Gabriel Boric Font[a] (Spanish pronunciation: [ɡaˈβɾjel‿ˈβoɾitʃ ˈfont];[b] born 11 February 1986)[3] is a Chilean politician serving as the 37th and current president of Chile since March 2022. The leader of Apruebo Dignidad, he was member of the Chamber of Deputies for the district of Magallanes and Antarctic from 2014 to 2022.

Gabriel Boric
Official portrait, 2022
37th President of Chile
Assumed office
11 March 2022
Preceded bySebastián Piñera
Member of the Chamber of Deputies
from Magallanes
In office
11 March 2018 – 11 March 2022
Preceded byDistrict established
Succeeded byJaviera Morales[1]
Constituency28th district
In office
11 March 2014 – 11 March 2018
Preceded byMiodrag Marinovic
Succeeded byDistrict suppressed
Constituency60th district
President of the University of Chile Student Federation
In office
19 December 2011 – 28 November 2012
Preceded byCamila Vallejo
Succeeded byAndrés Fielbaum
Personal details
Born (1986-02-11) 11 February 1986 (age 38)
Punta Arenas, Magallanes y la Antártica Chilena Region, Chile
Political party
Other political
affiliations
Autonomous Left
(2008–2016)
Autonomist Movement
(2016–2018)
Domestic partnerIrina Karamanos (2019–2023)
RelativesVladimiro Boric Crnosija (grand-uncle)
EducationUniversity of Chile (did not graduate)[2]
Signature

Boric initially gained political prominence as a student leader during his time studying law at the University of Chile, being elected as president of the influential student federation during the student protests in 2011. This earned him a place in the 100 young leaders of Chile, published by El Sábado magazine in 2012.

He first ran for office as an independent candidate in 2013 and later as part of the Broad Front coalition in 2017. In 2018, Boric founded the Social Convergence party, one of the parties that constitute the Broad Front and later Approve Dignity.[4] During the 2019 civil unrest, Boric played a pivotal role in negotiating the agreement that led to the October 2020 constitutional referendum.[5]

In December 2021, he secured the country's presidency by defeating José Antonio Kast in the second round of the presidential election, receiving 55.9% of the votes. Following his election, Boric became the youngest president in Chilean history and is currently the seventh youngest serving state leader in the world.[c][6][7]

Early life edit

Family edit

On his father's side, Boric hails from a Croatian-Chilean family with roots in Ugljan, an island located off the Adriatic coast of Croatia.[8] Despite his ancestors'[d] migration from the Austro-Hungarian Empire to Chile in 1897, Boric maintains connections with his relatives residing on Ugljan.[9][10] His great-grandfather, Juan Boric (Ive Borić Barešić), along with his brother Simón (Šime), arrived in Punta Arenas around 1885, being among the initial ten Croats to settle in Magallanes.[11] They ventured into the Tierra del Fuego gold rush in the Magallanes region, spending time on the islands south of the Beagle Channel.[11] Subsequently, Juan Boric briefly returned to Ugljan to marry and brought his wife, Natalia Crnosija, back to Magallanes, where ten out of their eleven children were born.[11] Boric's grandfather, Luis Boric Crnosija, born in 1908, was one of these children.[11]

Gabriel Boric's father, Luis Boric Scarpa, is a chemical engineer who has served as a government employee at Empresa Nacional del Petróleo for over 40 years.[12] His mother, María Soledad Font Aguilera, is of Catalan descent.[13][14] In the Patagonian region of Magallanes, Boric's granduncle, Vladimiro Boric, became the first bishop of Punta Arenas.[15] Another granduncle, Roque Scarpa Martinich, assumed the role of the first intendant of the Magallanes Region following the military dictatorship. Both Roque Scarpa and Gabriel Boric's father were members of the Christian Democratic Party. Yet another granduncle, Roque Esteban Scarpa, won the 1980 Chilean National Prize for Literature, and his granduncle Vicente Boric [es] was also a writer.[16]

Gabriel Boric himself was born in Punta Arenas in 1986. He has two brothers named Simón and Tomás.[17]

Education edit

Boric studied at The British School in his hometown[18][19] before moving to Santiago in 2004 to attend the law school at the University of Chile.[20] He completed his coursework in 2009, coinciding with his appointment as the President of the Law School students' union. Afterward, he focused on preparing for his final exam and fulfilling his mandatory internship. However, he did not pass the test in 2011 and chose not to retake it.[21] Boric did not obtain a law degree and has expressed in interviews that he never intended to pursue a career as a lawyer, instead aspiring to become a writer.[2]

During his university years, Boric had the opportunity to work as an assistant to Professor José Zalaquett in his human rights course.[22][23] Zalaquett commended Boric for his inclination to question and doubt, as revealed in an interview.[22]

Political career edit

Student politics edit

 
Boric as President of the University of Chile Students Federation, in 2012.

In 1999 and 2000, Boric played an active role in re-establishing the Federation of Secondary School Students of Punta Arenas.[24] While attending university, he became a member of the political collective Autonomous Left (Izquierda Autónoma), originally known as Autonomous Students (Estudiantes Autónomos). In 2008, he served as an advisor to the Students' Union of the Law Department, and in 2009, he assumed the presidency. During his tenure, he led a 44-day protest against the dean, Roberto Nahum.[25] From 2010 to 2012, Boric represented students as a university senator.[25]

Boric ran for the presidency of the University of Chile Student Federation (FECh) in the 5–6 December 2011 elections, as part of the Creando Izquierda list. He won the election with 30.52% of the votes, defeating Camila Vallejo, who was the incumbent president of the federation and sought re-election as part of the Communist Youth of Chile list.[26] As president of the FECh, Boric played a prominent role in the second phase of the student protests that originated in 2011, emerging as one of the primary spokespersons for the Federation of Chilean Students.[27] In 2012, he was featured on the list of 100 young leaders of Chile, published by El Sábado magazine of the newspaper El Mercurio in collaboration with Adolfo Ibáñez University.[28]

Member of Chamber of Deputies (2014–2022) edit

2014 (first)
2014 (second)
2018
Official portraits of Gabriel Boric as a deputy.

Boric participated in the 2013 parliamentary elections as an independent candidate for District 60, currently District 28, representing the Region of Magallanes and the Chilean Antarctic. He achieved a significant victory with 15,418 votes (26.2%), the highest number received by any candidate in the region.[29][30] Notably, Boric's successful election outside of an electoral coalition was widely acknowledged by the media,[31] as it broke through the Chilean binomial election system.[32][33][34][35] On 11 March 2014, Boric was sworn in as a member of the Chamber of Deputies.[32][33][34][35]

During his first term, Boric actively served on several commissions, including Human Rights and Indigenous Peoples; Extreme Zones and the Chilean Antarctic; and Labour and Social Security.[24] He was part of the "student bench" (bancada estudiantil), which consisted of other young elected deputies, such as Camila Vallejo, Giorgio Jackson, and Karol Cariola. Together, they played a prominent role in debates concerning the educational reforms proposed by Michelle Bachelet's second government.[36] Boric's popularity in Chile was reflected in various opinion polls.[37][38]

In 2016, the Autonomous Left disbanded due to disagreements regarding the collective's future. Boric advocated for a more institutional approach and dialogue with Bachelet's center-left government.[39] However, the leadership of the Autonomous Left preferred to focus on student politics. Boric and his allies, driven by a "compulsion for rapid rise,"[23] according to Carlos Ruiz of the Autonomous Left, founded the Autonomist Movement. They intended to collaborate with other political forces and establish a new leftist coalition similar to the Uruguayan Broad Front.[40][41][23] The Autonomist Movement achieved favorable electoral results, as exemplified by Jorge Sharp, one of Boric's close friends, who was elected mayor of Valparaíso in the 2016 municipal elections.[42]

In January 2017, Boric's movement, together with other new parties and collectives including Jackson's Democratic Revolution, launched the Chilean Broad Front (Frente Amplio).[43] Boric played a leadership role in Beatriz Sánchez's campaign during the 2017 presidential election. After Sánchez placed third and failed to qualify for the second round, Boric reluctantly supported Alejandro Guillier as a means to defeat Sebastián Piñera, although Piñera ultimately emerged victorious.[44]

In the 2017 general election, Boric sought re-election as an independent candidate supported by the Humanist Party, one of the founding members of the Broad Front. He received 18,626 votes (32.8%),[45] an increase compared to 2013, making him the second most voted deputy in the country at that time.[24] Boric served on the Commissions for Extreme Zones and the Chilean Antarctic, as well as Constitution, Legislation, Justice, and Regulation.[24]

The Broad Front's commendable performance in the 2017 elections, where it became Chile's third largest political force, prompted the coalition and its members to undergo reorganization.[46] In 2018, the Autonomist Movement, along with the Libertarian Left and other smaller movements, decided to merge and establish a political party called Social Convergence.[4]

Role in the Estallido social edit

On 18 October 2019, protests against the increased tariffs in the Santiago transport system sparked the Estallido social, the largest civil unrest in the country since the end of the military dictatorship. As riots erupted in various parts of the capital, President Piñera declared a state of emergency in Santiago, which was later extended to all major cities as the protests escalated. The protesters incorporated demands concerning the high cost of living, corruption, and inequality, among other issues.[47][48]

Boric emerged as a vocal critic of the government's response and strongly opposed the use of the Chilean Armed Forces to suppress the protests. He even confronted a group of soldiers deployed in Plaza Italia.[49] Additionally, he played a significant role as one of the accusers in the impeachment trial against Interior Minister Andrés Chadwick. Chadwick was found guilty of serious constitutional violations and a failure to safeguard human rights during the state of emergency, resulting in a five-year ban from public office.[50][51][52][53] Boric also supported the impeachment of President Piñera, although the attempt was ultimately rejected.[52]

Despite being a prominent critic of the government's handling of the protests, Boric was willing to engage in dialogue with other political forces to find a solution to the crisis. Conversations between him and right-wing politicians contributed to an agreement that paved the way for the establishment of the Constitutional Convention, tasked with writing a new Constitution.[54][55] On 15 November 2019, the "Agreement for Social Peace and the New Constitution" was signed by the presidents of the political parties represented in parliament, excluding the Communist Party and some members of the Broad Front, including Social Convergence. Boric signed the agreement as an individual, which led to accusations against him from some members of his party.[56] As a result, several individuals, including his personal friend Jorge Sharp,[42] resigned from the party. Other parties such as the Green Ecologist Party, the Humanist Party, the Equality Party, the Pirate Party, and the Libertarian Left also opposed the agreement and left the Broad Front.[57]

On 20 December, Boric faced an attack at Parque Forestal where individuals threw spit and beer at him while calling him a "traitor" and "sell-out" due to his involvement in the "Agreement for Social Peace and a New Constitution" reached with traditional politicians. Despite the provocation, Boric remained composed and did not leave his position.[58]

2021 presidential candidacy edit

 
Boric presents the signatures required to run as a presidential candidate.

During 2020, the conflict between the Chilean government and its citizens escalated due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. While the country was under lockdown, civil unrest was temporarily suspended. This situation, coupled with the shared campaign for the constitutional referendum, helped to unite the left and center-left opposition, particularly the Broad Front and Chile Digno, an alliance led by the Communist Party. In the October 2020 referendum, 78% of voters supported the idea of drafting a new Constitution, leading to discussions on how to form a united opposition for the May 2021 elections, which included mayors, regional governors, and members of the Constitutional Convention.[citation needed]

Gabriel Boric, a key figure, advocated for coordination among all parties and the formation of fewer electoral lists to prevent voter dispersion.[59] Eventually, the Broad Front and Chile Digno reached an agreement and presented a joint list called Apruebo Dignidad, which became the second largest bloc in the Constitutional Convention, behind the united pact of the right called Vamos por Chile. Apruebo Dignidad also saw increased support in local and regional elections, positioning itself as a competitive option for the general election in November 2021.[citation needed]

Daniel Jadue, the Communist mayor of Recoleta, was initially the favored candidate to represent the left in the presidential election, according to preliminary opinion polls.[60][61] The Broad Front initially supported Beatriz Sánchez, their former presidential candidate, to run again, but she declined and opted to run for the Constitutional Convention instead.[62] With their main candidate out of the race, the Broad Front searched for alternatives, but most of their candidates lacked popularity or did not meet the minimum age requirement for presidential candidates.[63]

 
Boric in the celebrations after his victory in the 2021 presidential election.

Eventually, Gabriel Boric, who was 35 years old at the time, emerged as an option to participate in a primary election against Jadue. However, Boric's party, Social Convergence, did not have the minimum number of members required to present a presidential candidate. In a remarkable turn of events, a campaign was quickly organized, allowing Boric to gather the necessary number of signatures just one day before the deadline.[64]

Contrary to expectations, Boric won the Apruebo Dignidad primary election on 19 July 2021, receiving 1,059,060 votes (60.4%), while Jadue garnered 39.6%. Boric also emerged as the most voted candidate in the general primary, surpassing all candidates from the Chile Vamos coalition, whose primary was held simultaneously.[65] Following his primary victory, Boric announced on Twitter that he would collaborate with Jadue during the general election to present a united front.[66]

Initially, opinion polls indicated that Boric and Sebastián Sichel, the Chile Vamos candidate, were the frontrunners for the presidential election. However, Sichel's popularity declined in the following months, and he was overtaken in the polls by far-right candidate José Antonio Kast. In the first round of the election held on 21 November 2021, Boric obtained 25.82% of the vote, placing second behind Kast's 27.91%, which secured their spots in the second round. On 19 December 2021, Boric emerged victorious in the runoff with 55.85% of the vote.[6] His inauguration took place on 11 March 2022.[7]

Presidency (2022–present) edit

 
Gabriel Boric during his inauguration ceremony, on 11 March 2022.

Cabinet edit

 
Official portrait of the first cabinet of the Boric government.

Boric announced the members of his cabinet in January 2022.[67] The cabinet comprises ministers from the Apruebo Dignidad and Democratic Socialism coalitions, as well as independent ministers.[68] A notable feature of the cabinet is that fourteen out of twenty-four ministers are women, making it the first cabinet in the Americas where more than half of its members are women.[69][e] Among the ministers are Alexandra Benado and Marco Antonio Ávila, who hold the distinction of being the first openly LGBT ministers in Chile's history.[72] Additionally, Maya Fernández Allende, the granddaughter of former president Salvador Allende, is also part of the cabinet.[69]

Boric also appointed three fellow former student leaders to his cabinet. Camila Vallejo, who became the government spokesperson, Giorgio Jackson, who assumed the role of secretary-general of the presidency, and Nicolás Grau, who became the Minister of Economy, Development, and Tourism.[67][73]

Ricardo Ffrench-Davis, amidst speculation of being appointed as Minister of Finance, explained that, at the age of 85, he considered himself too old to fulfill the task but expressed his willingness to provide advice.[74] When Mario Marcel was announced as the future finance minister in January 2022, the Santiago Stock Exchange reacted positively, with the IPSA rising by 2.35%.[75]

In August 2023, amid low approval ratings, voter concerns over crime and inflation, and a corruption probe focused on graft accusations, Boric reorganized his Cabinet for the third time in one-and-a-half years.[76][77]

The Boric Cabinet
OfficeNamePartyTerm
PresidentGabriel BoricCS11 March 2022–
InteriorIzkia SichesInd.11 March 2022–6 September 2022
Carolina ToháPPD6 September 2022–
Foreign AffairsAntonia UrrejolaInd.11 March 2022–10 March 2023
Alberto van KlaverenInd.10 March 2023–
DefenseMaya Fernández AllendePS11 March 2022–
FinanceMario MarcelInd.11 March 2022–
Gen. Sec. of the
Presidency
Giorgio JacksonRD11 March 2022–6 September 2022
Ana Lya UriartePS6 September 2022–19 April 2023
Álvaro ElizaldePS19 April 2023–
Gen. Sec. of
Government
Camila VallejoPCCh11 March 2022–
EconomyNicolás GrauCS11 March 2022–
Social
Development
Jeannette VegaPPD11 March 2022–25 August 2022
Paula PobleteRD25 August 2022–6 September 2022
Giorgio JacksonRD6 September 2022–11 August 2023
Javiera Toro CáceresCOM16 August 2023–
EducationMarco Antonio ÁvilaRD11 March 2022–15 August 2023
Nicolás CataldoPCCh16 August 2023–
JusticeMarcela RíosCS11 March 2022–7 January 2023
Luis Cordero Vega11 January 2023–
LaborJeannette JaraPCCh11 March 2022–
Public WorksJuan Carlos GarcíaPL11 March 2022–11 March 2023
Jessica LópezPS11 March 2023–
HealthMaría Begoña YarzaInd.11 March 2022–6 September 2022
Ximena AguileraInd.6 September 2022–
Housing &
Urbanism
Carlos MontesPS11 March 2022–
AgricultureEsteban ValenzuelaFRVS11 March 2022–
MiningMarcela HernandoPR11 March 2022–16 August 2023
Aurora WilliamsPR16 August 2023–
Transport &
Telecom
Juan Carlos MuñozInd.11 March 2022–
National AssetsJaviera ToroCOM11 March 2022–16 August 2023
Marcela SandovalCOM16 August 2023–
EnergyClaudio Huepe MinolettiCS11 March 2022–6 September 2022
Diego PardowCS6 September 2022–
EnvironmentMaisa RojasInd.11 March 2022–
WomenAntonia OrellanaCS11 March 2022–
Culture & the
Arts
Julieta BrodskyCS11 March 2022–10 March 2023
Jaime de AguirreInd.10 March 2023–15 August 2023
Carolina ArredondoInd.16 August 2023–
SportsAlexandra BenadoInd.11 March 2022–10 March 2023
Jaime PizarroInd.10 March 2023–
Science, Technology,
Knowledge and Innovation
Flavio SalazarPCCh11 March 2022–6 September 2022
Silvia DíazPPD6 September 2022–10 March 2023
Aisén EtcheverryInd.10 March 2023–

Violence against government officials edit

During the initial months of the Boric government, both the president and individuals associated with his administration have faced threats, violent crimes, and physical aggression. In mid-March, Minister of Interior and Public Security Izkia Siches encountered gunfire during a visit to Temucuicui and had to be evacuated for her safety.[78] In April, President Boric himself was targeted in an attack by a man who tried to throw a stone at him.[79] On the night of 13 May, one of Boric's bodyguards was kidnapped and shot in the arm by unidentified assailants.[80] Additionally, on the same day, the residence of Minister of National Defense Maya Fernández was burglarized.[80] The Chilean police have stated that these latter two incidents are unrelated.[81]

Mapuche conflict edit

In May 2022, Boric made the decision to deploy troops to the southern part of the country due to escalating violence in the Mapuche conflict. According to the Argentine newspaper Clarín, this move caused Boric to lose support from the Communist Party. Previously, Boric had distanced himself from similar measures taken by his predecessor, Piñera.[82] Prior to Boric's decision, Héctor Llaitul, the leader of one of the Mapuche militias, had called for "preparing forces and organizing armed resistance".[83] In response to Llaitul's statement, Boric's government initially dismissed the idea of filing a formal lawsuit against him, stating that the state "does not persecute ideas." Instead, they planned to incorporate these statements into existing complaints rather than initiating new ones.[84][85]

Vote on proposed constitution edit

In September 2022, the Constitutional Convention proposed a more progressive constitution, which was under development from 4 July 2021 (during former president Sebastián Piñera's government) to 4 July 2022 (four months into Boric's government). However, it was rejected by a margin of 62% to 38%.[86][87] The proposed constitution faced "intense criticism that it was too long, too left-leaning and too radical".[88]

Foreign relations edit

Boric strongly condemned the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, expressing his disapproval in a tweet that read, "Russia has chosen war as a means of resolving conflicts. From Chile, we condemn the invasion of Ukraine, the violation of its sovereignty, and the illegitimate use of force. We stand in solidarity with the victims and will strive for peace through our humble efforts."[89]

In April 2022, Boric embarked on his first presidential trip to Argentina, where he met with President Alberto Fernández. During his visit, Boric emphasized the need to resolve remaining territorial disputes with Argentina and stressed the importance of fostering a sense of brotherhood between the two countries, irrespective of the presidents in charge. Additionally, he reiterated his support for Argentina's sovereignty over the Falkland Islands.[90][91][92]

On 15 September 2022, Boric declined to receive the credentials of Israeli Ambassador to Chile, Gil Artzyeli, as a response to the deaths of children during the 2022 Gaza–Israel clashes in the Gaza Strip. Instead, the acceptance of Artzyeli's credentials was postponed until mid-October.[93] At the time of the refusal, Artzyeli was already present at Chile's presidential palace, which caused a diplomatic crisis between Chile and Israel.[94] The Jewish Community of Chile expressed backlash against Boric's decision.[94] In light of the situation, Chilean Foreign Minister Antonia Urrejola issued an apology to Israel and Israeli President Isaac Herzog, rescheduling Artzyeli's accreditation for the end of September.[94] While Boric declined to apologize for the incident, he assured the Jewish community that no individual, regardless of their ideas or worldviews, would be persecuted or intimidated in Chile unless they violated the law.[94]

Reparations related to the 2019–2020 protests edit

The government of Gabriel Boric has established grace pensions of up to 515,672 Chilean pesos for individuals who endured human rights violations during the 2019–2020 protests.[95] Those who suffered such violations between 18 October 2019, and 30 June 2020, are eligible for these pensions.[95] However, the National Institute of Human Rights (INDH) has raised concerns about the uncertainty regarding the compatibility of these pensions with disability pensions.[95] Additionally, some members of Congress have expressed concerns that grace pensions have been granted to individuals whose trials have not yet concluded, thereby leaving the possibility that their injuries were caused by severe acts of violence unresolved.[96]

Approval ratings edit

 

Boric took office with a 50% approval rating.[97] However, after his first 100 days, his approval rating plummeted to 32.8%, marking the most significant decline in popularity for a Chilean President during their initial 100 days since 1990.[98] By the end of 2022, his approval rating remained persistently low, hovering around 33%,[98] while nearly six out of ten people expressed disapproval of Boric's performance. Factors such as increasing crime, economic challenges, and instability within his Cabinet contributed to the decline in public support. Consequently, in early 2023, Boric's approval rating dropped even further to 25%.[99][100] By May 2023, Boric's approval rating among the public was 28% and his disapproval rating was at 66%.[101] Following a State of the Nation address in early June 2023, Boric's approval rating rose from 31% to 41%, improving across all population segments,[102] but fell back to 28% in late June due to a scandal[103] involving the Democracia Viva Foundation, according to weekly polls by Cadem.[104][105] In August 2023, Boric's approval rating hovered around 30% with still a majority of disapproval.[106][107]

Political positions edit

 
President Sebastián Piñera receives President-elect Boric in La Moneda Palace after his election, December 2021

Gabriel Boric is a left-wing politician[108][109][110][111][112] who has been associated with various positions, including socialism,[113] social democracy,[114][115] and libertarian socialism.[116] In this regard, Boric has said, "I come from the Chilean libertarian socialist tradition, that is my ideological space of reference. I am a democrat, and I believe that democracy has to change and adapt and not petrify."[117] He has expressed some "ideological proximity" with Álvaro García Linera, the former vice president of Bolivia.[118]

Boric has been described by The Economist as "woke" and as part of the millennial left, "with a program focused on social justice, human rights, the environment and feminism".[119] Both Cristián Warnken and Carlos Peña characterize Boric as a "postmodern leader."[120] Peña credits Boric and the Broad Front for successfully uniting diverse demands that have emerged as Chilean society has modernized.[120]

Boric has been critical of the social and economic model established in Chile during the dictatorship, arguing that it has continued even after the transition to democracy. During the 2021 election, he pledged to dismantle the country's neoliberal economic model, stating that, "if Chile was the cradle of neoliberalism, it will also be its grave."[121][122] In recent years Boric has said "there were successes and things that didn't go well."[123]

After the failure of the 2022 constitutional proposal, Boric adopted a more moderate position, which drew criticism from his initial supporters who felt he was trying to appease right-wing groups disconnected from the average Chilean.[124] Throughout his presidential campaign, Boric supported the recognition of LGBT rights in Chile,[125] advocating for legal recognition of non-binary identities and the expansion of gender identity laws.[126]

In 2016, Boric defended a program to put 400 convicts in Valparaíso on probation due to overcrowding in Chilean prisons. He criticized what he saw as penal populism and opposed other deputies who were against probation measures.[127] During a debate in the 2021 Apruebo Dignidad primaries, Boric once again criticized the shortcomings of penal populism in providing effective solutions.[128]

Boric has been critical of pine and eucalyptus plantations, which he believes have contributed to drought among indigenous Mapuche communities in "Wallmapu."[129] He pledged in 2021 to impose restrictions on large forestry companies during his presidency.[129] In a May 2022 interview on Televisión Nacional de Chile, Boric reiterated his concerns about the forestry industry.[130]

In a 2023 interview Boric argued that a part of him wants to overthrow capitalism and expressed his belief that capitalism "is not the best way to solve our problems in society." He described his view on the feasibility of overthrowing capitalism, stating, "I don't think it can be overthrown without further ado if an alternative is not proposed that is viable and that is better for the people. One of the things that I have learned in office, not only in office, it is something obvious, but now it is as clear as crystal, is that you cannot re-found a country. All changes that last over time must be progressive and must be with strong majorities. And you have to build those strong majorities and those strong majorities are not easy to build."[131]

Economic policy edit

Boric has criticized the Crédito con Aval del Estado (CAE), a student loan program created during Ricardo Lagos's government.[132][133] Throughout his political career, Boric has consistently emphasized that education should be a right and not a profit-driven endeavor. He has pledged to forgive student loans and put an end to the program if elected as president.[134] Additionally, Boric has advocated for reducing private involvement in critical sectors.[citation needed]

Concerning the healthcare system, Boric has called for the establishment of a universal publicly funded healthcare system, citing the British National Health Service (NHS) as an example.[135] He has also advocated for the abolition of the AFP pension system, proposing a public autonomous entity to administer pension funds instead.[136] Boric has further supported a law to implement a 40-hour working week and increase the minimum wage.[136] Additionally, he has proposed the inclusion of workers' representatives and gender equality in the composition of boards of large companies.[137]

Given that mining is Chile's largest industry, Boric has put forth proposals such as creating a state-owned company for lithium extraction, increasing the royalties paid by mining companies, and prioritizing environmental protection.[138] Addressing the impact of climate change and promoting a green economy are key pillars of Boric's presidency.[139][138]

When Boric assumed the presidency, Chile's inflation rate had reached its highest level in nearly 30 years.[140] In April 2022, Boric announced a $3.7 billion economic recovery plan, which included a minimum wage hike to alleviate the impact of rising prices.[141] Although year-over-year inflation briefly rose to a high of 14.1% in August 2022, representing the highest level in 28 years, it then decreased dramatically during Boric's leadership, dropping to 5.1% as of September 2023.[142] [143]

Foreign policy edit

 
Boric with Prime Minister of Canada Justin Trudeau in June 2022
 
Boric with President of Argentina Alberto Fernández at the 9th Summit of the Americas in June 2022
 
Boric with President of the United States Joe Biden in 2022
 
Boric with Prime Minister of Japan Fumio Kishida in Bangkok in November 2022
 
Boric with President of Brazil Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva in Brasília in May 2023

Boric stated that the democratic left should not uphold a double standard when it comes to human rights or employ the principle of self-determination to justify violations of human rights. He believes that, "just as the left must condemn the violation of human rights in Chile during the dictatorship and also today, the soft coups in Brazil, Honduras and Paraguay, the Israeli-occupied territories, or the interventionism of the United States, we must from the left with the same force condemn the permanent restriction of freedoms in Cuba, the repressive government of Ortega in Nicaragua, the dictatorship in China and the weakening of the basic conditions of democracy in Venezuela".[144]

After assuming the presidency, Boric asserted that Venezuela serves as a failed example, with the 6 million Venezuelans in diaspora being a significant demonstration of this failure.[145] During his presidential campaign in 2021, he labeled the Nicaraguan general election as fraudulent and called upon the Communist Party of Chile, one of his allies, to retract its initial statement supporting Daniel Ortega's government.[146]

Boric criticized Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro and Bolsanoro's stance regarding the crimes committed during Brazil's military dictatorship from 1964 to 1985. He referred to Bolsonaro as "a danger to the environment and humanity."[147] In response, Bolsonaro showed a cold attitude towards Boric since his election in December 2021,[147] announcing in January 2022 that he would not attend Boric's inauguration as president.[148]

Regarding Bolivia, Boric expressed his intention to re-establish diplomatic relations between Chile and Bolivia, which were severed in 1978.[149] He voiced support for Argentina's position on the Falkland Islands and extended sympathy towards the government of Alberto Fernández. Boric pledged to assist Argentina during its debt restructuring process and negotiations with the International Monetary Fund.[150]

Boric stated that if Lula da Silva and Gustavo Petro were to win the presidential elections in their respective countries, an "interesting axis" could be formed.[117] He strongly condemned the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine as an "unacceptable war of aggression."[151] During his presidency, Chile supported United Nations resolutions demanding the immediate withdrawal of Russian troops from Ukraine[152] and offered assistance to the Ukrainian government in clearing landmines left by Russian forces.[153] Boric declined requests to supply Ukraine with weapons. The United States offered to replace any equipment donated by the Chilean Armed Forces to support the Ukrainian armed forces, an offer which Boric rejected.[153]

With regard to the Israeli occupied territories, Boric has expressed support for the State of Palestine on multiple occasions. In 2019, after receiving a gift from the Jewish Community of Chile, he called for Israel to return the occupied Palestinian territories in a tweet.[154] He described Israel as a "genocidal and murderous state" that violates international treaties, stressing the importance of defending international principles and human rights regardless of a country's power.[155] Boric refuted accusations of antisemitism, asserting his rejection of all forms of discrimination. He considers the Israeli occupation of territories beyond the 1967 borders as a violation of international law.[156] In October 2021, Boric and other deputies introduced a bill to prohibit the import of products originating from Israeli settlements, which are considered illegal by the international community.[157] In October 2023, Boric stated that Israel's attacks in the Israel–Hamas war "primarily" affected unarmed civilians, and were a potential war crime.[158][159]

Personal life edit

 
Boric wearing a Nine Inch Nails hat in 2015.

Gabriel Boric has been vocal about mental health issues and his personal struggles with obsessive–compulsive disorder, a condition he was diagnosed with as a child. In 2018, he took a leave of absence from Congress after being hospitalized due to his condition.[160][161] The improvement of mental health services, particularly in the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic, was one of the central themes of his presidential campaign.[162]

Raised in a devout Catholic family, with his mother actively involved in the Schoenstatt Apostolic Movement,[16] Boric now identifies as agnostic.[163] Between 2019 and 2023, he was in a relationship with anthropologist and sociologist Irina Karamanos. During Boric's presidential campaign, Karamanos expressed her belief that the role of the First Lady should be reevaluated to better suit modern times.[164][165] Karamanos assumed the role of First Lady and worked to dissolve the institutional prerogatives of the role, which happened in December 2022. In November 2023, Boric and Karamanos announced the end of their relationship.[166]

Boric's love for rock and metal music gained widespread attention during his presidential campaign. He frequently shared posts on social media about some of his favorite bands, such as Deftones, Tool, Nine Inch Nails, and Rammstein.[167] However, he has also mentioned enjoying musicians from other genres, such as Laura Pausini, Taylor Swift and Jeongyeon.[168][169] Additionally, Boric is a supporter of the football team Universidad Católica.[170]

Boric's appearance and style have faced scrutiny since his election as a deputy.[171] As one of the youngest members of the Chamber of Deputies, he often wore casual attire, including jeans and t-shirts, during sessions of Congress. At one point, he even sported a mohawk hairstyle for several months.[171][168] In 2014, controversy arose when Boric entered the Chamber without wearing a tie or formal jacket, prompting a public complaint from a right-wing deputy.[172][173] During his presidential campaign, Boric adopted a more formal look, though he continued to abstain from wearing ties. Notably, he is also the first Latin American head of state to have visible tattoos. The designs on his arms and back represent his home region and include a map of the Magallanes Region, a lenga tree, and a lighthouse.[174]

Honours edit

National honours edit

International honours edit

Ribbon Distinction Country Date Location Notes Reference
  Grand Order of King Tomislav   Croatia 12 December 2022 Santiago Highest civil decoration in Croatia [175]
  Order of Boyacá   Colombia 9 January 2023 Santiago Highest civil decoration in Colombia [176]

Electoral history edit

2013 parliamentary elections edit

2013 parliamentary elections for deputy of District 60 (Río Verde, Antártica, Laguna Blanca, Natales, Cabo de Hornos, Porvenir, Primavera, Punta Arenas, San Gregorio, Timaukel and Torres del Paine)[29]

Candidate List Party Votes % Result
Gabriel Boric Font Independent (No list) IND 15,417 26.18 Elected
Juan Enrique Morano Cornejo New Majority PDC 10,760 18.27 Elected
Domingo Rubilar Ruiz New Majority PPD 8,122 13.79
Karim Bianchi Retamales Independent (No list) IND 7,999 13.59
Sandra Amar Mancilla Alianza ILJ 6,581 11.18
Gloria Vilicic Peña Alianza RN 6,541 11.11
Rodrigo Utz Contreras Independent (No list) IND 2,619 4.45
Margarita Novakovic Kalasich Partido Regionalista de los Independientes PRI 545 0.93
Jorge Patricio Ivelic Suárez Partido Regionalista de los Independientes PRI 295 0.50

2017 parliamentary elections edit

2017 parliamentary elections for deputy of District 28 (Río Verde, Antártica, Laguna Blanca, Natales, Cabo de Hornos, Porvenir, Primavera, Punta Arenas, San Gregorio, Timaukel and Torres del Paine)[45]

Candidate List Party Votes % Results
Gabriel Boric Font Broad Front IND-PH 18,626 32.82 Elected
Sandra Amar Mancilla Chile Vamos IND-UDI 6,871 12.11 Elected
Nicolás Cogler Galindo Chile Vamos RN 4,810 8.47
Juan José Arcos Srdanovic Chile Vamos PRI 4,220 7.43
Karim Bianchi Retamales The Force of the Majority IND-PRSD 4,190 7.38 Elected
Vladimiro Mimica Cárcamo The Force of the Majority IND-PS 3,807 6.71

2021 presidential elections edit

CandidatePartyFirst roundSecond round
Votes%Votes%
Gabriel Boric FontApruebo Dignidad (CS)1,815,02425.824,620,89055.87
José Antonio KastChristian Social Front (PLR)1,961,77927.913,650,08844.13
Franco ParisiParty of the People900,06412.81
Sebastián SichelChile Podemos Más898,63512.79
Yasna ProvosteNew Social Pact (PDC)815,56311.60
Marco Enríquez-OminamiProgressive Party534,3837.60
Eduardo ArtésPatriotic Union (PC-AP)102,8971.46
Total7,028,345100.008,270,978100.00
Valid votes7,028,34598.798,270,97898.89
Invalid/blank votes85,9731.2192,9321.11
Total votes7,114,318100.008,363,910100.00
Registered voters/turnout15,030,97447.3315,030,97455.64
Source: Election Certification Court (final first round results), Servel (final second round results)
Note: First round: Invalid votes: 55,480 (0.79%), blank votes: 30,493 (0.43%).
Second round: Invalid votes: 68,802 (0.82%), blank votes: 24,130 (0.29%).

See also edit

Explanatory notes edit

  1. ^ In this Spanish name, the first or paternal surname is Boric and the second or maternal family name is Font.
  2. ^ In isolation, Boric is pronounced [ˈboɾitʃ].
  3. ^ At the time of his inauguration, Boric was the second-youngest state leader, being surpassed only by Giacomo Simoncini (born 30 November 1994), Captain Regent of San Marino. Simoncini served for 21 days more, before his term expired on 1 April 2022, then Boric became the youngest leader in the world at the time until 30 September 2022, when Ibrahim Traoré seized power in Burkina Faso. On 20 May 2023, Jakov Milatović was sworn in as president of Montenegro, and he became the third youngest state leader.
  4. ^ His great-grandfather Ive Borić, his great-grandmother Božica Crnošija, and his great-granduncle Šimo Borić.
  5. ^ In Canada, the cabinet of Prime Minister Justin Trudeau has been described as "gender-balanced", where half of the positions are taken up by women.[70] Excluding Trudeau, the current cabinet consists of 17 women and 17 men.[71]

References edit

  1. ^ "Boric realiza traspaso simbólico de su sede distrital: "Alcanzamos la presidencia sin olvidarnos de dónde venimos"" (in Spanish). CNN Chile. 29 December 2021. Archived from the original on 31 December 2021. Retrieved 31 December 2021.
  2. ^ a b "Boric: "No me titulé ni estoy pensando en titularme, no me quiero dedicar a ser abogado nunca"". CNN Chile (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 31 May 2022. Retrieved 22 December 2021.
  3. ^ Esparza, Robinson (17 November 2011). "Gabriel Boric: El magallánico que quiere desbancar a Camila Vallejo". El Magallanews.cl, Noticias de Punta Arenas y Magallanes (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 16 January 2012. Retrieved 4 August 2015.
  4. ^ a b "Nuevo partido del FA: Convergencia Social inició proceso de legalización en el Servel". CNN Chile (in Spanish). 31 May 2019. Archived from the original on 11 December 2021. Retrieved 24 December 2021.
  5. ^ "Tres momentos de una negociación histórica: el acuerdo constitucional un año después". pauta (in Spanish). 15 November 2020. Archived from the original on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 20 December 2021.
  6. ^ a b "Leftist Gabriel Boric wins Chile presidential election". BBC News. 20 December 2021. Archived from the original on 20 December 2021. Retrieved 20 December 2021.
  7. ^ a b Poblete, Jorge; McDonnell, Patrick J. (20 December 2021). "Leftist lawmaker Boric wins polarized election in Chile, to become nation's youngest president". Yahoo!. Archived from the original on 31 May 2022. Retrieved 20 December 2021.
  8. ^ "Chilean Politician of Croatian Origin Runs for Presidency". Balkan Insight. 5 November 2021. Archived from the original on 31 May 2022. Retrieved 19 December 2021.
  9. ^ "Zadarski.hr je u rujnu pronašao rodbinu novog predsjednika Čilea na Ugljanu. Odatle su Borićevi predci prije 124 godine otišli u Južnu Ameriku..." Zadarski.hr (in Croatian). 20 December 2021. Archived from the original on 23 December 2021. Retrieved 22 December 2021.
  10. ^ "Kako je novi predsednik Čilea doneo slavu jednom hrvatskom ostrvu". BBC News na srpskom (in Serbian). 20 January 2022. Archived from the original on 23 January 2022. Retrieved 23 January 2022.
  11. ^ a b c d González, C.; Riquelme, C. (21 December 2021). "Su bisabuelo llegó a Magallanes desde Dalmacia hace más de 150 años: El origen croata del Presidente electo, Gabriel Boric". Emol (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 22 December 2021. Retrieved 28 December 2021.
  12. ^ "Familia Boric Font" (PDF). laprensaaustral.cl (in Spanish). 13 October 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
  13. ^ "Mi manifiesto: Gabriel Boric, presidente de la Fech". La Tercera (in Spanish). Grupo Copesa. 6 May 2012. Archived from the original on 9 May 2012. Retrieved 4 August 2015.
  14. ^ Andrés, Marcela (12 December 2011). "El magallánico que llega a tomar el control de la Fech". La Tercera (in Spanish). Grupo Copesa. Archived from the original on 13 February 2012. Retrieved 4 August 2015.
  15. ^ "Bishop Vladimiro Boric Crnosija". www.catholic-hierarchy.org. Archived from the original on 26 December 2021. Retrieved 26 December 2021.
  16. ^ a b "Boric antes de Boric: los años de vida acomodada, poesía e influencia anarco-sindicalista que marcaron su juventud". Interferencia (in Spanish). 31 October 2021. Archived from the original on 12 December 2021. Retrieved 27 December 2021.
  17. ^ Middleton, Javier (23 December 2021). "Simón y Tomás Boric: ésta es la historia de los hermanos del presidente electo". The Clinic. Archived from the original on 25 December 2021. Retrieved 25 December 2021.
  18. ^ "The British School : List of alumni" (PDF). Britishschool.cl. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 April 2018. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
  19. ^ Concha, Luis (7 December 2011). "Gabriel Boric, el "magallánico fundamentalista" de la FECh". Terra (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 11 January 2012. Retrieved 4 August 2015.
  20. ^ "La historia del rival de Camila Vallejo". La Tercera (in Spanish). Grupo Copesa. Archived from the original on 13 December 2012. Retrieved 4 August 2015.
  21. ^ "El matrimonio, la materia donde tropezó Boric en su examen de grado". El Mercurio. 24 October 2021. Archived from the original on 22 December 2021. Retrieved 22 December 2021.
  22. ^ a b Bazán, Ignacio (14 January 2017). "El retiro de José Zalaquett". La Tercera (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2 January 2022. Retrieved 12 December 2021.
  23. ^ a b c von Baer, Alex (19 December 2021). "Lo que tienes que saber del nuevo Presidente de Chile, Gabriel Boric". Ex-Ante (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 18 July 2021. Retrieved 27 December 2012.
  24. ^ a b c d "Gabriel Boric Font – Reseñas Biográficas Parlamentarias". Biblioteca del Congreso Nacional de Chile (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 14 July 2016. Retrieved 4 August 2015.
  25. ^ a b Farfán, Claudia; Pozo, Andrés (12 June 2009). "Los verdugos de Nahum". La Tercera (in Spanish). Grupo Copesa. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 4 August 2015.
  26. ^ "Elecciones Fech 2012". FECH – Federación de Estudiantes de la Universidad de Chile (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 22 June 2013. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
  27. ^ "5 exigencias fundamentales para un nuevo sistema educacional". FECH – Federación de Estudiantes de la Universidad de Chile (in Spanish). 28 June 2012. Archived from the original on 29 October 2012. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
  28. ^ "Red de Líderes. - Gabriel Boric Font (26)". 2012. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 4 August 2015.
  29. ^ a b "Elección de Diputados 2013 – Votación Candidatos por Distrito 60". Servicio Electoral de Chile (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 22 July 2021. Retrieved 22 July 2021.
  30. ^ F.M (17 November 2013). "Vallejo, Jackson, Boric, Cariola y Fuentes: Las caras del movimiento social y estudiantil que llegan al Congreso". La Tercera (in Spanish). Grupo Copesa. Archived from the original on 18 November 2013. Retrieved 4 August 2015.
  31. ^ "Cuatro emblemáticos ex dirigentes estudiantiles son electos diputados". Emol (in Spanish). 18 November 2013. Archived from the original on 9 December 2021. Retrieved 4 August 2015.
  32. ^ a b "Edición del 18/11/2013 Página 01- Diario El Pingüino". El Pingüino (in Spanish). 18 November 2013. Archived from the original on 25 November 2021. Retrieved 4 August 2015.
  33. ^ a b "Gabriel Boric, el diputado que derrotó al binominal: "Nuestro voto no está en venta al mejor postor"". Diario y Radio U Chile (in Spanish). 21 November 2013. Archived from the original on 9 December 2021. Retrieved 4 August 2015.
  34. ^ a b Ojeda González, Patricio (18 November 2013). "El nuevo mapa electoral y las claves que dejó la elección parlamentaria – Diario Financiero". Diario Financiero (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
  35. ^ a b "Diputados: Nueva Mayoría logra una decena de doblajes contra uno de la Alianza". Cooperativa.cl (in Spanish). 18 November 2013. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 4 August 2015.
  36. ^ "El primer año de "la bancada estudiantil"". CNN Chile (in Spanish).
  37. ^ "Cadem: Guillier acorta distancia con Piñera y Boric es el político mejor evaluado". El Desconcierto (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2 February 2022. Retrieved 27 December 2021.
  38. ^ "Cadem: Boric se convierte en el político mejor evaluado de Chile y Lagos sale del top ten". The Clinic (in Spanish). 18 July 2016. Archived from the original on 3 February 2022. Retrieved 27 December 2021.
  39. ^ "Andrés Fielbaum explica quiebre entre IA y Boric: Había riesgo de que se terminara construyendo "un proyecto sin sustancia"". Emol (in Spanish). 29 May 2016. Archived from the original on 22 December 2021. Retrieved 22 December 2021.
  40. ^ "Jackson y Boric dan los primeros pasos para formar un frente amplio de izquierda". Revista Qué Pasa. 20 January 2016. Archived from the original on 22 December 2021. Retrieved 22 December 2021.
  41. ^ "Frente Amplio de Uruguay: El bloque multipartidista que Revolución Democrática busca replicar en Chile". Emol (in Spanish). 30 May 2016. Archived from the original on 22 December 2021. Retrieved 22 December 2021.
  42. ^ a b "Jorge Sharp: La historia de cómo pasó de estrecho aliado a detractor de Boric". Ex-Ante (in Spanish). 21 July 2021. Archived from the original on 22 December 2021. Retrieved 22 December 2021.
  43. ^ "El Frente Amplio lanzó plataforma con once agrupaciones". ADN (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 4 December 2021. Retrieved 22 December 2021.
  44. ^ Dodds, Tomás (13 December 2017). "Gabriel Boric y Giorgio Jackson anuncian que votarán por Guillier". La Tercera. Archived from the original on 22 December 2021. Retrieved 22 December 2021.
  45. ^ a b "Elección de Diputados 2017 – Votación Candidatos por Distrito 28". Servicio Electoral de Chile (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 29 October 2021. Retrieved 20 December 2021.
  46. ^ Figueroa, Juan Pablo; Aninat, Catalina (11 November 2018). "El Frente Amplio que surge tras las fusiones". La Tercera. Archived from the original on 28 November 2021. Retrieved 24 December 2021.
  47. ^ McGowan, Charis (22 October 2019). "Chile protests: What prompted the unrest?". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 26 October 2019. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  48. ^ Aislinn Laing; Dave Sherwood; Fabian Cambero (23 October 2019). "Explainer: Chile's inequality challenge: What went wrong and can it be fixed?". Reuters. Archived from the original on 24 October 2019. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
  49. ^ "Gabriel Boric llegó a manifestarse en Plaza Italia: "Debemos oponernos a la militarización de la ciudad"". Sonar FM (in Spanish). 19 October 2019. Archived from the original on 3 December 2021. Retrieved 24 December 2021.
  50. ^ "Boric anunció acusación constitucional contra Chadwick pese a posible cambio de gabinete". Cooperativa.cl (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 24 December 2021. Retrieved 24 December 2021.
  51. ^ "Gabriel Boric en acusación contra Chadwick: "No se trata de un ensañamiento"". El Mostrador (in Spanish). 10 December 2019. Archived from the original on 24 December 2021. Retrieved 24 December 2021.
  52. ^ a b Soto, Ximena (20 December 2021). "Piñera versus Boric: Una historia marcada por desencuentros y tensiones". La Tercera. Archived from the original on 24 December 2021. Retrieved 24 December 2021.
  53. ^ "Acusación constitucional deducida en contra del ex Ministro del Interior y Seguridad Pública, señor Andrés Chadwick Piñera. (Boletín Nº S 2.094-01)". www.senado.cl (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 11 August 2022. Retrieved 30 May 2023.
  54. ^ "Cómo se negoció uno de los mayores acuerdos políticos suscritos en democracia". pauta (in Spanish). 15 November 2019. Archived from the original on 8 December 2021. Retrieved 24 December 2021.
  55. ^ ""Se encontraron Boric y Coloma en el baño y empezaron a conversar": El diálogo previo al acuerdo, según Van Rysselberghe". CNN Chile (in Spanish). 19 October 2021. Archived from the original on 24 December 2021. Retrieved 24 December 2021.
  56. ^ Marín, Verónica (15 November 2019). "Solo representa a Boric: Convergencia Social se divide por firma del diputado en acuerdo por nueva Constitución". El Mercurio. Archived from the original on 24 December 2021. Retrieved 24 December 2021.
  57. ^ Durán Migliardi, Carlos (29 May 2021). "Tres razones para el "segundo aire" del Frente Amplio". Ciper Chile (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 24 December 2021. Retrieved 24 December 2021.
  58. ^ ""Vendiste al pueblo, traicionero": increpan y agreden a diputado Boric en Parque Forestal". La Tercera. 20 December 2019. Archived from the original on 31 December 2021. Retrieved 31 December 2021.
  59. ^ "Gabriel Boric dice que aspira a llegar a posible elección de constituyentes con no más de dos listas". El Mostrador (in Spanish). 10 September 2020. Archived from the original on 24 December 2021. Retrieved 24 December 2021.
  60. ^ "Jadue lidera las preferencias para ser Presidente de Chile". AS Chile (in Spanish). 3 September 2020. Archived from the original on 24 December 2021. Retrieved 24 December 2021.
  61. ^ "Pulso Ciudadano: Jadue lidera preferencia presidencial con un 19,2% tras elecciones". T13 (in Spanish). 19 May 2021. Archived from the original on 24 October 2021. Retrieved 20 May 2021.
  62. ^ "Confirmado: Beatriz Sánchez opta por la Convención Constitucional y deja de lado la carrera presidencial". El Mostrador (in Spanish). 11 January 2021. Archived from the original on 25 December 2021. Retrieved 24 December 2021.
  63. ^ "Diputado Vidal (RD) afirma que "Gabriel Boric entró en la lista de presidenciables del Frente Amplio"". El Desconcierto (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 22 December 2021. Retrieved 24 December 2021.
  64. ^ "Gabriel Boric consigue firmas para candidatura presidencial a un día del plazo límite". Teletrece. 17 May 2021. Archived from the original on 22 December 2021. Retrieved 24 December 2021.
  65. ^ "Resultados oficiales por región de Primarias de candidatos a Presidente de la República" (XLSX). Tribunal Calificador de Elecciones de Chile (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 16 July 2022. Retrieved 24 December 2021.
  66. ^ Boric Font, Gabriel [@gabrielboric] (19 July 2021). "Gracias a quienes hoy han confiado en nosotros. Tomo este triunfo con alegría, humildad y sobre todo con sentido de responsabilidad. Gracias también a @danieljadue con quien he conversado y trabajaremos unidos. Para ganar en noviembre hay que convocar más aún. Seguimos!" [Thanks to those who have trusted us today. I take this triumph with joy, humility, and above all with a sense of responsibility. Thanks also to @danieljadue with whom I have spoken and we will work together. To win in November we have to assemble even more. We continue!] (Tweet) (in Spanish). Retrieved 19 July 2021 – via Twitter.
  67. ^ a b "Chile president-elect Boric unveils women-majority cabinet". Aljazeera.com. 21 January 2022. Archived from the original on 24 January 2022. Retrieved 26 January 2022.
  68. ^ P, Carlos Reyes (21 January 2022). "Socialismo Democrático valora incorporación al gabinete de Gabriel Boric: "Hay cambios profundos que se tienen que impulsar, para eso se requiere construir mayoría"". La Tercera. Archived from the original on 21 January 2022. Retrieved 23 March 2022.
  69. ^ a b Bartlett, John (21 January 2022). "Chile's president-elect names progressive, majority-women cabinet". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 25 January 2022. Retrieved 26 January 2022.
  70. ^ "Justin Trudeau names women to top posts in Canada cabinet reshuffle". The Guardian. 26 October 2021. Archived from the original on 16 November 2021. Retrieved 26 January 2022.
  71. ^ Harris, Kathleen (18 July 2018). "Trudeau adds 5 new ministers in cabinet shakeup that puts focus on seniors, border security". CBC.ca. Archived from the original on 5 November 2021. Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  72. ^ "Marco Antonio Ávila se convierte en el primer profesor abiertamente homosexual en liderar el Ministerio de Educación". Radio Infinita (in Spanish). 21 January 2022. Archived from the original on 30 January 2022. Retrieved 31 January 2022.
  73. ^ "Ministro Grau dice que inflación trae "beneficios" a las pymes y desata críticas de gremios y economistas". La Tercera. 3 August 2022. Archived from the original on 18 October 2022. Retrieved 18 October 2022.
  74. ^ Parrini C., Gianluca (5 January 2022). "Ricardo Ffrench-Davis, asesor económico de Boric: "Cerrar las AFP hoy sería una tontera"". Radio Bío-Bío (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 26 January 2022. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  75. ^ Córdova, Eduardo (21 January 2022). "Nombramiento de Mario Marcel provocó un alza en la bolsa de Santiago". La Nación (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 19 April 2022. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
  76. ^ Ningthoujam, Natalia (17 August 2023). "Chile's President Reorganizes Cabinet For 3rd Time Amid Low Approval Rating". Latin Times. Archived from the original on 27 August 2023. Retrieved 23 August 2023.
  77. ^ "Chile's President Shakes Up Cabinet Amid Corruption Probe and Low Approval Rating". Bloomberg.com. 16 August 2023. Archived from the original on 16 August 2023. Retrieved 23 August 2023.
  78. ^ Cruzat, Lorena (15 March 2022). "Disparos en visita de ministra Siches a Temucuicui: Investigación queda a cargo del fiscal de Alta Complejidad César Schibar". Emol (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2 April 2022. Retrieved 2 April 2022.
  79. ^ Laborde, Antonia (22 April 2022). "Un hombre lanza una piedra a Gabriel Boric en su primera visita presidencial al norte de Chile". El País (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 9 May 2022. Retrieved 10 May 2022.
  80. ^ a b "Dos hechos de inseguridad alertan al Gobierno de Boric: secuestraron a un chofer de su custodia y asaltaron la casa de la ministra de Defensa". Clarín (in Spanish). 14 May 2022. Archived from the original on 14 May 2022. Retrieved 15 May 2022.
  81. ^ González, Carolina (17 May 2022). "Carabineros descarta vinculación entre asalto en casa de ministra Fernández y secuestro de escolta presidencial". Emol (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 19 June 2022. Retrieved 22 June 2022.
  82. ^ del Pino, Jose María (17 May 2022). "Conflicto mapuche en Chile: Gabriel Boric envía militares al sur y choca con sus aliados comunistas". Clarín (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 29 May 2022. Retrieved 29 May 2022.
  83. ^ "Chile: grupo radical mapuche llama a la resistencia armada". Deutsche Welle (in Spanish). 12 May 2022. Archived from the original on 30 May 2022. Retrieved 30 May 2022.
  84. ^ "Boric descarta querella contra líder mapuche: "No perseguimos ideas"" (in Spanish). SwissInfo. 19 May 2022. Archived from the original on 30 May 2022. Retrieved 30 May 2022.
  85. ^ Ayala, Leslie (18 May 2022). "Fiscalía de manos atadas: gobierno no se querellará contra Llaitul, lo que impide investigar en lo penal su llamado a la "resistencia armada"". La Tercera (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 30 May 2022. Retrieved 30 May 2022.
  86. ^ Vanessa Buschschlüter (5 September 2022). "Chile constitution: Voters overwhelmingly reject radical change". BBC News. Archived from the original on 5 September 2022. Retrieved 5 September 2022.
  87. ^ "Plebiscito: Chile rechaza propuesta de nueva Constitución con histórica participación de más de 12 millones de personas". La Tercera. 4 September 2022. Archived from the original on 4 September 2022. Retrieved 4 September 2022.
  88. ^ Schmidt, Samantha (5 September 2022). "Chilean voters decisively reject leftist constitution". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Archived from the original on 5 September 2022. Retrieved 5 September 2022.
  89. ^ Gabriel Boric Font [@gabrielboric] (24 February 2022). "Rusia ha optado por la guerra como medio para resolver conflictos. Desde Chile condenamos la invasión a Ucrania, la violación de su soberanía y el uso ilegitimo de la fuerza. Nuestra solidaridad estará con las víctimas y nuestros humildes esfuerzos con la paz" [Russia has opted for war as a means of resolving conflicts. From Chile we condemn the invasion of Ukraine, the violation of its sovereignty and the illegitimate use of force. Our solidarity will be with the victims and our humble efforts with peace.] (Tweet) (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 27 February 2022. Retrieved 28 February 2022 – via Twitter.
  90. ^ Pareja, Paula (3 April 2022). "Boric reafirma su apoyo "de manera clara y decidida" a reivindicación de Argentina sobre las islas Malvinas en antesala de viaje a ese país". La Tercera (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 5 April 2022. Retrieved 5 April 2022.
  91. ^ "Fernández y Boric compartieron un concierto y una cena por la hermandad argentino-chilena" (in Spanish). Télam. 4 April 2022. Archived from the original on 5 April 2022. Retrieved 5 April 2022.
  92. ^ "Gabriel Boric: 'La hermandad entre Chile y Argentina tiene que ir más allá de las preferencias que tengan sus presidentes'". Infobae (in Spanish). 4 April 2022. Archived from the original on 4 April 2022. Retrieved 5 April 2022.
  93. ^ "Chilean president refuses to receive Israeli ambassador's credentials". The Jerusalem Post. 15 September 2022. Archived from the original on 27 September 2022. Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  94. ^ a b c d Harkov, Lahav (21 September 2022). "Chile's Boric's non-apology over Israel snub angers Jewish community". The Jerusalem Post. Archived from the original on 28 September 2022. Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  95. ^ a b c "Gobierno de Boric ha visado 296 pensiones de gracia para víctimas del estallido social". La Tercera (in Spanish). 17 September 2022. Archived from the original on 29 September 2022. Retrieved 30 September 2022.
  96. ^ Florencia, Ortiz (29 September 2022). "Cámara ve "con extrema preocupación" criterios para dar pensiones de gracia a víctimas del estallido". Radio Bío-Bío (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 29 September 2022. Retrieved 1 October 2022.
  97. ^ "AQ Presidential Profile: Gabriel Boric". Americas Quarterly. 27 September 2022. Archived from the original on 27 September 2022. Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  98. ^ a b Castro, Maolis (21 June 2022). "Hits and Misses: Chile's Gabriel Boric's First 100 Days in Office". Bloomberg Línea. Archived from the original on 28 September 2022. Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  99. ^ Malinowski, Matthew (16 January 2023). "Chile's Boric Sees Approval Hit All-Time Low as Troubles Mount". Bloomberg.com. Archived from the original on 29 November 2023. Retrieved 19 April 2023.
  100. ^ Miranda, Natalia A. Ramos (23 January 2023). "Crime, inflation hammer support for Chile's Boric in tough first year". Reuters. Archived from the original on 19 April 2023. Retrieved 19 April 2023.
  101. ^ "José Antonio Kast lidera la preferencia presidencial espontánea con 20%, seguido por Evelyn Matthei con 13%". Sitio Web Cadem. Archived from the original on 31 May 2023. Retrieved 14 June 2023.
  102. ^ Malinowski, Matthew (5 June 2023). "Chilean President Boric Sees Approval Rating Jump to Highest Level in a Year". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on 29 November 2023. Retrieved 17 June 2023.
  103. ^ Olde, Matthijs de; Today, Chile (29 June 2023). "Democracía Viva scandal keeps growing, erodes trust in Boric Administration". Chile Today. Archived from the original on 9 July 2023. Retrieved 9 July 2023.
  104. ^ "Aprobación del Presidente Boric cae por tercera semana consecutiva, llegando a 28%. Desaprobación se mantiene en 65%". Sitio Web Cadem. Archived from the original on 8 July 2023. Retrieved 6 July 2023.
  105. ^ "Chile's President Boric Takes Another Blow to Popularity as Graft Accusations Hit Key Allies". Bloomberg.com. 27 June 2023. Archived from the original on 29 November 2023. Retrieved 9 July 2023.
  106. ^ "Chilean president and government ratings continue to slide". MercoPress. Archived from the original on 21 August 2023. Retrieved 21 August 2023.
  107. ^ "Plaza Pública Cadem. Tercera semana de agosto - N°501" (PDF). 21 August 2023. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 August 2023. Retrieved 30 August 2023.
  108. ^ Bartlett, John (20 December 2021). "Leftwinger to become Chile's youngest president after beating far-right rival". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 20 December 2021. Retrieved 5 September 2022.
  109. ^ Franco, Marina E.; Gottbrath, Laurin-Whitney (5 September 2022). "Chile rejects draft constitution in blow to leftist President Boric". Axios. Archived from the original on 5 September 2022. Retrieved 5 September 2022.
  110. ^ Nugent, Ciara (31 August 2022). "Chile's Millennial President Is a New Kind of Leftist Leader". Time. Archived from the original on 5 September 2022. Retrieved 5 September 2022.
  111. ^ "Leftist Gabriel Boric, the president breaking new ground in Chile". France 24. 11 March 2022. Archived from the original on 5 September 2022. Retrieved 5 September 2022.
  112. ^ Romo, Rafael; Ehlinger, Maija; Sorto, Marlon (4 September 2022). "Chilean voters overwhelmingly reject proposed leftist constitution". CNN. Archived from the original on 5 September 2022. Retrieved 5 September 2022. The proposed constitution, which had the support of leftist President Gabriel Boric,
  113. ^ Duhalde, David (19 December 2021). "For Chileans, the Choice in Today's Election Is Socialism or Barbarism". Jacobin Magazine. Archived from the original on 30 December 2021. Retrieved 30 December 2021.
  114. ^ Escobar Salinas, Rubén (5 December 2021). "Stephany Griffith-Jones, economista: 'Boric es lo que en Europa se llama socialdemócrata'". El Desconcierto (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 31 May 2022. Retrieved 31 December 2021.
  115. ^ Urrejola, José (16 December 2021). "Gabriel Boric, el joven que promete llevar a Chile hacia la socialdemocracia". Deutsche Welle (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 31 December 2021. Retrieved 31 December 2021.
  116. ^ Gabriel Boric [@gabrielboric] (13 April 2020). "socialista libertario" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  117. ^ a b Boric, Gabriel (21 January 2022). "No espero que las élites estén de acuerdo conmigo, pero sí que dejen de tenernos miedo". BBC News Mundo (Interview) (in Spanish). Interviewed by Andrea Vial Herrera. Santiago de Chile. Archived from the original on 18 March 2022. Retrieved 23 March 2022.
  118. ^ "Álvaro García Linera: El referente político-intelectual boliviano de Gabriel Boric". La Tercera. 6 February 2022. Archived from the original on 23 March 2022. Retrieved 23 March 2022.
  119. ^ "Chile's new president promises to bury neoliberalism". The Economist. 20 December 2021. Archived from the original on 23 December 2021. Retrieved 23 December 2021.
  120. ^ a b Valiente Deichler, Fernanda (22 December 2021). "Carlos Peña en Desde El Jardín: "La derecha requiere liderazgos intelectuales más liberales"". Pauta. Archived from the original on 27 December 2021. Retrieved 26 December 2021.
  121. ^ "Gabriel Boric: From student protest leader to Chile's president". BBC. 20 December 2021. Archived from the original on 20 December 2021. Retrieved 21 December 2021. When Mr Boric won the candidacy of his leftist bloc to run for president, he made a bold pledge. "If Chile was the cradle of neoliberalism, it will also be its grave," he said. "Do not be afraid of the youth changing this country."
  122. ^ Cambero, Fabian (20 December 2021). "Student protest leader to president-elect: Gabriel Boric caps rise of Chile's left". Reuters. Archived from the original on 20 December 2021. Retrieved 21 December 2021.
  123. ^ De Vicenzi, Pamela (13 December 2021). "'Una muy buena conversación': Gabriel Boric confirmó que se reunió con Michelle Bachelet y Ricardo Lagos". ADN (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 31 December 2021. Retrieved 31 December 2021.
  124. ^ "Far Right Holds Chile Hostage". NACLA. 23 May 2023. Archived from the original on 1 June 2023. Retrieved 23 May 2023.
  125. ^ Ulises, Edgar (20 December 2021). "Gabriel Boric, presidente electo de Chile, habla a disidencias sexuales". Homosensual. Archived from the original on 27 December 2021. Retrieved 26 December 2021.
  126. ^ "Propuestas programáticas: Feminismo". Archived from the original on 27 December 2021. Retrieved 26 December 2021.
  127. ^ Casas, Leonardo (13 October 2016). "Liberación de reos: Boric crítica 'populismo penal' de políticos que 'deberían' estar presos". Radio Bío-Bío. Archived from the original on 30 January 2022. Retrieved 19 January 2022.
  128. ^ "Debate Apruebo Dignidad: Daniel Jadue y Gabriel Boric tuvieron su último choque previo a primarias". enchancha.cl. 11 July 2021. Archived from the original on 14 February 2022. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  129. ^ a b Leal, Christian (3 July 2021). "Boric advierte a forestales en Arauco: 'tendrán un "párele" en nuestro gobierno'". Radio Bío-Bío (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 4 May 2022. Retrieved 3 May 2022.
  130. ^ Entrevista exclusiva a Presidente Gabriel Boric: Los primeros 50 días de mandato. 1 May 2022. Televisión Nacional de Chile
  131. ^ "Presidente Boric: "Creo que el capitalismo no es el mejor modo de solucionar problemas sociales"". 23 July 2023. Archived from the original on 5 November 2023. Retrieved 5 November 2023.
  132. ^ "El afiebrado historial de opiniones de Gabriel Boric sobre Ricardo Lagos". The Clinic (in Spanish). 26 November 2021. Archived from the original on 31 December 2021. Retrieved 31 December 2021.
  133. ^ "Gabriel Boric: 'Ricardo Lagos es el generador del malestar que hoy atraviesa Chile'". El Mostrador (in Spanish). 2 September 2016. Archived from the original on 31 December 2021. Retrieved 31 December 2021.
  134. ^ "Boric y condonación del CAE: 'Es una deuda moral que tenemos con las familias chilenas'". 24 Horas (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 31 December 2021. Retrieved 31 December 2021.
  135. ^ Román, Cecilia (27 November 2021). "Sistema inglés de salud a la palestra: Los elogios del comando de Boric y las precisiones de expertos sobre su cobertura". Emol (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 31 December 2021. Retrieved 31 December 2021.
  136. ^ a b "Programa de Gabriel Boric: El fin de las AFP y reformas sociales, laborales y tributarias". La Tercera. 19 July 2021. Archived from the original on 29 December 2021. Retrieved 31 December 2021.
  137. ^ "Gabriel Boric: 'Proponemos participación de trabajadores en directorios de grandes empresas con paridad de género en su composición'". El Desconcierto (in Spanish). 20 March 2021. Archived from the original on 31 December 2021. Retrieved 31 December 2021.
  138. ^ a b Restivo, Néstor (26 December 2021). "Cuál es el programa económico de Gabriel Boric para el nuevo Chile | Medidas de transformación estructural del modelo neoliberal". PAGINA12. Archived from the original on 31 December 2021. Retrieved 31 December 2021.
  139. ^ Del Río Rau, Sofía (19 December 2021). "Qué propone el gobierno de Boric en medioambiente". pauta (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 31 December 2021. Retrieved 31 December 2021.
  140. ^ Cambero, Fabian (8 April 2022). "Chile inflation surges to 1.9% in March, highest level since 1993". reuters.com. Archived from the original on 17 April 2022. Retrieved 17 April 2022.
  141. ^ "Chile announces $3.7 billion recovery plan to aid struggling economy". reuters.com. 7 April 2022. Archived from the original on 4 June 2022. Retrieved 17 April 2022.
  142. ^ Montes, Rocío (9 June 2022). "La inflación anual alcanza en Chile el 11,5%, su mayor nivel en 28 años". El País Chile (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 28 September 2022. Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  143. ^ "Chile Inflation Slows Less Than Forecast as Peso Gets Weaker". Bloomberg. 6 October 2023. Retrieved 17 October 2023.
  144. ^ "Boric llama a la izquierda a condenar situación en Venezuela, Cuba y Nicaragua: "No podemos permitirnoscontinuar con el doble estándar"". El Mostrador (in Spanish). 17 August 2018. Archived from the original on 22 December 2021. Retrieved 22 December 2021.
  145. ^ "Gabriel Boric: 'Venezuela es una experiencia que ha fracasado y la principal demostración son los 6 millones de venezolanos en diáspora'". Infobae (in Spanish). 22 January 2022. Archived from the original on 10 February 2022. Retrieved 10 February 2022.
  146. ^ "'Yo invito al PC a retractarse': Boric sale al paso de la declaración de sus socios a favor de Daniel Ortega por elecciones en Nicaragua". El Mostrador (in Spanish). 12 November 2021. Archived from the original on 21 December 2021. Retrieved 22 December 2021.
  147. ^ a b Fuentes, Fernando (24 December 2021). "Bolsonaro y su tardío saludo a Boric: los cruces más polémicos de una relación tensa". La Tercera (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 24 December 2021. Retrieved 25 December 2021.
  148. ^ "Brasil: Jair Bolsonaro no irá a la toma de posesión de Gabriel Boric en Chile" [Brazil: Jair Bolsonaro will not attend the inauguration of Gabriel Boric in Chile]. Deutsche Welle (in Spanish). 13 January 2022. Archived from the original on 23 January 2022. Retrieved 23 January 2022.
  149. ^ "Boric buscaría retomar relaciones diplomáticas con Bolivia: 'Va depender de la voluntad de la otra parte'". 24Horas.cl (in Spanish). 9 December 2021. Archived from the original on 21 December 2021. Retrieved 22 December 2021.
  150. ^ "Argentina y una esperanza ante el FMI: el apoyo de López Obrador, Boric y Lula" [Argentina and a hope before the IMF: the support of López Obrador, Boric and Lula]. Ámbito Financiero (in Spanish). 23 January 2022. Archived from the original on 23 January 2022. Retrieved 24 January 2022.
  151. ^ "Chilean president-elect again condemns Russian invasion of Ukraine". Mercopress South Atlantic News Agency. 1 March 2022. Archived from the original on 25 February 2023. Retrieved 25 February 2023.
  152. ^ "UN tells Russia to leave Ukraine: How did countries vote?". al-Jazeera. 24 February 2023. Archived from the original on 21 April 2023. Retrieved 25 February 2023.
  153. ^ a b Stott, Michael; Murray, Christine; Elliott, Lucinda; Ingizza, Carolina; Chazan, Guy (15 February 2023). "'We are for peace': Latin America rejects pleas to send weapons to Ukraine". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 24 February 2023. Retrieved 25 February 2023.
  154. ^ "Anti-Zionist Gabriel Boric's presidential win leaves Chile's Jews worried". The Jerusalem Post. 20 December 2021. Archived from the original on 20 December 2021. Retrieved 21 December 2021.
  155. ^ "Gabriel Boric, antisionista que acusa a Israel de 'Estado genocida', es el nuevo presidente de Chile". Enlace Judío (in Mexican Spanish). 20 December 2021. Archived from the original on 22 December 2021. Retrieved 22 December 2021.
  156. ^ Román, Cecilia (8 October 2019). "Feliz Día del Perdón, diputado: La discusión que abrió Boric entre judíos y palestinos". La Tercera. Archived from the original on 22 December 2021. Retrieved 22 December 2021.
  157. ^ "Gabriel Boric se une a 'boicot' contra Israel en el Congreso" [Gabriel Boric joins the boycott against Israel in Congress]. El Dínamo (in Spanish). 6 October 2021. Archived from the original on 21 December 2021. Retrieved 21 December 2021.
  158. ^ Dogan, Sinan. "Chile's president denounces Israeli attack on Gaza hospital". AA. Archived from the original on 24 October 2023. Retrieved 25 October 2023.
  159. ^ "Chile's Boric, after condemning Israel over Gaza, raises concerns with Biden". Reuters. 3 November 2023. Archived from the original on 3 November 2023. Retrieved 3 November 2023.
  160. ^ Mardones, Carolina (4 October 2018). "Boric estará fuera del Congreso por TOC: ¿En qué consiste el trastorno que lo afecta?". Teletrece. Archived from the original on 22 December 2021. Retrieved 22 December 2021.
  161. ^ "Boric aseguró haberse sentido estigmatizado en el Congreso por su TOC: 'Cuando no hay argumentos, se utilizan insultos'". Meganoticias (in Spanish). 7 October 2021. Archived from the original on 22 December 2021. Retrieved 22 December 2021.
  162. ^ Canales, Ignacia; Latorre, Rocío (12 October 2021). "Plan universal de aseguramiento y salud mental: las reformas al sistema sanitario que proponen los candidatos presidenciales". La Tercera. Archived from the original on 22 December 2021. Retrieved 22 December 2021.
  163. ^ "Gabriel Boric: el origen y los hitos en la vida del joven político que llega a La Moneda prometiendo cambiar Chile". BBC News Mundo (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 29 December 2021. Retrieved 27 December 2021.
  164. ^ "Quién es Irina Karamanos, la pareja de Boric que propuso reformular el cargo de primera dama". Teletrece. 19 December 2021. Archived from the original on 22 December 2021. Retrieved 22 December 2021.
  165. ^ "¿Habrá primera dama en Chile cuando Gabriel Boric asuma el poder en 2022?". El Espectador (in Spanish). 20 December 2021. Archived from the original on 22 December 2021. Retrieved 22 December 2021.
  166. ^ Boric, Gabriel [@gabrielboric] (16 November 2023). "Irina es una mujer extraordinaria, en todas las dimensiones en que se puede entender a una persona. De una curiosidad infinita por los misterios de la vida porque sobre todo tiene ganas de vivirla. Es generosa como nadie, tenga poco o mucho, siempre va a compartir porque (...)". Retrieved 16 November 2023 – via Instagram.
  167. ^ "Chile's new president-elect Gabriel Boric is just like us - a huge metalhead who loves Deftones and Rammstein". New Fury Media. 21 December 2021. Archived from the original on 21 December 2021. Retrieved 23 December 2021.
  168. ^ a b "Boric: Me hice un mohicano porque encontré que Eduardo Vargas se veía minísimo". ADN (in Spanish). 7 July 2017. Archived from the original on 31 December 2021. Retrieved 31 December 2021.
  169. ^ "Chile's new president (Taylor's version): Gabriel Boric is a Swiftie". Los Angeles Times. 21 December 2021. Archived from the original on 22 December 2021. Retrieved 23 December 2021.
  170. ^ "De Cruzados a un cruzado: Universidad Católica felicita a Gabriel Boric por su triunfo en las elecciones presidenciales". El Mostrador (in Spanish). 21 December 2021. Archived from the original on 27 December 2021. Retrieved 27 December 2021.
  171. ^ a b "Desde su look rebelde hasta sus salidas de protocolo: Así es el "estilo Boric" que llegará a La Moneda". meganoticias.cl (in Spanish). 22 December 2021. Archived from the original on 31 December 2021. Retrieved 31 December 2021.
  172. ^ "Diputado UDI se quejó por vestimenta de Gabriel Boric en el Congreso". Cooperativa.cl (in Spanish). 12 March 2014. Archived from the original on 31 December 2021. Retrieved 31 December 2021.
  173. ^ "Gabriel Boric: "La ropa no es un tema para mi"". 24Horas.cl (in Spanish). 12 March 2014. Archived from the original on 31 December 2021. Retrieved 31 December 2021.
  174. ^ Luna, Patricia (23 December 2021). "Chile's tattooed president-elect honors homeland in ink". ABC News. Archived from the original on 30 December 2021. Retrieved 30 December 2021.
  175. ^ "Milanović: S Čileom imamo dosta bliskosti i slično gledamo na neka globalna pitanja" [Milanović: We have many common things with Chile, and view some global issues the same] (in Croatian). 24 sata. 12 December 2022. Archived from the original on 12 December 2022. Retrieved 12 December 2022.
  176. ^ "Presidente Boric recibe a mandatario colombiano Gustavo Petro en el Palacio de La Moneda" [President Boric receives Colombian president at Palacio de La Moneda] (in Spanish). El Mostrador. 9 January 2023. Archived from the original on 11 January 2023. Retrieved 11 January 2023.

External links edit