The 2022 Nigeria floods affected many parts of the country. From the Federal Government Data, the floods had displaced over 1.4 million people, killed over 603 people, and injured more than 2,400 people. About 82,035 houses had been damaged, and 332,327 hectares of land had also been affected.[2]

2022 Nigeria floods
Map of Nigeria
DateMay – October 2022
CauseHeavy rains, climate change
Deaths612 people killed, 1.4 million displaced[1]
Property damageOver 200,000 homes completely or partially destroyed, 110,000 hectares of farmland destroyed

While Nigeria typically experiences seasonal flooding, this flood was the worst in the country since the 2012 floods.[3]

As of October, over 200,000 homes were completely or partially destroyed by the floods. On 7 October, a boat carrying people fleeing the floods capsized on the Niger River, causing 76 deaths.[4]

The flooding was caused by heavy rainfall and climate change as well as the release of water from the Lagdo Dam in neighbouring Cameroon, which began on 13 September. Flooding, which affected Nigeria, Niger, Chad, and the surrounding region, began in the early summer of 2022 and ended in October.[5][6]

Causes edit

The Nigerian government has blamed the floods of 2022 on unusually heavy rains and climate change.[5] United Nations Humanitarian Coordinator for Nigeria Matthias Schmale said that the flooding could be largely explained by climate change.[7] Climate change in Nigeria has been responsible for flooding, droughts, decreased air quality and the loss of habitat.[3]

A climate modeling study by the World Weather Attribution project estimated that the floods were rendered far more likely and much more intense by climate change. They modeled the June to September rainfall in the Lake Chad and lower Niger river catchment areas, looking at total rainfall and intense rain weeks.[6][8]

Flooding was exacerbated on 12 September with the perennial release of water from the Lagdo Dam in neighbouring Cameroon. Excess water released from the dam cascades down River Benue and its tributaries, flooding communities in the states of Kogi, Benue as well as other states in the northeast. When Lagdo Dam was constructed in 1982, there was an agreement by Nigerian authorities to build a second, twin dam in Adamawa State to contain the overflows. Known as the Dasin Hausa Dam project, it was to be situated in Dasin Village of the Fufore local government area, but was never built by the Nigerian government.[9][3]

Nigerian Minister of Humanitarian Affairs, Disaster Management & Social Development Sadiya Umar Farouq said that "there was enough warning and information about the 2022 flood" she blamed local governments, states, and communities for not acting promptly despite the warnings.[3]

The indiscriminate construction on natural flood plains and storm water paths together with poor drainage systems in many residential areas clog channels with waste. Lax enforcement of environmental laws have only exacerbated problems even further.[10]

Impact edit

While Nigeria regularly experiences seasonal flooding, the floods of 2022 have been the worst since the 2012 Nigeria floods.[3] Flooding began in early summer[5] and has affected 33 of Nigeria's 36 states.[11]

Over two million people have been affected by the flooding.[12][13] As of October, over 600 people have been killed and over 2,400 have been injured.[3] By August there had been 372 deaths.[14][15] A cholera outbreak in northeast Nigeria was attributed to the contamination of water sources by flooding and has been responsible for the deaths of at least 64 people.[15]

The floods have completely or partially destroyed over 200,000 homes.[3] Many Nigerians who live on flood plains cannot afford to move and simply return to their residences once water levels return to normal after the annual floods.[5]

Flooding has also destroyed an estimated 110,000 hectares of agricultural land.[16] Additionally, supplies of fuel have been disrupted by the floods.[5] During the crisis, prices of food have been inflated by 23%.[3]

According to the United Nations's Food and Agriculture Organization and World Food Programme, Nigeria faces a high risk of catastrophic hunger levels.[5] In a briefing on 13 October, UN Humanitarian Coordinator for Nigeria Matthias Schmale indicated that 19 million people in Nigeria were food insecure and 14.7 million children were at risk of malnutrition. Some 400,000 children in the north and northeast of the country and another 500,000 in the northwestern states of Sokoto, Zamfara, and Katsina were at risk for severe acute malnutrition.[7]

The flooding is expected to continue through November for the southern states of Anambra, Delta, Rivers, Cross River and Bayelsa.[5] Three of Nigeria's reservoirs, Kainji, Jebba, and Shiroro, are expected to overflow.[12]

Flooding by location edit

Adamawa state edit

In late August, severe flooding in Adamawa State caused 10 fatalities and damaged dozens of homes.[17]

Anambra state edit

On 7 October 2022, 76 people drowned after an overloaded boat fleeing the flood capsized.[4] The overflow of River Niger and downpour fuelled the rise of the water level. Riverine communities in the state have been submerged by the ravaging flood.[18]

The three-storey Madonna Catholic Church in Iyiowa, Anambra West collapsed due to flooding on 9 October.[19]

There are 28 IDP camps in Anambra state, where flood victims are sheltered and taken care of during flood emergency times.[20] To reduce the stress and struggles for the flood victims, internally displaced camps (IDPs) were set up in different locations in Anambra state.

  • Crowther Memorial Primary School Camp, Onitsha, Anambra State: This camp housed flood victims from different communities that included Mmiata-Anam, Umudora-Anam, Nzam, Ukwala, Inoma, and Owele from Anambra West Local Government Area of Anambra state. The inmates at the camp were about 1,800. 5 pregnant women delivered their babies in Crowther Memorial Primary School Camp, Onitsha. However, they were taken to General Hospital Onitsha for proper care after the delivery at the IDP camp.[21]
  • Onitsha North Council Area Internally Displaced People (IDP): The IDP camp housed about 400 people from Umuoba Anam and Ekpe Nneyi, Umueri in Anambra East Council Area. There were also flood victims from Delta State were accommodated in the camp where relief materials and other essentials were distributed.[22][23]
  • Ogbaru Local Government Area Camp: This is situated in Atani community. However, flood came and submerge the local government headquarter while the inmates were there. People came around with canoes and evacuated the flood victims that were trapped. It became a double tragedy for the flood victims.[24]
  • Umueri IDP camp [25]
  • Aguleri IDP camp [25]

Bayelsa state edit

In the south region, bayelsa, it was gathered that 300 communities were affected by flood. Not fewer than 1.3 million people were victims of the natural disaster. About 96 persons have died while about 1.2 million people are displaced.[26] Report says Findings on the impacts of the 2022 flooding on the residents of Yenagoa, Bayelsa State capital, show that over 71 to 77 per cent of residents were affected through building collapse, household items lost, livestock destroyed and many others.[27]

Delta state edit

Between 26 November and 7 December 2022, it was identified that 78,640 individuals were affected by the floods in 18 locations in Delta State.[28]

Jigawa state edit

Floods struck Jigawa State from August to September, where at least 92 people died.[15]

Kano state edit

Earlier in the year, the Nigerian Meteorological Agency gave warning of an impending floods in the state.

Kogi state edit

Lokoja, situated at the confluence of the Benue and Niger rivers, is among the worst-affected areas of the flooding.[29]

Niger state edit

In Mariga, Niger State, over 1,500 corpses were washed away from a cemetery.[30] Officials said that 650 of the bodies were found and were reburied.[30]

Yobe state edit

Severe flooding struck Yobe State in July and killed four people.[31]

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "Buhari Blames Climate Change As Flood Kills 612, Affects 3.2m Nigerians". Daily Trust.
  2. ^ Oguntola, Tunde (17 October 2022). "2022 Flood: 603 Dead, 1.3m Displaced Across Nigeria – Federal Govt". Retrieved 7 November 2022.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Maclean, Ruth (17 October 2022). "Nigeria Floods Kill Hundreds and Displace Over a Million". The New York Times.
  4. ^ a b "Nigerian boat accident death toll rises to 76, president says". The Guardian. 9 October 2022.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g "Nigeria floods: 'Overwhelming' disaster leaves more than 600 people dead". BBC News. 16 October 2022. Retrieved 16 October 2022.
  6. ^ a b Kabukuru, Wanjohi (16 November 2022). "Nigeria floods 80 times more likely with climate change". AP NEWS. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  7. ^ a b "UN / Nigeria Humanitarian Situation". United Nations UN Audiovisual Library. 13 October 2022.
  8. ^ "Climate change exacerbated heavy rainfall leading to large scale flooding in highly vulnerable communities in West Africa" (Press release). World Weather Attribution. 16 November 2022. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  9. ^ Wahab, Bayo (10 October 2022). "Why a dam in Cameroon causes devastating floods in Nigeria every year [Pulse Explainer]". Pulse Nigeria.
  10. ^ Akinpelu, Yusuf. "Nigeria Floods: I have nowhere to go". BBC News.
  11. ^ "Nigeria flood death toll tops 600 as thousands evacuated". Al Jazeera. 17 October 2022.
  12. ^ a b Akbarzai, Sahar; Smith, Karen; McCluskey, Mitchell (18 October 2022). "More than 600 killed in Nigeria's worst flooding in a decade". CNN.
  13. ^ Davies, Richard (12 October 2022). "Nigeria – Almost 800,000 Displaced, 500 Dead as Floods Worsen". FloodList.
  14. ^ Matthew Ogune Abuja (5 September 2022). "Flood kills 372 Nigerians in eight months, 508,000 persons affected – NEMA DG says". The Guardian.
  15. ^ a b c Davies, Richard (22 September 2022). "Nigeria – 300 Dead, 100,000 Displaced as Government Warns of Worsening Floods". FloodList.
  16. ^ Adetayo, Ope (20 October 2022). "First Blood, Now Floods: These Farmers Are Battling Bandits and Climate Change". Vice.
  17. ^ Davies, Richard (26 August 2022). "Nigeria – 10 Dead After Severe Flash Floods in Adamawa State". FloodList.
  18. ^ Ujumadu, Vincent; Akuopha, Ochuko (16 October 2022). "Anambra, Delta Deadly Floods: 70-yr-old killed while sleeping in submerged home". Vanguard.
  19. ^ Obianeri, Ikenna (9 October 2022). "Conflicting figures trail Anambra boat crash, church collapses".
  20. ^ Agency Report (18 February 2018). "No killing at IDP camps in Anambra – Official". Premium Times. Archived from the original on 26 February 2023. Retrieved 26 February 2023.
  21. ^ "Five women give birth in Anambra IDP camp". Punch Newspapers. 24 October 2022. Retrieved 26 February 2023.
  22. ^ "Deltans flood IDP camps in Anambra – The Sun Nigeria". Retrieved 26 February 2023.
  23. ^ "Soludo visits IDP camps, seeks support for displaced persons". The Guardian. Nigeria. 6 October 2022. Retrieved 26 February 2023.
  24. ^ Maduforo, Okey (20 October 2022). "Lamentations of flood victims in Anambra IDP camps". New Telegraph. Retrieved 26 February 2023.
  25. ^ a b "Flood: Metchie Decries Absence of NEMA, SEMA in Anambra IDP Camps – THISDAYLIVE". Retrieved 26 February 2023.
  26. ^ "In Bayelsa, flood-ravaged residents groan as food, petrol prices surge". Retrieved 15 September 2023.
  27. ^ Nigeria, Guardian (23 June 2023). "Flood of fury: No respite for Bayelsa, Kogi, Rivers, 30 others ahead of another cloudburst". The Guardian Nigeria News - Nigeria and World News. Retrieved 15 September 2023.
  28. ^ "Nigeria — Flood Rapid Needs Assessment Dashboard — Delta State (30 December 2022) | Displacement Tracking Matrix". Retrieved 21 August 2023.
  29. ^ Jones, Mayeni (14 October 2022). "Nigeria floods: Braving the rising waters in Kogi state". BBC News.
  30. ^ a b Ibrahim Garba Shuaibu (22 September 2022). "Floods sweep away 1,500 corpses from cemetery in northern Nigeria". Anadolu Agency.
  31. ^ Davies, Richard (20 July 2022). "Nigeria – Floods Wreak Havoc in Yobe State". FloodList.