Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro
The Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro (Montenegrin: Demokratska partija socijalista Crne Gore / Демократска партија социјалиста Црне Горе, DPS) is an opposition catch-all and a populist political party in Montenegro. The party was formed in 1991 as the successor of the League of Communists of Montenegro, which had governed Montenegro within the Yugoslav federation since World War II. Since its formation and the introduction of a multi-party system, the DPS has played a dominant role in Montenegrin politics, forming the backbone of every coalition government until 2020, when it entered the opposition in the aftermath of the 2020 parliamentary elections. This marked the first time since 1945 that the party (including its predecessor incarnation) had not been in power.
|Deputy President||Duško Marković|
|Founded||22 June 1991|
|Preceded by||League of Communists|
|Political position||Centre to centre-left|
Centre-left to left-wing
|Religion||Montenegrin Orthodox Church|
(since the 2019 party congress)
|European affiliation||Party of European Socialists (associate)|
|International affiliation||Progressive Alliance|
|Colours||Orange Blue Red|
29 / 81
336 / 786
The party evolved from the League of Communists of Montenegro as a reformist force after Yugoslavia's dissolution. In the 1990s, party was based on democratic socialism, social democracy and Serbian–Montenegrin unionism. In the 2000s, the party switched policy towards a common state with Serbia and would become the main proponent of the independence of Montenegro in 2006. Today's party is characterized by populist big tent politics with a slight centre-left lean, alongside elements of nationalism, a pro-European stance towards European integration, and some Third Way economics.
The history of the DPS begins with the political turmoil in Yugoslavia in the late 1980s. After Slobodan Milošević seized power in the League of Communists of Serbia, he went on to organize rallies that eventually ousted the leaderships of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia local branches in Vojvodina, Kosovo and Montenegro. This series of events, collectively known as the Anti-bureaucratic revolution, swept into power new party leadership in Montenegro, one allied with Milošević, personified in Momir Bulatović, Milo Đukanović and Svetozar Marović.
The League of Communists of Montenegro, under this new leadership, won by a landslide in the first relatively free multi-party election in Socialist Montenegro, held in December 1990, taking 83 out of 125 seats in the Montenegrin parliament. The party had a significant head start in the elections, as it had the entire established party structure at its disposal, while newly formed competition had to start from scratch. The party changed its name to the Democratic Party of Socialists on 22 June 1991.
With Bulatović as the president, the DPS closely aligned Montenegro with Serbia and the policies of Slobodan Milošević. The party was firmly in power during the turbulent early 1990s, which saw the dissolution of Yugoslavia and the beginning of the Yugoslav Wars. During these years, the party endorsed a union and close relations with Serbia (its sole partner in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from 1992). The party maintained the support of the electorate in this difficult period for Montenegro, winning both the 1992 and 1996 elections.
Split between Bulatović and ĐukanovićEdit
On July 11, 1997, the party's national committee ("Glavni odbor", abbreviated as "GO") held a closed doors session after which the committee selected Milica Pejanović-Đurišić to replace Bulatović as the party president. The party split had enormous implications, making a political confrontation between Đukanović and Bulatović inevitable. This manifested in the 1997 Montenegrin presidential election held in October, which Đukanović won by a thin margin.
Bulatović went on to form the Socialist People's Party of Montenegro (SNP) out of his defeated DPS faction, whose platform held a unionist position on the question of Yugoslavia and its short-lived successor state, Serbia and Montenegro. Meanwhile, Đukanović became a fierce opponent of Milošević. As a result of Đukanović's relationship with the United States, Montenegro received significant amounts of economic aid during this period, and negotiated limitations on NATO bombings of its territory in 1999, whereas the rest of Yugoslavia was subject to significantly heavier attacks. The DPS government gradually severed ties with Serbia by taking control over customs and the economy, introducing first the German mark, and subsequently the Euro as legal tender, and generally reducing the influence of the federal government in Montenegro.
Following the overthrow of Slobodan Milošević on 5 October 2000, the DPS showed signs of greater support for Montenegrin independence. The campaign for the 2002 parliamentary elections was devoted to the question of Montenegro's independence. However EU mediated negotiations between the DPS and the newly elected democratic government in Serbia in 2003 imposed a three-year waiting period before an independence referendum could be held. The transitional period saw the transformation of the FR Yugoslavia to a loose union called Serbia and Montenegro. During the existence of the union state, the party congress added the goal of a "democratic, internationally-recognized, independent Montenegro" to its official platform. The party then spearheaded the pro-independence campaign ahead of Montenegro's referendum in 2006. With 55.5% of voters opting for independence, Montenegro became an independent state on 3 June 2006.
In 2006 at the first parliamentary elections in independent Montenegro, as well as the subsequent elections in 2009 and 2012, the DPS confirmed its position as the strongest political party in Montenegro. The party has formed the basis of all parliamentary majorities and has been the backbone of all Government cabinets since independence, usually with its now traditional ally the Social Democratic Party of Montenegro (SDP) and ethnic minority parties.
Milo Đukanović remains the party president and its undisputed authority, serving either as Prime Minister or President of Montenegro from 1991 to 2006, 2008 to 2010 and 2012 to 2016. In 2006, the party leadership chose Željko Šturanović, former Minister of Justice, to succeed Đukanović as Prime Minister, until his resignation on 31 January 2008 for health reasons, whereupon Đukanović replaced him, only to resign again in December 2010 while retaining his role as DPS party leader. After winning the 2012 parliamentary elections, Đukanović once again assumed the position of Prime Minister.
Presidents of Democratic Party of SocialistsEdit
|#||President||Age||Term start||Term end||Deputy President|
|1||Momir Bulatović||1956–2019||22 June 1991||19 October 1997||Milo Đukanović|
|2||Milica Pejanović||b. 1959||19 October 1997||31 October 1998||Svetozar Marović|
|3||Milo Đukanović||b. 1962||31 October 1998||Incumbent||Svetozar Marović|
|Year||Popular vote||% of popular vote||Overall seats won||Seat change||Alliance||Government||Leader|
83 / 125
46 / 75
45 / 75
32 / 75
30 / 75
31 / 75
32 / 81
35 / 81
32 / 81
35 / 81
30 / 81
|Year||Candidate||1st round popular votes||% of popular votes||2nd round popular votes||% of popular votes|
FRY and Serbia and MontenegroEdit
|Year||Popular vote||% of popular vote||Seats||Montenegrin seats||±||Government||Ballot carrier|
23 / 136
23 / 30
17 / 138
17 / 30
20 / 138
20 / 30
0 / 138
0 / 30
Major positions held by Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro members:
Heads of Federal offices of Yugoslavia and
- The end of an era, possibly (accessed 24 December 2010)
- Dzankic, Jelena (2017). "State-sponsored Populism and the Rise of Populist Governance - The Case of Montenegro" (PDF). Journal of Balkan and Near Eastern Studies. Retrieved 13 November 2018.
- Berglund, Sten (2013). The Handbook of Political Change in Eastern Europe. Springer. p. 568.
- Vujović, Zlatko (2015). Electoral and Party System in Montenegro – A Perspective of Internal Party Democracy Development. Center for Monitoring and Research. p. 162.
- Polackova, Zuzana (2017). "Independence lost and regained: Montenegro's contested identity and the failure of Yugoslavia (1918-2006)" (PDF). Journal of Balkan and Near Eastern Studies. Retrieved 13 November 2018.
- "Politički program DPS VIII kongres" (PDF). November 30, 2019.
- Nordsieck, Wolfram (2020). "Montenegro". Parties and Elections in Europe. Retrieved 2 September 2020.
- Strmiska, Maxmilián (2000). "The Making of Party Pluralism in Montenegro". Masaryk University. Retrieved 2019-05-23.
- "Montenegro elects new/old president". n1info.com. 2018-04-16. Retrieved 2019-05-23.
- "Kako su se "razveli" Milo i Momir: Dve decenije od sednice na kojoj se pocepao DPS". Nedeljnik.
- ĐUKANOVIĆ NAJAVIO PREISPITIVANJE VLASNIČKIH ODNOSA CRKVENIH OBJEKATA, Mondo
- "Parties & Organisations". Progressive Alliance. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
- "Full list of member parties and organisations". Socialist International. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
- Morrison, Kenneth (2009). Nationalism, Identity and Statehood in Post-Yugoslav Montenegro. London: I. B. Tauris & Co Ltd. ISBN 978-1-84511-710-8.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- "Kako su se "razveli" Milo i Momir: Dve decenije od sednice na kojoj se pocepao DPS". Nedeljnik (in Serbian). July 11, 2017. Retrieved February 14, 2019.
- Samir Kajošević (January 22, 2015). "DPS na kongresu mijenja program". Vijesti (in Serbian).