviest casualties since the Mardakert clashes of March 2008.[62]

Between 2008 and 2010, 74 soldiers were killed on both sides.[63]

2011–2013 continued fighting

In late April 2011, border clashes left three Nagorno-Karabakh soldiers dead,[64] while on 5 October, two Azerbaijani and one Armenian soldier were killed.[65] In all during the year, 10 Armenian soldiers were killed.[66]

The following year, border clashes between the armed forces of Armenia and Azerbaijan took place from late April through early June. The clashes resulted in the deaths of five Azerbaijani and four Armenian soldiers. In all during 2012, 19 Azerbaijani and 14 Armenian soldiers were killed.[67] Another report put the number of Azerbaijani dead at 20.[54]

Throughout 2013, 12 Azerbaijani and 7 Armenian soldiers were killed in border clashes.[67]

2014 clashes and helicopter shootdown

In 2014, several border clashes erupted that had resulted in 16 fatalities on both sides by 20 June.[68]

On 2 August, Azerbaijani authorities announced that eight of their soldiers had been killed in three days of clashes with NKO forces, the biggest single death toll for the country's military since the 1994 war.[69] NKO denied any casualties on their side, while saying the Azerbaijanis had suffered 14 dead and many more injured.[69] Local officials in Nagorno-Karabakh reported at least two Armenian military deaths in what was the largest incident in the area since 2008.[70] Five more Azerbaijani troops were killed the following night, bringing the death toll from the August clashes to at least 15. The violence prompted Russia to issue a strong statement, warning both sides not to escalate the situation further.[71]

By August 5, 2014 the fighting that started on 27 July had left 14 Azerbaijani and 5 Armenian soldiers dead. Overall, 27 Azerbaijani soldiers had died since the start of the year in border clashes.[72]

In a separate incident in July 2014, the NKR Defense Army announced that troops had killed one and arrested two members of an Azerbaijani subversive group that had penetrated the contact line.[73] In addition to spying on Armenian troop movements and military installations and civilian settlements in Karvachar (Kelbajar), the team was charged with the murder of Smbat Tsakanyan, a seventeen-year-old Armenian boy and resident of the village of Jumen. Both surviving members of the group were sentenced to life in prison by an Armenian court. In July 2015, video footage recorded by the team was released to the public and aired on Armenian state television.[74]

On November 12, 2014, the Azerbaijani armed forces shot down a Nagorno-Karabakh Defense Army Mil Mi-24 helicopter over Karabakh's Agdam district. Three servicemen were killed in the incident. Armenia's Defense Ministry stated the aircraft was unarmed and called its downing an "unprecedented provocation". Azerbaijani authorities claimed the helicopter was "trying to attack" Azerbaijani army positions.[75] Armenian authorities stated that Azerbaijan will face "grave consequences".[76] With the crash, 2014 became the deadliest year for Armenian forces since the 1994 ceasefire agreement, with 27 soldiers killed in addition to 34 fatalities on the Azerbaijani side.[77] Six Armenian civilians also died in 2014, while by the end of the year the number of Azerbaijanis killed rose to 39 (37 soldiers and 2 civilians).[54]

2015 sporadic fighting

In 2015, 42 Armenian soldiers and 5 civilians were killed as border clashes continued.[78] In addition, at least 64 Azerbaijani soldiers also died.[79][80]

Sporadic fighting primarily took place in: January,[81] June,[82] August,[83] September,[84][85] November[86] and throughout December.[80][87]

Four-Day War (2016)

Over the years, Azerbaijan had been growing impatient with the status quo. In this regard, propelled by oil and gas windfall, the country embarked in a military build-up. In 2015 alone, Baku spent $3bn on its military, more than Armenia's entire national budget.[45]

Throughout January and February 2016, four Armenian and four Azerbaijani soldiers were killed in fighting at the Nagorno-Karabakh border.[88] The first casualty of 2016 was a Nagorno-Karabakh soldier Aramayis Voskanian, who was killed by Azerbaijani sniper fire while serving in the eastern direction of the Line of Contact.[89][90] In mid-February, Hakob Hambartsumyan, an Armenian herdsman from Vazgenashen, was killed by an Azerbaijani sniper.[91] In March, two Azerbaijani and one Armenian soldier were killed in clashes along the border between Azerbaijan and Armenia.[92][93]

Between 1 and 5 April 2016, heavy fighting along the Nagorno-Karabakh frontline left 88 Armenian and 31–92 Azerbaijani soldiers dead. One Armenian and three Azerbaijani soldiers were also missing. In addition, 10 civilians (six Azerbaijani and four Armenian) were also killed.[94][95] During the clashes, an Azerbaijani military helicopter, 13 unmanned drones were shot down[96] and an Azerbaijani tank was destroyed.[97]

Renewed border clashes (2016–present)

Between 8 and 17 May 2016, sporadic fighting left 14 Armenian and three Azerbaijani soldiers dead, as well as one Azerbaijani civilian.[98][99] On 5 October 2016, Armenian artillery shelled Azerbaijani positions on the line of contact with one Azerbaijani soldier being killed.[100] One Armenian soldier was killed on 11 October 2016 in a skirmish on the line of contact.[101] On 15 November, an Azerbaijani soldier was killed on the line of contact.[102] On 27 November, Azerbaijani forces reported shooting down an Armenian drone which had crossed the line of contact.[103]

A Nagorno-Karabakh soldier was killed in action with Azerbaijiani forces on 6 February 2017.[104] On 8 February 2017, one Nagorno-Karabakh soldier was killed and another wounded in a firefight with Azerbajiani troops along the line of contact.[104] On 24 February 2017, Azerbaijani forces shelled the Armenian positions near the village of Talish with artillery.[105] The next day a large firefight broke out with Azerbajiani forces approaching Armenian lines in the same area, 5 Azerbaijani soldiers were killed in the ensuing engagement.[105][106]

On 15 May 2017, a Karabakh Osa air defense system was damaged or destroyed by a guided missile launched by Azerbaijani forces.[107] On 20 May 2017, an Armenian soldier was killed in a firefight with Azeri troops, the Azerbaijani military utilized anti-tank grenades and 60mm mortar fire in the action.[108] On 26 May 2017, a Nagorno-Karabakh soldier was killed in a skirmish with Azerbajiani forces involving mortars and grenade launches.[109][110] On 16 June 2017 three Nagorno-Karabakh soldiers were killed by Azeri forces.[111] On 22 June 2017 four Azeri soldiers were killed by Nagorno-Karakakh soldiers.[112] On July 4 an Azeri woman and her two-year-old grandchild were killed as a result of shelling by Armenian forces.[113] On 10 July 2017 a Nagorno-Karabakh soldier was killed in shelling by the Azerbaijani forces.[114] On 25 July 2017, Azerbaijan claimed that one of its soldiers was wounded by a munition dropped from an Armenian UCAV.[115] On 31 August 2017, Azerbaijani military positions were fired at and shelled at from Armenian military positions. The Armenian military were using large-caliber machine guns.[116]

2018

A Nagorno-Karabakh soldier was killed by an Azerbaijani sniper near the line of contact on 7 January 2018.[117] A Nagorno-Karabakh soldier was killed by Azerbaijani fire on 7 February 2018.[118] Three civilian volunteers were killed in a demining operation in Nagorno-Karabakh on 29 March 2018.[119] A Nagorno-Karabakh soldier was killed by Azerbaijani fire on 9 April 2018.[120] A Nagorno-Karabakh soldier was killed in a firefight with Azeri forces on 10 June 2018.[121] In September 2018 a soldier of the Armenian Army was killed by Azeri gunfire whilst serving at a border post.[122] In the same month, two Nagorno-Karabakh soldiers were killed by the Azeri army.[123][124]

2020

Further clashes near Tavush took place in July 2020.[125] 13 Azeris, including a civilian, and four Armenians were killed.[126]

Fatalities

1994–present

Although no exact casualty figures exist, between 1994 and 2009, as many as 3,000 people, mostly soldiers, had been killed, according to most observers.[43] In 2008, the fighting became more intense and frequent.[127] With 72 deaths recorded throughout the year, 2014 became the bloodiest since the war ended.[54] According to the Union of Relatives of the Artsakh War Missing in Action Soldiers, as of 2014, 239 Karabakhi soldiers remain officially listed as unaccounted for.[128] Between 1 and 5 April 2016, heavy fighting along the Nagorno-Karabakh frontline left 102 Armenian (11 non-combat)[129][94] and 94 Azerbaijani soldiers dead. Two Azerbaijani soldiers were also missing.[95] In addition, 15 civilians (nine Armenian and six Azerbaijani) were killed.[130][131]

Year Armenia Azerbaijan Total
2008 N/A N/A 30 soldiers[63]
2009 N/A N/A 19 soldiers[63]
2010 7 soldiers[132] 18 soldiers 25 soldiers[63]
2011 10 soldiers[66] 4+ soldiers,[63][65] 1 civilian[133] 14+ soldiers, 1 civilian
2012 14 soldiers 20 soldiers 34 soldiers[54]
2013 7 soldiers 12 soldiers 19 soldiers[67]
2014 27 soldiers, 6 civilians 37 soldiers, 2 civilians 64 soldiers, 8 civilians[54]
2015 42 soldiers, 5 civilians[78] 64 soldiers[79][80] 77 soldiers, 5 civilians
2016 108–112 soldiers,[129][134] 9 civilians[130] 109 soldiers,[134] 6 civilians[131] 217–221 soldiers, 15 civilians
2017 22 soldiers[135] 19 soldiers[136] 41 soldiers
2018 5–7 soldiers[137][138] 6 soldiers[138] 11–13 soldiers
2019 4 soldiers[139] 6+ soldiers[140][141] 10+ soldiers
2020 8 soldiers[142] 15 soldiers, 1 civilian[143] 23 soldiers, 1 civilian

References

Notes
  1. ^ "...Iran was domestically torn in devising a policy. [...] and therefore pursued a policy that combined official neutrality with growing support for Armenia. [...] At the time, Iran was serving as Armenia's main purveyor of electricity and goods, and once the Armenian conquest of Karabakh had been completed, Iranian trucks began to supply most of the secessionist enclave's needs."[5]
    • "Iran cannot explicitly go against Azerbaijan and support Armenia, risking to antagonize the Azerbaijanis living in Iran and also other Iranians sympathizing with Azerbaijan on the grounds of religious proximity. [...] Iran supported the territorial integrity of Azerbaijan and gave some humanitarian aid to the refugees, but in the meantime widely cooperates with Armenia and even Karabakh Armenian authorities."[6]
    • "Despite its rhetoric of neutrality in the Karabagh conflict, [...] Iran cooperated with Armenia despite its struggle with Shi'i Azerbaijan for control of Karabagh, evidently preferring overall that the Republic of Azerbaijan remain involved in a conflict, making it less attractive to Iran's Azerbaijanis and unable to allocate resources to stir-up 'South Azerbaijan.' [...] Rather, Iran's cooperation with Armenia and its tacit support in the conflict with Azerbaijan over Karabagh strengthened Yerevan's actual and perceived power and consequently may have lessened its sense of urgency to resolve the conflict."[7]
    • "Iran supports Armenia on the geopolitical logic that as long as Baku is focused on regaining control over the Nagorno-Karabakh region, Azerbaijan has limited means with which to stir up trouble in the heavily Azeri-populated areas of Iran. To be sure, the assistance provided to Armenia and Azerbaijan respectively by these neighboring states has been limited to diplomatic support and occasional economic favors." [8]
    • "Azerbaijan has long chafed at Iran’s support of Armenia, Azerbaijan’s western neighbor and sworn enemy, in the long-running war over the disputed territory of Nagorno-Karabakh."[9]
    • "Fearing Baku's intentions to fuel secessionism inside its borders, Iran provided vital backing to Armenia in its war against Azerbaijan over the disputed region of Nagorno-Karabakh, which dragged on from 1988 to 1994 and ended in an inconclusive cease-fire."[10]
    • "...Iran’s support of Armenia in the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict..."[11]
  2. ^ Transnistria's status is disputed. It considers itself to be an independent state, but this is not recognised by any country. The Moldovan government and all the world's other states consider Transnistria de jure a part of Moldova territory.
  3. ^ Abkhazia is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Abkhazia and Georgia. The Republic of Abkhazia unilaterally declared independence on 23 July 1992, but Georgia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. Abkhazia has received formal recognition as an independent state from 7 out of 193 United Nations member states, 1 of which have subsequently withdrawn their recognition.
  4. ^ South Ossetia's status is disputed. It considers itself to be an independent state, but this is recognised by only a few other countries. The Georgian government and most of the world's other states consider South Ossetia de jure a part of Georgia's territory.
Citations
  1. ^ Benson, Brett V. (2012). Constructing International Security: Alliances, Deterrence, and Moral Hazard. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 67. ISBN 9781107027244. Russia was widely viewed as supporting the Armenian position. Much of this perception stemmed from the fact that Russia transferred military support to Armenia during the Nagorno-Karabakh War.
    Buniatian, Heghine (February 28, 2019). "Armenia, Russia Sign More Arms Deals". azatutyun.am. RFE/RL. The military alliance with Russia entitles Armenia to buying Russian weapons at discounted prices. Moscow lent the Armenian government $200 million for such arms acquisitions in 2015.
    Bhutia, Sam (October 28, 2019). "Armenia-Azerbaijan: Who's the big defense spender?". EurasiaNet. Russia, one of the largest arms exporters in the world, sells weapons to both sides in the conflict – though Armenia, as a member of the Russia-led Collective Security Treaty Organization, gets a discount.
  2. ^ Harutyunyan, Sargis (August 19, 2013). "New Chinese Rockets 'Acquired By Armenia'". azatutyun.am. RFE/RL. Archived from the original on 24 July 2020.
  3. ^ "India pips Russia and Poland for $40m Armenia defence deal". The Times of India. March 2, 2020.
  4. ^ Stamboltsian, Gevorg (22 July 2020). "Serbia Admits Arms Deals With Armenia". azatutyun.am. RFE/RL. Archived from the original on 24 July 2020.
  5. ^ Cornell, Svante E. (2015). Azerbaijan Since Independence. Routledge. pp. 321-322. ISBN 9781317476214.
  6. ^ Balayev, Bahruz (2013). "Islamic Republic of Iran". The Right to Self-determination in the South Caucasus: Nagorno Karabakh in Context. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 69. ISBN 9780739178270.
  7. ^ Shaffer, Brenda (October 31, 2000). "It's not about ancient hatreds, it's about current policies: Islam and stability in the Caucasus". Caucasian Regional Studies. Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs. 1–2 (5).
  8. ^ Rudolph, Joseph Russell (2008). Hot Spot: North America and Europe. ABC-CLIO. pp. 185-186. ISBN 9780313336218.
  9. ^ Herszenhorn, David M. (June 5, 2012). "Iran and Azerbaijan, Already Wary Neighbors, Find Even Less to Agree On". The New York Times.
  10. ^ Vatanka, Alex (January 15, 2013). "Tangle in the Caucasus: Iran and Israel Fight for Influence in Azerbaijan". Foreign Affairs.
  11. ^ Ehrmann, Maya; Kraus, Josef; Souleimanov, Emil (2013). "The Iran-Israel-Azerbaijan Triangle: Implications on Regional Security". Revista de Estudos Políticos. Fluminense Federal University. 4 (7): 215–228.
  12. ^ "The Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr Nikos Christodoulides, had a telephone conversation with the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Armenia, Mr Zohrab Mnatsakanyan". pio.gov.cy. Press and Information Office, Ministry of Interior, Republic of Cyprus. 15 July 2020. Archived from the original on 15 July 2020. Minister Christodoulides expressed to Minister Mnatsakanyan his concern about this development, condemned the ceasefire violation by Azerbaijan...
  13. ^ "Cyprus Denounces Civilian Casualties in Artsakh; Urges Turkey Not to Destabilize Situation". Hetq. 4 April 2016. Retrieved 23 July 2020. The Government of the Republic of Cyprus monitors closely the worrying developments in Nagorno-Karabakh/Artsakh, following the violations of the armistice line from Azerbaijani military forces.
  14. ^ "Telephone conversation with NKR Foreign Minister Karen Mirzoyan". mid.gospmr.org. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of PMR. 4 April 2016. Archived from the original on 9 April 2016. The head of the Pridnestrovian diplomacy expressed compassion and support to the people of Artsakh in connection with the escalation of tension on the part of the Republic of Azerbaijan.
  15. ^ "Telephone conversation between Foreign Ministers of Nagorno Karabakh Republic and Republic of Abkhazia". Armenpress. 7 April 2016. Archived from the original on 10 April 2016. Retrieved 8 April 2016. Vyacheslav Chirikba asked to convey his condolences to the families of those killed in hostilities and voiced the support of the people and authorities of Abkhazia to Artsakh.
  16. ^ "Press release of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of South Ossetia". mfa-rso.su. Ministry of Foreign Affairs Republic of South Ossetia. April 6, 2016. Archived from the original on 24 July 2020. The Minister assured his colleague that South Ossetia people follow the development of situation and offered words of support to people of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic.
  17. ^ Hoge, James F. (2010). The Clash of Civilizations: The Debate. Council on Foreign Relations. p. 17. ISBN 9780876094365. In the last years of its existence, the Soviet government supported Azerbaijan because its government was dominated by former communists.
  18. ^ Chorbajian, Levon; Mutafian, Claude; Donabedian, Patrick (1994). The Caucasian Knot: The History and Geopolitics of Nagorno-Karabagh. Zed Books. p. 34. ISBN 978-1-85649-287-4.
  19. ^ Brzezinski, Zbigniew; Sullivan, Paige, eds. (1997). Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States: Documents, Data, and Analysis. Washington, D.C.: M. E. Sharpe. p. 616. ISBN 9781563246371. It is also revealed that a new force of 200 armed members of the Grey Wolves organization has been dispatched from Turkey in preparation for a new Azeri offensive and to train units of the Azeri army.
  20. ^ a b Taarnby 2008, p. 6.
  21. ^ "Azerbaijan: Seven Years of Conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh" (PDF). Human Rights Watch. p. 81. ISBN 1-56432-142-8. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 July 2020. Two groups appeared on the battlefield in significant numbers after the start of Azerbaijan's December 1993 offensive: Afghan mujahideen fighting as mercenaries for Azerbaijan...
  22. ^ "Украинские националисты УНАО-УНСО признали, что воевали на стороне Азербайджана в Карабахе". panorama.am (in Russian). 17 September 2010. Archived from the original on 17 May 2017.
  23. ^ "Армянский эксперт: В Первую Карабахскую войну украинские неонацисты служили в армии Азербайджана летчиками и артиллеристами". eadaily.com (in Russian). 5 July 2016. Archived from the original on 21 July 2020. Кроме чеченских боевиков, радикальных исламистов из Афганистана, „Серых волков“ и других, отметились в Карабахе и украинские нацисты из УНА-УНСО.
  24. ^ Cornell, Svante E. (1998). "Turkey and the Conflict in Nagorno Karabakh: A Delicate Balance". Middle Eastern Studies. 34 (1). JSTOR 4283917. The only country that constantly expressed its support for Azerbaijan is Turkey.
    Balayev, Bahruz (2013). The Right to Self-Determination in the South Caucasus: Nagorno Karabakh in Context. Lexington Books. p. 70. ISBN 9780739178287. Turkey took the Azerbaijani position, showing special activity. It rendered active military help to Azerbaijan. In the Azerbaijani army there were Turkish officers-instructors and a group of the Azerbaijani men started training in Turkey.
    "Nagorno-Karabakh clash: Turkey backs Azeris 'to the end' against Armenia". BBC News. 3 April 2016. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020.
    "Turkey reiterates support to Azerbaijan against Armenia". Anadolu Agency. 22 July 2020.
  25. ^ Azadian, Edmond Y. (1999). History on the Move: Views, Interviews and Essays on Armenian Issues. Wayne State University Press. p. 173. ISBN 9780814329160. But as subsequent events evolved it became all too apparent that Ukraine has steadfastly stood behind Azerbaijan in the Nagorno-Karabagh conflict all along. ...it was reported from Stepanakert that Ukraine had shipped 40 tanks to Azerbaijan. Later that number was raised to 59. Ukraine had also supplied Azerbaijan with Mig-21 attack planes....
  26. ^ "Armenia Summons Ukraine Envoy Over Pro-Azeri Statement". azatutyun.am. RFE/RL. 14 July 2020. Ukraine’s current and former governments have repeatedly voiced support for Azerbaijan in the Karabakh conflict.
    "Ukraine and Azerbaijan demonstrate close positions on many issues at regional and global levels - Volodymyr Zelenskyy". president.gov.ua. Presidential Office of Ukraine. 17 December 2019. Archived from the original on 24 July 2020. First of all, it is about the war in eastern Ukraine and the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. We invariably support one another in restoring sovereignty and territorial integrity of our states within internationally recognized borders.
    "Foreign Ministry Spokesperson's reply to media questions regarding artillery shelling in the Tovuz District". mfa.gov.ua. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine. 13 July 2020. Archived from the original on 24 July 2020. The Ukrainian side advocates a political settlement of the situation based on respect for the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Republic of Azerbaijan within its internationally recognized borders.
  27. ^ Agayev, Zulfugar (August 13, 2013). "Azeri-Russian Arms Trade $4 Billion Amid Tension With Armenia". Bloomberg News.
    Kucera, Joshua (March 18, 2015). "Report: Azerbaijan Gets 85 Percent Of Its Weapons From Russia". EurasiaNet. Retrieved 28 July 2020.
  28. ^ Murinson, Alexander (October 2014). "The Ties Between Israel and Azerbaijan" (PDF). Mideast Security and Policy Studies No. 110. Begin–Sadat Center for Strategic Studies. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 November 2014. Israel supported the Azeri side in this conflict by supplying Stinger missiles to Azerbaijani troops during the war.
    Kucera, Joshua (February 27, 2012). "Azerbaijan Makes Massive Israeli Weapons Purchase -- But Not Because of Iran". EurasiaNet. ...these weapons are destined to be used not against Iran, but against Armenia...
    Cohen, Gili (14 December 2016). "Azerbaijan's President: We've Bought Almost $5 Billion in Israeli Military Goods". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 11 April 2020. Azerbaijan has purchased nearly $5 billion-worth of defense equipment from Israel...
  29. ^ Rahimov, Rahim. "Azerbaijan Shows off Polonez, LORA Missiles From Belarus, Israel". jamestown.org. Jamestown Foundation. Archived from the original on 24 July 2020. Retrieved June 14, 2018.
    Kucera, Joshua (June 12, 2018). "Azerbaijan acquires new missiles in escalating arms race with Armenia". EurasiaNet. Archived from the original on 24 July 2020. Azerbaijan has displayed new missiles it has bought from Belarus and Israel, the latest escalation in the arms race between it and Armenia.
  30. ^ "Pakistan condemns Armenian attack on Tovuz district in Azerbaijan". mofa.gov.pk. Pakistani Ministry of Foreign Affairs . 15 July 2020. Archived from the original on 15 July 2020. Retrieved 15 July 2020.
  31. ^ "Georgia supports territorial integrity and sovereignty of the Republic of Azerbaijan". mfa.gov.ge. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Georgia. Archived from the original on 24 July 2020. Georgia supports territorial integrity and sovereignty of the Republic of Azerbaijan within its internationally recognized borders and supports the peaceful settlement of conflict based on the principles and norms of international law.
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  141. ^ Body of Azerbaijan soldier, killed on the frontline, returned from neutral zone
  142. ^ 1 killed (10 March),[1] 1 killed (4 April),[2] 4 killed (12-16 July),[3] 1 killed (23 July),[4] 1 killed (27 July),[5] total of 8 reported killed
  143. ^ 1 killed (7 January),[6] 1 killed (15 February),[7] 1 killed (5 March),[8] 12 killed (12-16 July),[9] total of 15 reported killed

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