|Initial release||September 2011|
|Operating system||iOS, Android|
|Size||95.7 MB (iOS)
76 MB (Android)
|Available in||20 languages|
|Alexa rank||2,754 (August 2016)|
Snapchat is an image messaging and multimedia mobile application created by Evan Spiegel, Bobby Murphy, and Reggie Brown, former students at Stanford University, and developed by Snap Inc., originally Snapchat Inc. One of the principal concepts of Snapchat is that pictures and messages are only available for a short time before they become inaccessible. The prototype for Snapchat was started by Brown and Spiegel as a project for one of Spiegel's classes at Stanford, where Spiegel was a product design major. Beginning as "Picaboo", the idea was to create a selfie app (application) which allowed users to share images that were explicitly short-lived and self-deleting. The temporary nature of the pictures would therefore encourage frivolity and emphasize a more natural flow of interaction. When, in April 2011, Spiegel floated the product idea in front of his class as a final project, the classmates focused on the impermanent aspect of the potential product, and balked at the thought of temporary photos. Murphy was eventually brought into the project to write the source code for the application, and Picaboo first launched as an iOS-only app in July 2011 from Evan Spiegel's living room (who was still staying at home with his father when not away at school). The application was relaunched two months later under the name Snapchat.
Snapchat evolved into a mix of private messaging and public content, including brand networks, publications, and live events such as sports and music. Nevertheless, according to survey studies conducted in March 2016, the personal oriented messaging was still being accessed by users more than the publicly offered content that was being presented. 71% of users surveyed said that they preferred the app for its chat, messaging, and imaging services, versus 5% who almost exclusively chose the various events, published features, and media content on a daily basis. 24% responded that they accessed all features equally. However, about three quarters of those surveyed were also familiar with the events, media brands, and celebrity content, having a favorable opinion of those areas.
According to documents and deposition statements, Reggie Brown brought the idea for a disappearing pictures application to Evan Spiegel because Spiegel had prior business experience. Brown and Spiegel then pulled in Bobby Murphy, who had experience coding. The three worked closely together for several months, straight through the initial product release, until Spiegel and Murphy decided to deny Brown further access a few weeks before relaunching the app as Snapchat.
Early on, the Snapchat team focused on usability and technical aspects, rather than branding efforts. One exception was the decision to keep a mascot designed by Brown, "Ghostface Chillah", named after Ghostface Killah of the hip-hop group Wu-Tang Clan. The project eventually formed the app's parent company, Snapchat Inc, in September 2011.
On May 8, 2012, Reggie Brown sent an email to Evan Spiegel during their senior year at Stanford in which he offered to re-negotiate his equitable share regarding ownership of the company. Lawyers for Snapchat responded by insisting that he had never had any creative connection to the product. The attorneys also accused Brown of committing fraud against Spiegel and Murphy by falsely claiming to be a product inventor. On behalf of their clients, the law firm concluded that Reggie Brown had made no contributions of value or worth, and was therefore entitled to a share of nothing. In September 2014, Brown settled with Spiegel and Murphy for $157.5 million and for getting credited as one of the original authors of Snapchat.
In their first blog post, dated May 9, 2012, CEO Evan Spiegel described the company's mission: "Snapchat isn't about capturing the traditional Kodak moment. It's about communicating with the full range of human emotion—not just what appears to be pretty or perfect."  They present Snapchat as the solution to stresses caused by the longevity of personal information on social media, evidenced by "emergency detagging of Facebook photos before job interviews and photoshopping blemishes out of candid shots before they hit the internet".
In May 2012, 25 images were being sent per second and, as of November 28, 2012, users had shared over one billion photos on the Snapchat iOS app, with 20 million photos being shared per day. In November 2012, Spiegel cited problems with userbase scalability as the reason why Snapchat was experiencing some difficulties delivering its images, known as "snaps", in real time. Snapchat was released as an Android app on October 29, 2012.
In December 2012, Snapchat added the ability to send video snaps in addition to photos. By holding down on the photo button while inside the app, a video of up to 10 seconds in length can be captured. After a single viewing, the video disappears by default. Spiegel explained that this process allowed the video data to be compressed into the size of a photo.
In June 2013, Snapchat version 5.0, dubbed "Banquo", was released for iOS. The updated version introduced several speed and design enhancements, including swipe navigation, double-tap to reply, an improved friend finder, and in-app profiles. The name is a reference to the ghostly hero from Shakespeare's Macbeth, a character in the play who is ultimately seen to be victorious over evil. Also in June 2013, Snapchat introduced Snapkidz for users under 13 years of age. Snapkidz was part of the original Snapchat application and was activated when the user provided a date of birth to verify his/her age. Snapkidz allowed children to take snaps and draw on them, but they could not send snaps to other users and could only save snaps locally on the device being used.
In October 2013, Snapchat introduced the "My Story" feature, which allows users to compile snaps into chronological storylines, accessible to all of their friends. On May 1, 2014, the ability to communicate via video chat was added. Direct messaging features were also included in the update, allowing users to send ephemeral text messages to friends and family while saving any needed information by clicking on it.
According to Snapchat's published statistics, as of May 2015, the app's users were sending 2 billion videos per day, reaching 6 billion by November. By 2016, Snapchat had hit 10 billion daily video views. In May 2016, Snapchat raised $1.81 billion in equity offering, suggesting strong investor interest in the company. By May 31, 2016, the app had almost 10 million daily active users in the United Kingdom. By the end of 2016, the app had over 156 million users worldwide.
In September 2016, Snapchat Inc. was renamed Snap Inc., along with the introduction of the company's first hardware gadget, Spectacles, a pair of smartglasses with a built-in camera that can record 10 seconds of video at a time. On February 20, 2017, Spectacles became available for purchase online.
Snapchat is primarily used for creating multimedia messages referred to as "snaps"; snaps can consist of a photo or a short video, and can be edited to include filters and effects, text captions, and drawings. A feature known as "Geofilters" was added in July 2014, which allows special graphical overlays to be available if the user is within a certain geographical location, such as a city, event, or destination. The "Lens" feature, introduced in September 2015, allows users to add real-time effects into their snaps by using face detection technology which is activated by long-pressing on a face within the viewfinder.
Snaps can be directed privately to selected contacts, or to a semi-public "Story". The private message photo snaps can be viewed for a user-specified length of time (1 to 10 seconds as determined by the sender) before they become inaccessible. Users were previously required to hold down on the screen in order to view a snap; this behavior was removed in July 2015. The requirement to hold on the screen was intended to frustrate the ability to take screenshots of snaps; the Snapchat app does not prevent screenshots from being taken, but can notify the sender if it detects that it has been saved. However, these notifications can be bypassed through either unauthorized modifications to the app or by obtaining the image through external means. One snap per day can be replayed for free; additional replays can be purchased using microtransactions.
Friends can be added via usernames and phone contacts, using customizable "Snapcodes", or through the "Add Nearby" function, which scans for users near their location who are also in the Add Nearby menu. Spiegel explained that Snapchat is intended to counteract the trend of users being compelled to manage an idealized online identity of themselves, which he says has "taken all of the fun out of communicating".
In July 2016, Snapchat introduced a new, optional feature known as "Memories". Memories allows snaps and story posts to be saved into a private storage area, where they can be viewed alongside other photos stored on the device, as well as edited and published as snaps, story posts, or messages. Content can be searched by date or using a local object recognition system. Snaps accessible within Memories can additionally be placed into a "My Eyes Only" area that is locked with a PIN. Snapchat has stated that the Memories feature was inspired by the practice of manually scrolling through photos on a phone to show them to others. Later that month, Snapchat announced that it had acquired Bitstrips and its app Bitmoji, which allows users to design stickers featuring personalized cartoon avatars. At this time, Snapchat launched integration between Bitmoji and Snapchat, allowing users to link their accounts and use Bitmoji stickers within snaps and messages.
In August 2016, Snapchat launched Geostickers, a feature that lets users send city-specific stickers in snaps and messages. 15 Geostickers are available in San Francisco as of now.[timeframe?] It will be launched in Los Angeles, New York, Washington, D.C., Honolulu, London, Sydney, São Paulo, Paris and Riyadh.
Stories and Discover
"Stories" are viewed in chronological order, and each segment is accessible for 24 hours. By summer 2014, photo and video snaps presented to friends in the Stories functionality had surpassed person to person private snaps as the most frequently-used function of the service, with over one billion viewed per day—double the daily views tallied in April 2014.
In June 2014, the story feature was expanded to incorporate "Our Stories", which was then changed to "Live Stories" about a year later. The feature allows users on-location at specific events (such as music festivals or sporting events) to contribute snaps to a curated story advertised to all users, showcasing a single event from multiple perspectives and viewpoints. These curated snaps provided by the app's contributors and selected for the "Live" section could also be more localized, but Snapchat eventually scaled back the more personal imaging streams in order to emphasize public events.
In January 2015, Snapchat introduced "Discover", an area containing channels of ad-supported short-form content from major publishers, including BuzzFeed, CNN, ESPN, Mashable, People, Vice and Snapchat itself among others. To address data usage concerns related to these functions, a "Travel Mode" option was added in August 2015. When activated, the feature prevents the automatic downloading of snaps until they are explicitly requested by the user.
In January 2017, Snapchat added search functionality and a new global live "Our Story" feature, in which any user can contribute.
In contrast to other messaging apps, Spiegel described Snapchat's messaging functions as being "conversational," rather than "transactional," as they sought to replicate the conversations he engaged in with friends. Spiegel stated that he did not experience conversational interactions while using the products of competitors like iMessage.
Rather than a traditional online notification, a blue pulsing "Here" button is displayed within the sender's chat window if the recipient is currently viewing their own chat window. When this button is held down, a video chat function is immediately launched. By default, messages disappear after they are read, and a notification is sent to the recipient only when they start to type. Users can also use messages to reply to snaps that are part of a story. The video chat feature uses technology from AddLive—a real-time communications provider that Snapchat acquired prior to the feature's launch. In regards to the "Here" indicator, Spiegel explained that "the accepted notion of an online indicator that every chat service has is really a negative indicator. It means 'my friend is available and doesn't want to talk to you,' versus this idea in Snapchat where 'my friend is here and is giving you their full attention.'" Spiegel further claimed that the Here video function prevents the awkwardness that can arise from apps that use typing indicators because, with text communication, conversations lose their fluidity as each user tries to avoid typing at the same time.
On March 29, 2016, Snapchat launched a major revision of the messaging functionality known as "Chat 2.0", adding stickers, easier access to audio and video conferencing, the ability to leave audio or video "notes", and the ability to share recent camera photos. The implementation of these features are meant to allow users to easily shift between text, audio, and video chat as needed while retaining an equal level of functionality.
Business and multimedia
From its earliest days, Snapchat's main demographic has consisted of millennials. In 2014, researchers from the University of Washington and Seattle Pacific University designed a user survey to help understand how and why the application was being used. The researchers originally hypothesized that due to the ephemeral nature of Snapchat messages, its use would be predominantly for privacy-sensitive content including the much talked about potential use for sexual content and sexting. However, it appears that Snapchat is used for a variety of creative purposes that are not necessarily privacy-related at all. In the study, only 1.6% of respondents reported using Snapchat primarily for sexting, although 14.2% admitted to having sent sexual content via Snapchat at some point. These findings suggest that users do not seem to utilize Snapchat for sensitive content. Rather, the primary use for Snapchat was found to be for comedic content such as "stupid faces" with 59.8% of respondents reporting this use most commonly. The researchers also determined how Snapchat users do not use the application and what types of content they are not willing to send. They found that the majority of users are not willing to send content classified as sexting (74.8% of respondents), photos of documents (85.0% of respondents), messages containing legally questionable content (86.6% of respondents), or content considered mean or insulting (93.7% of respondents).
The study results also suggested that Snapchat's success is not due to its security properties, but because the users found the application to be fun. The researchers found that users seem to be well aware (79.4% of respondents) that recovering snaps is possible and a majority of users (52.8% of respondents) report that this does not affect their behavior and use of Snapchat. Most users (52.8% of respondents) were found to use an arbitrary timeout length on snaps regardless of the content type or recipient. The remaining respondents were found to adjust their snaps' timeout depending on the content or the recipient. Reasons for adjusting the time length of snaps included the level of trust and relationship with the recipient, the time needed to comprehend the snap, and avoiding screenshots.
Snapchat has often been seen to represent a new direction in social media, with its users, particularly millennials, craving a more in-the-moment way of sharing and communicating via technology. With less emphasis on the accumulation of an ongoing status involving the presence of permanent material, Snapchat put focus on the ephemeral nature of fleeting encounters. Building on this distinction by launching as a mobile-first company, Snapchat, in the midst of the app revolution and the growing presence of cellular communication, didn't have to make the transition to mobile in the way other competing social media networks had to do. Evan Spiegel himself described Snapchat as primarily a camera company. Spiegel also dismissed past comparisons to other social media networks such as Facebook and Twitter when he was asked if the 2016 presidential race was going to be remembered as the Snapchat election, although major candidates did occasionally use the app to reach voters. Nevertheless, the growing mobile app moved to offer distinct publication, media, and news content within its Discover channel, as well as with its overall style of presentation. With Snapchat, a clear and identifiable line was drawn between brand content and user based messaging and sharing, once again distinguishing the popular app from other social media networks, which typically have blended and blurred their different varieties of content.
Snapchat's developing features embody a deliberate strategy of monetization. Snapchat's first paid advertisement, in the form of a 20-second movie trailer for the horror film Ouija, was shown to users on October 19, 2014. In addition to acknowledging Snapchat's need for a revenue stream, the company stated that it wanted to evaluate "if we can deliver an experience that's fun and informative, the way ads used to be, before they got creepy and targeted."
The "Discover" feature, which presents short-form content from publishers, also allows for paid advertising. The entity that sells the ad campaign causes the revenue distribution between Snapchat and its partner to vary, but it is estimated that advertisements are worth ten to fifteen cents per view. Furthermore, advertisements are estimated to be seen 500,000 to 1,000,000 times a day.
In June 2015, Snapchat announced that it would allow advertisers to purchase sponsored geofilters for snaps; an early customer of the offering was McDonald's, who paid for a branded geofilter covering its restaurant locations in the United States.
In October 2015, Snapchat started working with companies to create sponsored Lens filters. In May 2016, as part of a campaign to promote X-Men: Apocalypse, 20th Century Fox paid for the entire array of lenses to be replaced by those based on characters from the X-Men series and films for a single day.
Ad placements can be sold within a live story, or a story can be pitched by a sponsor. Live stories are estimated to reach an average of 20 million viewers in a 24-hour span. In September 2015, the service entered into a partnership with the National Football League to present live stories from selected games (including a Sunday game, and marquee games such as Monday Night Football and Thursday Night Football), with both parties contributing content and handling ad sales.
Mary Meeker, a partner at Silicon Valley venture capital firm Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers, which negotiated a financial agreement with Snapchat in August 2014, highlighted the growth of vertical video viewing in her 2015 Internet Trends Report – growing from 5% of video viewing in 2010 to 29% in 2015. Vertical video ads like Snapchat's are watched in their entirety nine times more than landscape video ads.
In April 2016, NBC Olympics announced that it had reached a deal with Snapchat to allow stories from the 2016 Summer Olympics to be featured on Snapchat in the United States. The content will include a behind-the-scenes Discover channel curated by BuzzFeed (a company which NBCUniversal has funded), and stories featuring a combination of footage from NBC, athletes, and attendees. NBC will sell advertising and enter into revenue sharing agreements. This marks the first time NBC has allowed Olympics footage to be featured on third-party property.
In July 2016, it was reported that Snapchat had submitted a patent application for the process of using an object recognition system to deliver sponsored filters based on objects seen in a camera view.
December 2013 hack
Snapchat was hacked on December 31, 2013. Gibson Security, an Australian security firm, had disclosed an API security vulnerability to the company on August 27, 2013, and then made public the source code for the exploit on Christmas Day (Australian time; Christmas Eve in the US). On December 27, Snapchat announced that it had implemented mitigating features. Nonetheless, an anonymous group hacked them, saying that the mitigating features presented only "minor obstacles". The hackers revealed parts of approximately 4.6 million Snapchat usernames and phone numbers on a website named "SnapchatDB.info" and sent a statement to the popular technology blog TechCrunch saying that their objective had been to "raise public awareness ... and ... put public pressure on Snapchat" to fix the vulnerability. Snapchat apologized a week after the hack.
Federal Trade Commission
In 2014, Snapchat settled a complaint made by the Federal Trade Commission. The government agency alleged that the company had exaggerated to the public the degree to which mobile app images and photos could actually be made to disappear. Under the terms of the agreement, Snapchat was not fined, but the app service agreed to have its claims and policies monitored by an independent party for a period of 20 years. The FTC concluded that Snapchat was prohibited from "misrepresenting the extent to which it maintains the privacy, security, or confidentiality of users' information."
Following the agreement, Snapchat updated its privacy page to state that the company "can't guarantee that messages will be deleted within a specific timeframe."  Even after Snapchat deletes message data from their servers, that same data may remain in backup for a certain period of time. In a public blog post, the service warned that "If you've ever tried to recover lost data after accidentally deleting a drive or maybe watched an episode of CSI, you might know that with the right forensic tools, it's sometimes possible to retrieve data after it has been deleted."
In September 2015, an 18-year-old was using a Snapchat feature called "Lens" to record the speed she was driving her Mercedes C230 when she crashed into a Mitsubishi Outlander in Hampton, Georgia. The 107 mph (172 km/h) crash injured both drivers. The driver of the Outlander spent five weeks in intensive care while he was treated for severe traumatic brain injury. In April 2016, the Outlander driver sued both Snapchat and the user of Snapchat, alleging that Snapchat knew its application was being used in unlawful speed contests, yet did nothing to prevent such use so is negligent.
A similar collision while driving at 115 mph (185 km/h), occurred in Tampa, Florida in October 2016 that killed five people.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Snapchat.|
- Comparison of instant messaging clients
- Ephemera – any transitory written or printed matter not meant to be retained or preserved
- List of virtual communities with more than 100 million active users
- Timeline of social media
- Sobrr, another mobile application which deletes content after a specified time
- "Snapchat". Play Store. Google. Retrieved March 27, 2017.
- "Snapchat". App Store. Apple. Retrieved March 27, 2017.
- "Snapchat". APKMirror. Retrieved March 28, 2017.
- "Snapchat.com Site Info". Alexa, Inc. Retrieved August 18, 2016.
- Mary Ritti (9 September 2014). "Snapchat and Reggie Brown Resolve Dispute" (Press release). Business Wire. Business Wire. Retrieved 29 October 2014.
- J.J. Colao, "The Inside Story Of Snapchat: The World's Hottest App Or A $3 Billion Disappearing Act?", Forbes, Jan 6, 2014. Retrieved March 3, 2016.
- Colao, J.J. (November 27, 2012). "Snapchat: The Biggest No-Revenue Mobile App Since Instagram". Forbes. Retrieved December 25, 2012.
- Murphy, Alexandria (October 29, 2012). "Snapchat a growing trend". University of Delaware Review. Retrieved December 22, 2012.
- "Picaboo: How to send naughty photos without getting caught". shinyshiny.tv. September 16, 2011.
- Andrew Wallenstein, Susanne Ault, "Snapchat Content Survey: How Much Millennials Actually Use Live Stories, Discover and More", Variety, March 24, 2016. Retrieved May 8, 2016.
- Henry Blodget, "Come On, Snapchat, Here's What Your Ousted Co-Founder Deserves — Settle This Lawsuit And Move On", Business Insider, Nov 22, 2013. Retrieved March 27, 2016.
- Salvador Rodriguez, "Snapchat changes logo amid lawsuit challenging founding of startup", Los Angeles Times, June 07, 2013. Retrieved March 29, 2016.
- Original document, "151160912 Snapchat Reggie Brown Declaration", Sam Biddle Documentcloud, July 10, 2013. Retrieved March 27, 2016.
- Billy Gallagher, "Snapchat Equity", techcrunch, July 31, 2013. Retrieved Oct 22, 2016.
- Gallagher, Billy (October 29, 2012). "You Know What's Cool? A Billion Snapchats: App Sees Over 20 Million Photos Shared Per Day, Releases On Android". TechCrunch. Retrieved December 22, 2012.
- del Castillo, Michael (October 29, 2012). "The app with self-destructing messages launches on Android". Upstart Business Journal. Retrieved December 22, 2012.
- J.J. Colao, "Snapchat Adds Video, Now Seeing 50 Million Photos A Day", Forbes, Dec 14, 2012. Retrieved May 16, 2016.
- Fitz-gerald, Sean (June 7, 2013). "Snapchat Update Adds Quicker, Flashier Features". Mashable. Mashable. Retrieved August 9, 2013.
- Jordan Crook,"Snapchat launches v50", techcrunch, July 5, 2013. Retrieved May 3, 2016.
- Magid, Larry (June 23, 2013). "Snapchat Creates SnapKidz – A Sandbox For Kids Under 13". Forbes. Forbes.com LLC. Retrieved October 3, 2013.
- Etherington, Darrell (October 3, 2013). "Snapchat Gets Its Own Timeline With Snapchat Stories, 24-Hour Photo & Video Tales". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved October 3, 2013.
- Robinson Meyer (2 May 2014). "The New Terminology of Snapchat". The Atlantic Monthly. Retrieved 4 May 2014.
- Matney, Lucas. "Snapchat Reaches 6 Billion Daily Videos Views, Tripling From 2 Billion In May". Techcrunch. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
- Kellen Beck,"Snapchat users are watching 10 billion videos a day", Mashable, April 28, 2016. Retrieved May 4, 2016.
- Anya George,"Snapchat raises $1.81 billion in new funding round", Yahoo, May 26, 2016. Retrieved May 31, 2016.
- Rob Price (31 May 2016). "Almost 10 million Brits use Snapchat every day". Business Insider. Retrieved 1 June 2016.
- Snapchat daily active users 2016 Statistic, Retrieved February 13, 2017
- Lee, Dave (24 September 2016). "Snapchat announces Sunglasses with built-in camera". Retrieved 26 September 2016.
- Savvides, Lexy (February 20, 2017). "Finally! Spectacles are available online". Adweek. San Francisco, CA. Retrieved February 23, 2017.
- "7 Snapchat tips and tricks you probably had no clue about". Pocket-lint. Retrieved 19 December 2015.
- Alba, Davey (May 16, 2012). "Snapchat Hands-on: Send Photos Set to Self-Destruct". Laptop. TechMedia Network. Retrieved September 15, 2013.
- "Snapchat Turns Geofilters Into An Ad Unit". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved 29 March 2016.
- "Snapchat Adds Geofilters For Quick Image Location Tags, And A New Revenue Possibility". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved 29 March 2016.
- "How to use Snapchat's new selfie Lenses". The Daily Dot. Retrieved 2016-03-12.
- "Snapchat is changing the way you watch snaps and add friends". The Verge. Retrieved 19 December 2015.
- Gannes, Liz (October 29, 2012). "Fast-Growing Photo-Messaging App Snapchat Launches on Android". All Things D. Retrieved December 22, 2012.
- "Snapchat Now Charges If You Want To Replay Snaps". Wired.com. Retrieved 19 December 2015.
- Kemp, Nicola (June 13, 2013). "What marketers should know about Snapchat". Brand Republic. Haymarket Media Group. Retrieved July 21, 2013.
- "Snapchat introduces Memories: a searchable, shareable archive of your snaps". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved 13 July 2016.
- "Snapchat builds Bitmojis into app, confirms acquisition of Toronto startup". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
- "Here's How You Can Use Bitmoji Inside Snapchat". Fortune. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
- John Mannes (3 August 2016). "Snapchat lets the people have Geostickers". TechCrunch. Retrieved 4 August 2016.
- Ellis Hamburger (20 June 2014). "Surprise: Snapchat's most popular feature isn't snaps anymore". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved 29 October 2014.
- "Snapchat lets you watch and create group videos of live events with 'Our Story'". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved 19 December 2015.
- "Snapchat – Introducing Our Story". Snapchat Blog. Retrieved May 16, 2015.
- "Your Snapchat photo could wind up in Times Square tonight". The Daily Dot. Retrieved May 16, 2015.
- "Snapchat Is Making Some Pretty Serious Money From Live Stories". Re/code. Vox Media. Retrieved 19 December 2015.
- P. Claire Dodson, "Why Snapchat's Live Stories Are The Most Powerful New Social Media", FastCompany, 10.21.15. Retrieved May 8, 2016.
- Jacob Kastrenakes, "Snapchat ends local Stories to focus on live events", theverge.com, Sept 7, 2016. Retrieved Sept 7, 2016.
- "Snapchat rolls out 'official stories' to verify celebrity accounts". The Verge. Retrieved 19 December 2015.
- "A Millennial Reveals The Best, Worst, and Most Meh Snapchat Discover Channels". Fast Company. Retrieved 19 December 2015.
- Chowdhry, Amit "Snapchat's New 'Discover' Feature Has Content From ESPN, CNN, Food Network And Others" http://www.forbes.com/sites/amitchowdhry/2015/01/28/snapchat-discover/ 28 Jan 2015. Web. 16 April 2015.
- Dave, Paresh; Pierson, David (April 16, 2015). "Cheap content, growing reach make Snapchat a fast-rising star". Los Angeles Times.
- Sheffer, Sam (August 10, 2015). "Snapchat Has a New Feature to Stop You from Wasting Data". The Verge.
- Bell, Karissa. "This is not a drill: Snapchat is about to get a major redesign". Mashable. Retrieved 2017-01-13.
- "Real talk: the new Snapchat brilliantly mixes video and texting". The Verge. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
- "Snapchat introduces a 'lens store' to adorn your selfies with 99-cent filters". The Verge. Retrieved 19 December 2015.
- "Snapchat made a secret acquisition to power its new video chat". The Verge. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
- "Snapchat redesigns chat to add stickers, audio, and video notes". The Verge. Retrieved 29 March 2016.
- "Pitch deck: How Snapchat is selling itself to marketers – Digiday". Digiday. Retrieved May 16, 2015.
- Roesner, Franziska; Gill, Brian T; Kohno, Tadayoshi (2014). "Sex, Lies, or Kittens? Investigating the Use of Snapchat's Self-Destructing Messages" (pdf). Financial Cryptography and Data Security Conference. doi:10.1007/978-3-662-45472-5_5.
- Casey Johnston, "Snachat, Instagram Stories, And The Internet Of Forgetting", TheNewYorker, August 5, 2016. Retrieved August 6, 2016.
- Ben Basche, "Ghost in the machine: Snapchat isn’t mobile-first — it’s something else entirely", ibtimes.com, July 28, 2016. Retrieved August 6, 2016.
- DJ Sherrets, "According to its cofounder and CEO Snapchat is mainly a camera company", techcrunch, April 30, 2016. Retrieved August 6, 2016.
- Kerry Flynn, "Snapchat CEO Evan Spiegel To Stephen Colbert: Despite GOP Embrace, 2016 White House Race Definitely Not The Snapchat Election", ibtimes.com, Oct 1, 2015. Retrieved August 6, 2016.
- Matthew Hussey, "Snapchat’s Discover channel is quietly ruining the social network", thenextweb.com, May 8, 2016. Retrieved August 6, 2016.
- Karissa Bell (19 October 2014). "Snapchat Freaks Out Users With First Ad for 'Ouija'". Mashable. Mashable. Retrieved 29 October 2014.
- Shontell, Alyson (2015-03-12). "Advertisers are supposedly paying insanely high rates to get their ads on Snapchat". Business Insider. Retrieved 2016-02-11.
- Kurt Wagner, "Snapchat's Money Train Gains Steam With New Sponsored Lenses Ad", Re/code, Oct 30, 2015. Retrieved May 11, 2016.
- Lauren Johnson (23 May 2016). "20th Century Fox Buys First Snapchat Lens Takeover Ad". Adweek. Retrieved 1 June 2016.
- Kurt Wagner, "Snapchat Is Making Some Pretty Serious Money From Live Stories", publisher, June 17, 2015. Retrieved March 28, 2016.
- Kurt Wagner, "Snapchat Inks NFL Deal to Bring Football Into Its Live Stories", re/code, Sept 17 2015. Retrieved March 3, 2016.
- Jason Abbruzzese (27 August 2014). "Report: Snapchat Valued at $10 Billion in Latest Investment". Mashable. Mashable. Retrieved 29 October 2014.
- Constine, Josh (May 27, 2015). "The Most Important Insights From Mary Meeker's 2015 Internet Trends Report". TechCrunch. Retrieved August 6, 2015.
- "Snapchat Scores Unique Deal With NBC to Showcase Olympics". Bloomberg. Retrieved 30 April 2016.
- "Snapchat applies for patent to serve ads by recognizing objects in your snaps". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved 5 January 2017.
- "Snapchat: In 'theory' you could hack... Oh Crap, is that 4.6 million users' details?". The Register. Retrieved January 3, 2014.
- "How to Survive the Snapchat Hack (and Others)". TIME. Retrieved January 3, 2014.
- Blue, Violet. (August 28, 2013) Snapchat names, aliases and phone numbers obtainable via Android and iOS APIs, say researchers. ZDNet. Retrieved on March 21, 2014.
- "Snapchat Security Disclosure". Gibson Security. Retrieved January 3, 2014.
- Blue, Violet. (December 25, 2013) Researchers publish Snapchat code allowing phone number matching after exploit disclosures ignored. ZDNet. Retrieved on March 21, 2014.
- Snapchat – GSFD. Gibsonsec.org. Retrieved on March 21, 2014.
- Snapchat Downplays Phone Number Matching Hack, Says It's Added New Counter-Measures. TechCrunch (December 27, 2013). Retrieved on March 21, 2014.
- Confirmed: Snapchat Hack Not A Hoax, 4.6M Usernames And Numbers Published. TechCrunch (December 31, 2013). Retrieved on March 21, 2014.
- Skillings, Jonathan. (January 1, 2014) Overexposed: Snapchat user info from 4.6M accounts | Internet & Media – CNET News. News.cnet.com. Retrieved on March 21, 2014.
- "Snapchat hack: Users wonder whether their snaps are safe". San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved January 3, 2014.
- "Snapchat hack leaks 4.6m users details". The Telegraph. Retrieved January 3, 2014.
- Snapchat Hack Apology. Business Insider (January 9, 2014). Retrieved on March 21, 2014.
- Andrea Peterson , "Snapchat agrees to settle FTC charges that it deceived users", The Washington Post, May 8, 2014. Retrieved August 16, 2016.
- "How Snaps Are Stored And Deleted". Snapchat Blog. Snapchat. May 9, 2013. Retrieved July 21, 2013.
- Katie Rogers (May 3, 2016). "Snapchat at 107 M.P.H.? Lawsuit Blames Teenager (and Snapchat)". The New York Times. Retrieved October 30, 2016.
- "Snapchat Video Shows Driver Speeding at 115 mph Before Deadly Crash". NBC News. October 31, 2016. Retrieved October 31, 2016.
- "Investel sues Snapchat alleging geofiltering patent infringement". CBC News. Aug 24, 2016. Retrieved 14 January 2017.
- "Investel Capital Corp vs. Snapchat, Inc – complete Statement of Claim" (PDF).
- Maya Kosoff (February 2015). "We talked to a bunch of millennials about why they use Snapchat — here's what we found out". Business Insider.