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1860 and 1861 United States House of Representatives elections

Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 37th Congress were held at various dates in different states from August 1860 to October 1861.

1860 and 1861 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1858 / 59 August 6, 1860 – October 24, 1861 1862 / 63 →

All 183 seats in the U.S. House of Representatives
92 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  William Pennington portrait.jpg SSCox.jpg
Leader William Pennington
(lost re-election)
Samuel Cox
Party Republican Democratic
Leader's seat New Jersey 5th Ohio 12th
Last election 116 seats 98 seats[a]
Seats won 108 45[b]
Seat change Decrease 8 Decrease 53

  Third party
 
Party Unionist
Last election 0 seats
Seats won 30
Seat change Increase 30

Speaker before election

William Pennington
Republican

Elected Speaker

Galusha Grow
Republican

These elections spanned the Presidential election of 1860, won by Abraham Lincoln. Building on their successes in 1858, Republican candidates won increasing percentages in the House. After secessionist vacancies, their caucus of 108 amounted to 59% of the House, and with another 16% in the Unionist caucus, they had over a two-thirds super-majority to govern.[1]

Following Lincoln's election and before his inauguration, seven secessionist states declared rebellion and Jefferson Davis mobilized 100,000 troops in defense of the Confederacy. Lincoln responded with a call-up of 75,000 troops to reoccupy federal property in port cities. That motivated another four border states to declare secession, forming the Confederacy that fought the American Civil War.

Seceding states cancelled elections to Federal office, and all but a few of their Representatives departed. Twenty-three representatives to U.S. 37th Congress came from five slave-holding states represented in the Confederacy: Missouri, Kentucky, Virginia, Tennessee, and Louisiana. The rebellion left seventeen vacancies in those states. Meanwhile for the duration of the conflict those same five states sent full delegations to the Confederate Congress even though over half their Congressional districts were federally occupied or disrupted by the end of 1862.[2]

Overwhelmingly, seceding states had Democratic representation, so despite losing seats to Democrats[b] in the North, this state-by-state mass departure left Republicans with a clear House majority. Remaining Representatives of all parties were united in support for the Union. Representatives opposing Democrats but not wishing to affiliate with Republicans, and wishing to emphasize support for the Union and opposition to secession, coalesced as the Unionist Party. Many of these Unionists were from Southern states. The nativist American Party disappeared, with its remaining support usually absorbed by Unionists.

Contents

Special electionsEdit

There were special elections in 1860 and 1861 during the 36th United States Congress and 37th United States Congress.

36th CongressEdit

District Vacator Reason for Vacancy Candidates
Representative Party First elected
Missouri 1 Francis P. Blair Jr. Republican 1856
1858 (Lost)
1860 (Won election contest)
Incumbent resigned June 25, 1860.
New member elected October 3, 1860.
Democratic gain.
Winner lost election to the next term, see below.
John R. Barret (Democratic) 50.27%
Francis P. Blair Jr. (Republican) 49.70%
Albert Todd (Know Nothing) 0.02%[3]
Pennsylvania 8 John Schwartz Anti-Lecompton Democratic [Data unknown/missing.] Incumbent died June 20, 1860.
New member elected October 9, 1860.
Democratic hold.
Winner was not a candidate for election to the next term.
Jacob K. McKenty (Democratic) 56.19%
James McKnight (Republican) 43.81%[4]
Maine 5 Israel Washburn Jr. Republican [Data unknown/missing.] Incumbent resigned January 1, 1861 to become Governor of Maine.
New member elected November 6, 1860.
Republican hold.
Winner was not a candidate for election to the next term.
Stephen Coburn (Republican) 65.86%
Joseph D. Brown (Democratic) 14.47%
Joseph Chase (Breckinridge Democratic) 14.92%
Abner Coburn (Independent) 0.86%
Ebenezer Hutchinson (Constitutional Unionist) 0.57%
Samuel H. Blake (Independent) 0.32%[5]
New York 31 Silas M. Burroughs Republican [Data unknown/missing.] Incumbent died June 3, 1860.
New member elected November 6, 1860.
Republican hold.
Edwin R. Reynolds (Republican) 59.02%
Linus J. Peck (Democratic) 39.09%
James L. Bowen (Breckinridge Democratic) 1.89%[6]

37th CongressEdit

District Vacator Reason for Vacancy Candidates
Representative Party First elected
Ohio 7 Thomas Corwin Republican 1858 Incumbent resigned March 12, 1861 to become U.S. Minister to Mexico.
New member elected May 28, 1861.
Unionist gain.
Winner seated July 4, 1861.
Richard A. Harrison (Unionist) 52.65%
Aaron Harlan (Democratic) 47.35%[7]
Ohio 13 John Sherman Republican 1854 Incumbent resigned March 12, 1861 to become U.S. Senator.
New member elected May 28, 1861.
Republican hold.
Winner seated July 4, 1861.
Samuel T. Worcester (Republican) 55.85%
William McLaughlin (Democratic) 44.15%[8]
Massachusetts 3 Charles F. Adams Sr. Republican 1858 Incumbent resigned May 1, 1861 to become Ambassador to Great Britain.
New member elected June 11, 1861.
Unionist gain.
Benjamin Thomas (Unionist) 90.80%
Eleazar Beal 9.2%[9]
Pennsylvania 2 Edward Joy Morris Republican 1856 Incumbent resigned June 8, 1861 to become U.S. Minister Resident to Turkey.
New member elected June 21, 1861.
Democratic gain.
Winner seated July 2, 1861.
Charles J. Biddle (Democratic) 51.59%
Charles O'Neill (People's) 48.41%[10]
Pennsylvania 12 George W. Scranton Republican 1858 Incumbent died March 24, 1861.
New member elected June 21, 1861.
Democratic gain.
Winner seated July 4, 1861.
Hendrick B. Wright (Democratic) 67.82%
David R. Randall (Independent)[11]
Iowa 1 Samuel Curtis Republican 1856 Incumbent resigned August 4, 1861 to become colonel of the 2nd Iowa Infantry.
New member elected October 8, 1861.
Republican hold.
James F. Wilson (Republican) 56.66%
Juirus E. Neal (Democratic) 40.94%
Scattering 2.40%[12]
Virginia 11 John S. Carlile Unioinist 1859 Incumbent resigned July 9, 1861 to become United States Senator from the loyal faction of Virginia.
New member elected October 24, 1861.[13]
Unionist hold.
Winner took his seat December 2, 1861.
Jacob B. Blair (Unionist)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Massachusetts 5 William Appleton Constitutional Unioinist 1850
1854 (Lost)
1860
Incumbent resigned September 27, 1861 due to failing health.
New member elected November 5, 1861.
Republican gain.
Winner seated December 2, 1861.
Samuel Hooper (Republican) 56.14%
George B. Upton (Democratic) 43.87%[14]
Illinois 6 John A. McClernand Democratic 1859 (Special) Incumbent resigned October 28, 1861 to accept a commission as brigadier general of volunteers for service in the Civil War.
New member elected December 12, 1861.
Democratic gain.
Anthony L. Knapp (Democratic) 97.99%
Scattering 2.01%[15]

Election summariesEdit

California was apportioned one additional seat for the 37th Congress,[16] increasing the total seats to 239.

Secession of Southern states vacated many seats. Few Representatives from these states remained. Missing Representatives were overwhelmingly Democrats, boosting Republican control. Several states held elections for the 37th Congress, but seceded before Congress convened, so the elected Representatives never served. Other seceding states held no elections.

108 30 1 44
Republican Unionist ID Democratic
State Type Date Total
seats
Republican Democratic Unionist[c] Others
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Kansas[d] At-large December 1, 1859 1 1   1 0   0   0  
Oregon At-large June 4, 1860[e] 1 0   1   0   0  
Arkansas District August 6, 1860 2 0   2   0   0  
Missouri District August 6, 1860 7 1   1 5   1 1   1 0   1[f]
Vermont District September 4, 1860 3 3   0   0   0  
Maine District September 10, 1860 6 6   0   0   0  
Florida At-large October 1, 1860 1 0   1   0   0  
South Carolina District October 8–9, 1860 6 0   6   0   0  
Indiana District October 9, 1860 11 7   4   0   0  
Iowa District October 9, 1860 2 2   0   0   0  
Ohio District October 9, 1860 21 13   2 8   2 0   0  
Pennsylvania District October 9, 1860 25 19   1 6   1 0   0  
Delaware At-large November 6, 1860
(Election Day)[g]
1 0   0   1 1   1 0  
Illinois District 9 4   5   0   0  
Massachusetts District 11 10   1 0   1   1 0  
Michigan District 4 4   1 0   1 0   0  
Minnesota At-large 2 2   0   0   0  
New Jersey District 5 2   1 3   1 0   0  
New York District 33 23   3 10[b]   3 0   0  
Wisconsin District 3 3   1 0   1 0   0  
Late elections (after the March 4, 1861 beginning of the term)
New Hampshire District March 12, 1861 3 3   0   0   0  
Connecticut District April 1, 1861 4 2   2 2   2 0   0  
Rhode Island District April 3, 1861 2 0   2 0   2   2 0  
Maryland District June 13, 1861 6 0   0   3 6   6 0   3[f]
Kentucky District June 20, 1861 10 0   1   4 9   9 0   5[h]
Late elections (after the July 4, 1861 beginning of the first session of the 37th Congress[17])
Tennessee[i] District August 1, 1861[18] 10[j] 0   0   3 3   3 0   7[h]
California At-large September 4, 1861 3[k] 3   1 0   0   0  
Seceded states not holding elections
Alabama District None 7 0   0   7 0   0  
Georgia District None 8 0   0   6 0   0   2[l]
Louisiana District None 4 0   0   3 2[m]   2 0   1[h]
Mississippi District None 5 0   0   5 0   0  
North Carolina District None 8 0   0   5 0   0   3[h]
Texas District None 2 0   0   2 0   0  
Virginia District None 13[n] 0   0   12 5[o]   5 0   1[h]
Total[p] 181
58 vacancies
108
59.0%
  8 45[b]
24.6%
  53 30
16.4%
  30 0
0.0%
  24[q]
House seats
Democratic
24.59%
Republican
59.02%
Unionist
16.39%

Impact of the secessionist movementEdit

 
United States 37th Congress,1861.
Pro-union Free states: dark blue. Pro-Union Slave' states: light blue; (West Virginia abolished slavery with statehood.)
Secessionist Convention Slave states: red
The numbers in Congress are reduced by the 'vacant' seats

In the wake of the declared secession of South Carolina from the Union on December 20, 1860, many Southern House members, mostly Democrats, refused to take their seats, rejecting the election of Lincoln as illegitimate. Before 1872, different states held elections at various times; the first elections for the 37th Congress were held on August 6, 1860 in Arkansas and Missouri, while the last election took place in California on September 4, 1861, a year later. Three Southern states – Arkansas, Florida, and South Carolina – chose Representatives before the presidential election, electing seven Democrats and two independents. These were the only House elections from the seceding states to the 37th Congress. After South Carolina resolved disunion and the Confederate States of America was formed, other Southern states declared as well and elected Representatives to the new Congress of the Confederate States instead of the United States Congress.

Since the states not holding elections had many strong Democratic districts – in the previous 36th Congress their Representatives included a total of 46 Democrats, 14 Oppositionists, five independents, and one member of the American Party – when Congress was called into session on July 4, 1861 (five months earlier than usual at the time) the size of the Democratic House caucus had been drastically reduced, resulting in a huge Republican majority.

Of the 183 seats, 102 were held by Republicans, 45 by Democrats,[b] 23 by Unionists, and five others by one party each. There were several vacancies, and California had not held its election when Congress assembled.

End of a Congressional eraEdit

US Congressional Party Transformation, 1857–1863[19]
Congress 35th
1857–59
36th
1859–61
37th
1861–63
United States House of Representatives
Seats (change) 237 (+3) 238 (+1) 183 (–55)
Republicans 90.38% 116.49% 108.59%
Unionists 0.0% 0.0% 31.17%
Americans (+) 14.6% 39.16% (4-way split) 0.0%
Democrats 133.56% 83.35% 44.24%
United States Senate
Seats (change) 66 (+4) 68 (+2) 50 (–18)
Republicans 20.30% 26.38% 31.62%
Unionists 0.0% 0.0% 3.6%
Americans 5.8% 2.3% 0.0%
Democrats 41.62% 38.58% 15.30%

In 1860, Lincoln's campaign brought the Republicans the Presidency. Likewise, the congressional elections also marked the transition from one major era of political parties to another. In just six years, over the course of the 35th, 36th and 37th Congresses, a complete reversal of party fortunes swamped the Democrats.[20]

 
Columbia switches Stephen A. Douglas labeled with early election date 'news from Maine'.
Uncle Sam looks on approvingly.
Other early returns in PA, OH and IN showed good prospects for Republicans in the upcoming federal elections[21]

Elections for Congress were held from August 1860 to June 1861. They were held before, during and after the pre-determined Presidential campaign. And they were held before, during and after the secessionist campaigns in various states as they were reported throughout the country. Political conditions varied hugely from time to time during the course of congressional selection, but they had been shifting to a considerable extent in the years running up to the crisis.[22]

In the 1856 elections, the Democrats had taken the Presidency for the sixth time in the last 40 years, with James Buchanan's victory over John C. Fremont and Millard Fillmore. They held almost a two-thirds majority in both the US House and Senate. Democrats held onto the Senate during the midterm elections, but the four opposition parties then amounted to two-thirds of the House. The congressional elections in 1860 transformed Democratic fortunes: Republican and Unionist candidates won a two-thirds majority in both House and Senate.[23]

After the secessionist withdrawal, resignation and expulsion, the Democrats would have less than 25% of the House for the 37th Congress, and that minority divided further between pro-unionists (Stephen Douglas), and anti-war (Clement Vallandingham) factions.[24]

Results by regionEdit

The politics of these elections were distinctive in every region of the country. The more conventional listing of Members in their state delegations, alphabetically by state, can be found at the 37th Congress article.

Party Total seats Change Percentage
Republican 108 –8 59.0%
Democratic 44 –39 24.0%
Independent Democratic 1 0.5%
Constitutional Unionist 30 +30 16.3%
Totals 183 –56 100.0%

Each Region below lists the states composing it using Freehling's descriptions from 1860. The Representative's biographies are linked at their names. Each Congressional District has a link, named by its state abbreviation and its assigned number or noted At-large election. In a time before the Census Department published aggregate population data by Congressional District, the reader may have ready access to census data identifying the make up of those each district by referring to their respective articles.

The articles use different formats. The constituent counties of Congressional Districts are sometimes listed in a contents heading "List of representatives" within tables. These tables have a column naming the District's counties for each election, such as (a) "District Area" for Massachusetts, or (b) "Area" for Illinois and Maryland. Virginia uses "Historical composition of the district" to describe composition at each reapportionment. Pennsylvania notes the home county of the elected representative, sometimes holding the largest population for respective districts. Minnesota makes a geographical allusion for its 1st District applicable to the 37th Congress. Michigan uses "History" since 1852 for its 4th district. In some states, previous district composition is not described.

New EnglandEdit

ConnecticutMaineMassachusettsNew HampshireRhode IslandVermont

The twenty-nine seats in the House among these six states are divided 24 Republican, two Union one Constitutional Union, and two Democratic. The region is important nationally in manufacturing and intellectually as the center of literature, Transcendentalism and the abolition movement.

North CentralEdit

New JerseyNew York

The 38 Representatives from this region would seat 25 Republicans and thirteen Democrats. This region had the closest commercial and social ties to the South due to its sea-going commerce and trans-shipping cotton to local textile plants and for export.

Border NorthEdit

IllinoisIndianaMichiganOhioPennsylvaniaWisconsin

The 73 seats in this region were split 50 Republican, 23 Democratic. Illinois is the only state here with more Democrats than Republicans.

These are free-soil states, north of the Mason–Dixon line. These states had either abolished slavery, or Congress had forbidden it in their Territory, and they had forbidden it at the beginning of their statehood.[25]

Border South and Middle SouthEdit

DelawareKentuckyMarylandMissouriTennesseeVirginia

Of the 47 Representatives in these six states, 24 are Union Party, 1 Constitutional Union, 6 Democratic, and 15 would be vacant in Virginia and Tennessee.

These were "slave holding" states, all south of the Mason–Dixon line. The border south states had less than 2% to more than 19% of their 1860 population held as slaves, with an average of 13%; middle south states ranged from 25-33% slaves, with an average of 29%. (Deep south 43-57%, except Texas, with 30%.)[26]

Eight seats in Virginia and seven seats in Tennessee represented large numbers of citizens resisting the Lincoln administration of the United States government during the Civil War. They were declared vacant in 37th Congress documents.[27]

Trans-Mississippi WestEdit

CaliforniaIowaKansasMinnesotaOregonNon-voting members

West of the Mississippi, there were 16 Representatives from states, and 9 Delegates from territories. The states elected nine Republicans and one Democrat. The Territories elected four Republicans, one Democrat and two Independents.

When California entered the Union, it broke the free soil - slave state tie in the Senate. Minnesota, and Oregon followed as free soil states. Once Congress was depleted of the secessionist Democrats, the lame duck 36th Congress admitted Kansas as a free state in January, 1861, in time for it to send a Representative to the 37th Congress in March. The Republican Congress elected in 1860 began funding the transcontinental railroad, July, 1862. Nevada was admitted before the end of the Civil War in the next, 38th, Congress.

Vacant state delegationsEdit

AlabamaArkansasFloridaGeorgiaLouisianaMississippiNorth CarolinaSouth CarolinaTexas

Forty-three seats represented large numbers of citizens in nine states resisting the Lincoln administration of the United States government during the Civil War. The following state delegations were entirely vacated.

Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee and Virginia are accounted for in the "Border South and Middle South" section.

AlabamaEdit

Alabama did not elect members to the House.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Alabama 1 James Stallworth Democratic 1857 Incumbent withdrew January 12, 1861.
No member elected.
Democratic loss.
None.
Alabama 2 James L. Pugh Democratic 1859 Incumbent withdrew January 12, 1861.
No member elected.
Democratic loss.
None.
Alabama 3 David Clopton Democratic 1859 Incumbent withdrew January 21, 1861.
No member elected.
Democratic loss.
None.
Alabama 4 Sydenham Moore Democratic 1857 Incumbent withdrew January 21, 1861.
No member elected.
Democratic loss.
None.
Alabama 5 George S. Houston Democratic 1851 Incumbent withdrew January 21, 1861.
No member elected.
Democratic loss.
None.
Alabama 6 Williamson Cobb Democratic 1847 Incumbent withdrew January 30, 1861.
No member elected.
Democratic loss.
None.
Alabama 7 Jabez L. M. Curry Democratic 1857 Incumbent withdrew January 21, 1861.
No member elected.
Democratic loss.
None.

ArkansasEdit

Arkansas elected its members on August 6, 1860.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Arkansas 1 Thomas C. Hindman Democratic 1858 Incumbent re-elected.
Seat later vacated.
Arkansas 2 Albert Rust Democratic 1858 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Independent gain.
Seat later vacated.
  • √ Edward W. Gantt (Independent) 54.38%
  • Charles B. Mitchel (Democratic) 42.69%
  • James A. Jones (Independent) 2.92%

CaliforniaEdit

From statehood to 1864, California's representatives were elected at-large, with the top two vote-getters winning election from 1849 to 1858. In the 1860 Census, California gained a seat in the House.

California elected its members on September 4, 1861, after the first session of the new Congress began.

The top three vote-getters were elected, but only the top two were seated at the beginning of session. When Congress later authorized California a third seat, Frederick Low was seated June 3, 1862.

District Incumbents Results Candidates
California at-large John C. Burch (Democratic) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Timothy Guy Phelps (Republican) 15.6%
Aaron A. Sargent (Republican) 15.3%
Frederick F. Low[r] (Republican) 11.8%
Henry Edgerton (California) (Independent) 10.7%
Joseph C. McKibben (Independent) 10.7%
Frank Ganahl (Breckinridge Democratic) 10.2%
Henry P. Barber (Independent) 9.5%
D. O. Shattuck (Independent) 9.5%
John R. Gitchell (Union Democratic) 6.8%
California at-large Charles L. Scott (Democratic) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
California at-large New seat created New seat.
New member elected.
Republican gain.

ConnecticutEdit

Connecticut elected its members on April 1, 1861, after the new term began but before Congress convened.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Results Candidates
Connecticut 1 Dwight Loomis Republican 1859 Incumbent re-elected. Dwight Loomis (Republican) 50.35%
Alvan P. Hyde (Democratic) 49.65%[28]
Connecticut 2 John Woodruff Republican 1855
1856 (Lost re-election)
1859
Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
James E. English (Democratic) 52.29%
John Woodruff (Republican) 47.71%[29]
Connecticut 3 Alfred A. Burnham Republican 1859 Incumbent re-elected. Alfred A. Burnham (Republican) 57.25%
Rufus L. Baker (Democratic) 42.75%[30]
Connecticut 4 Orris S. Ferry Republican 1859 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
George C. Woodruff (Democratic) 50.18%
Orris S. Ferry (Republican) 49.82%[31]

DelawareEdit

Delaware elected its member on the November 6, 1860 Election Day.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Delaware at-large William G. Whiteley Democratic 1856 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
People's gain.

FloridaEdit

Florida elected its member on October 1, 1860.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Florida at-large George S. Hawkins Democratic 1856 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Seat later vacated.

GeorgiaEdit

Georgia did not elect members to the House.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Georgia 1 Peter Early Love Democratic 1859 Incumbent resigned January 23, 1861.
No member elected.
Democratic loss.
None.
Georgia 2 Martin J. Crawford Democratic 1855 Incumbent withdrew January 23, 1861.
No member elected.
Democratic loss.
None.
Georgia 3 Thomas Hardeman, Jr. Opposition 1859 Incumbent withdrew January 23, 1861.
No member elected.
Opposition loss.
None.
Georgia 4 Lucius J. Gartrell Democratic 1857 Incumbent resigned January 23, 1861.
No member elected.
Democratic loss.
None.
Georgia 5 John W. H. Underwood Democratic 1859 Incumbent withdrew January 23, 1861.
No member elected.
Democratic loss.
None.
Georgia 6 James Jackson Democratic 1857 Incumbent resigned January 23, 1861.
No member elected.
Democratic loss.
None.
Georgia 7 Joshua Hill Know Nothing 1857 Incumbent withdrew January 23, 1861.
No member elected.
Know Nothing loss.
None.
Georgia 8 John J. Jones Democratic 1857 Incumbent withdrew January 23, 1861.
No member elected.
Democratic loss.
None.

IllinoisEdit

Illinois elected its members on the November 6, 1860 Election Day.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Illinois 1 Elihu B. Washburne Republican 1852 Incumbent re-elected.
Illinois 2 John F. Farnsworth Republican 1856 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
  • Isaac N. Arnold (Republican) 64.43%
  • Augustus N. Herrington (Democratic) 35.42%
Illinois 3 Owen Lovejoy Republican 1856 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Owen Lovejoy (Republican) 60.01%
  • Robert N. Murray (Democratic) 38.20%
  • William N. Murry (Independent) 1.79%
Illinois 4 William Kellogg Republican 1856 Incumbent re-elected.
  • William Kellogg (Republican) 54.65%
  • Robert G. Ingersoll (Democratic) 45.35%
Illinois 5 Isaac N. Morris Democratic 1856 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Illinois 6 John A. McClernand Democratic 1859 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
Illinois 7 James C. Robinson Democratic 1858 Incumbent re-elected.
Illinois 8 Philip B. Fouke Democratic 1858 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Philip B. Fouke (Democratic) 55.24%
  • Joseph Gillespie (Republican) 44.33%
  • Willis D. Green (Independent) 0.43%
Illinois 9 John A. Logan Democratic 1858 Incumbent re-elected.
  • John A. Logan (Democratic) 80.03%
  • David T. Linegar (Independent) 19.97%

IndianaEdit

Indiana elected its members on October 9, 1860. Alabama did not elect members to the House.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Indiana 1 William E. Niblack Democratic 1857 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
  • John Law (Democratic) 55.67%
  • Lemuel Q. Debruler (Republican) 44.33%
Indiana 2 William H. English Democratic 1858 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Indiana 3 William M. Dunn Republican 1858 Incumbent re-elected.
Indiana 4 William S. Holman Democratic 1858 Incumbent re-elected.
Indiana 5 David Kilgore Republican 1858 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Indiana 6 Albert G. Porter Republican 1858 Incumbent re-elected.
Indiana 7 John G. Davis Anti-Lecompton Democrat 1858 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Indiana 8 James Wilson Republican 1858 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
  • Albert S. White (Republican) 53.67%
  • Samuel C. Wilson (Democratic) 46.33%
Indiana 9 Schuyler Colfax Republican 1858 Incumbent re-elected.
Indiana 10 Charles Case Republican 1858 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Indiana 11 John U. Pettit Republican 1856 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.

IowaEdit

Iowa elected its members on October 9, 1860.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Iowa 1 Samuel R. Curtis Republican 1856 Incumbent re-elected.
Iowa 2 William Vandever Republican 1858 Incumbent re-elected.

KansasEdit

Kansas elected its member December 1, 1859.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Results Candidates
Kansas at-large Martin F. Conway Republican 1859 (New state) State admitted January 29, 1861, just in time for the elected Representative to take his seat in the new Congress, beginning March 4, 1861. Martin F. Conway (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]

KentuckyEdit

Kansas elected its members June 20, 1861, after the new term began but before Congress convened.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Kentucky 1 Henry C. Burnett Democratic 1855 Incumbent re-elected. Henry C. Burnett (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Kentucky 2 Samuel Peyton Democratic 1857 Incumbent lost renomination.
New member elected.
Unionist gain.
James S. Jackson (Unionist)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Kentucky 3 Francis Bristow Opposition 1854 (Special)
1855 (Retired)
1859
Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Unionist gain.
Henry Grider (Unionist)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Kentucky 4 William C. Anderson Opposition 1859 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Unionist gain.
Aaron Harding (Unionist)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Kentucky 5 John Y. Brown Democratic 1859 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
New member elected.
Unionist gain.
Charles A. Wickliffe (Unionist)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Kentucky 6 George W. Dunlap Opposition 1847
1849 (Retired)
1859
Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Unionist gain.
Charles A. Wickliffe (Unionist)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Kentucky 7 Robert Mallory Opposition 1859 Incumbent re-elected in a new party.
Unionist gain.
Robert Mallory (Unionist)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Kentucky 8 William E. Simms Democratic 1859 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Unionist gain.
John J. Crittenden (Unionist)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Kentucky 9 Laban T. Moore Opposition 1859 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Unionist gain.
William H. Wadsworth (Unionist)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Kentucky 10 John W. Stevenson Democratic 1857 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Unionist gain.
John W. Menzies (Unionist)
[Data unknown/missing.]

LouisianaEdit

Louisiana seceded January 26, 1861 and did not elect members of the 37th Congress.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Louisiana 1 John Edward Bouligny Know Nothing 1859 No member elected.
Know Nothing loss.
None.
Louisiana 2 Miles Taylor Democratic 1855 Incumbent withdrew February 5, 1861.
No member elected.
Democratic loss.
None.
Louisiana 3 Thomas G. Davidson Democratic 1855 No member elected.
Democratic loss.
None.
Louisiana 4 John M. Landrum Democratic 1859 Incumbent retired.
No member elected.
Democratic loss.
None.

MaineEdit

Maine elected its members September 10, 1860.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Maine 1 Daniel E. Somes Republican 1858 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Maine 2 John J. Perry Republican 1854 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Maine 3 Ezra B. French Republican 1858 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Maine 4 Freeman H. Morse Republican 1856 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
  • Anson Morrill (Republican) 61.54%
  • Benjamin A. Fuller (Democratic) 35.30%
Maine 5 Israel Washburn, Jr. Republican 1850 Incumbent retired to run for Governor of Maine.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
  • John H. Rice (Republican) 59.81%
  • Samuel H. Blake (Democratic) 38.69%
  • Ebenezer Hutchinson (Independent) 1.04%
Maine 6 Stephen C. Foster Republican 1856 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.

MarylandEdit

Maryland elected its members June 13, 1861, after the new term began but before Congress convened.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Maryland 1 James A. Stewart Democratic 1855 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Unionist gain.
John W. Crisfield (Unionist) 57.39%
Daniel McHenry (States Rights) 42.61%
Maryland 2 Edwin H. Webster Know Nothing 1859 Incumbent re-elected in a new party.
Unionist gain.
Edwin H. Webster (Unionist) 98.63%
Scattering 1.37%[32]
Maryland 3 James M. Harris Know Nothing 1855 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Unionist gain.
Cornelius L. L. Leary (Unionist)
William P. Preston (States Rights) 48.05%[33]
Maryland 4 Henry W. Davis Know Nothing 1855 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Unionist gain.
Henry May (Unionist) 57.55%
Henry W. Davis (Unionist) 42.45%[34]
Maryland 5 Jacob M. Kunkel Democratic 1857 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Unionist gain.
Francis Thomas (Unionist) 96.18%
Scattering 3.82%
Maryland 6 George W. Hughes Democratic 1859 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Unionist gain.
Charles B. Calvert (Unionist) 50.92%
Benjamin G. Harris (States Rights) 49.08%[35]

MassachusettsEdit

Massachusetts its members on the November 6, 1860 Election Day.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Massachusetts 1 Thomas D. Eliot Republican 1858 Incumbent re-elected.
Massachusetts 2 James Buffington Republican 1854 Incumbent re-elected.
Massachusetts 3 Charles Francis Adams Sr. Republican 1858 Incumbent re-elected.
Massachusetts 4 Alexander H. Rice Republican 1858 Incumbent re-elected.
Massachusetts 5 Anson Burlingame Republican 1854 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Constitutional Union gain.
Massachusetts 6 John B. Alley Republican 1858 Incumbent re-elected.
Massachusetts 7 Daniel W. Gooch Republican 1858 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Daniel W. Gooch (Republican) 60.48%
  • Charles A. Welch (Democratic) 35.79%
  • George Johnson (Breckinridge Democratic) 3.74%
Massachusetts 8 Charles R. Train Republican 1859 Incumbent re-elected.
Massachusetts 9 Eli Thayer Constitutional Union 1856 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Massachusetts 10 Charles Delano Republican 1858 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Charles Delano (Republican) 75.39%
  • Josiah Allis (Democratic) 19.02%
  • Benning Leavitt (Breckingridge Democratic) 5.59%
Massachusetts 11 Henry L. Dawes Republican 1856 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Henry L. Dawes (Republican) 67.71%
  • Norman T. Leonard (Democratic) 28.60%
  • John M. Cole (Breckinridge Democratic) 3.69%

MichiganEdit

Michigan its members on the November 6, 1860 Election Day.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Michigan 1 William A. Howard Republican 1854 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
  • Bradley F. Granger (Republican) 52.51%
  • George V. Lathrop (Democratic) 47.04%
  • John Conely (Independent) 0.45%
Michigan 2 Henry Waldron Republican 1854 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Michigan 3 Francis W. Kellogg Republican 1858 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Francis W. Kellogg (Republican) 59.04%
  • Thomas B. Church (Democratic) 40.59%
  • John Bell (Independent) 0.37%
Michigan 4 Dewitt C. Leach Republican 1858 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.

MinnesotaEdit

Minnesota its members on the November 6, 1860 Election Day.

District Incumbents Status Candidates
Minnesota at-large Cyrus Aldrich (Republican) Incumbent re-elected. Cyrus Aldrich (Republican) 31.75%
William Windom (Republican) 31.51%
John M. Gilman (Democratic) 17.30%
James George (Democratic) 17.24%
Alonzo Jay Edgerton (Breckingridge Democratic) 1.12%
James W. Taylor (Breckinridge Democratic) 1.09%
Minnesota at-large William Windom (Republican) Incumbent re-elected.

MississippiEdit

Mississippi seceded January 9, 1861 and did not elect members of the 37th Congress.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Mississippi 1 Lucius Q. C. Lamar Democratic 1857 Incumbent retired December 1860.
No member elected.
Democratic loss.
None
Mississippi 2 Reuben Davis Democratic 1857 Incumbent withdrew January 12, 1861.
No member elected.
Democratic loss.
None
Mississippi 3 William Barksdale Democratic 1855 Incumbent withdrew January 12, 1861.
No member elected.
Democratic loss.
None
Mississippi 4 Otho R. Singleton Democratic 1857 Incumbent withdrew January 12, 1861.
No member elected.
Democratic loss.
None
Mississippi 5 John J. McRae Democratic 1858 Incumbent withdrew January 12, 1861.
No member elected.
Democratic loss.
None

MissouriEdit

Missouri elected its members September 10, 1860.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Missouri 1 John Richard Barret Democratic 1858 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Missouri 2 Thomas L. Anderson Independent Democratic 1856 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Constitutional Union gain.
Missouri 3 John Bullock Clark Democratic 1856 Incumbent re-elected.
Missouri 4 James Craig Democratic 1856 Incumbent lost renomination.
New member elected.[36]
Democratic hold
Missouri 5 Samuel H. Woodson American 1856 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Missouri 6 John S. Phelps Democratic 1844 Incumbent re-elected.
Missouri 7 John William Noell Democratic 1858 Incumbent re-elected.

New HampshireEdit

New Hampshire elected its members March 12, 1861, after the new term began but before Congress convened.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
New Hampshire 1 Gilman Marston Republican 1859 Incumbent re-elected. Gilman Marston (Republican) 52.86%
Daniel Marcy (Democratic) 47.14%[37]
New Hampshire 2 Mason Tappan Republican 1855 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Edward H. Rollins (Republican) 52.36
Samuel N. Bell (Democratic) 47.64%[38]
New Hampshire 3 Thomas M. Edwards Republican 1859 Incumbent re-elected. Thomas M. Edwards (Republican) 54.23%
William Burns (Democratic) 45.77%[39]

New JerseyEdit

New Jersey its members on the November 6, 1860 Election Day.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
New Jersey 1 John T. Nixon Republican 1858 Incumbent re-elected.
  • John T. Nixon (Republican) 53.46%
  • Joseph F. Learning (Democratic) 46.54%
New Jersey 2 John L. N. Stratton Republican 1858 Incumbent re-elected.
New Jersey 3 Garnett Adrain Anti-Lecompton Democrat 1856 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
New Jersey 4 Jetur R. Riggs Anti-Lecompton Democrat 1858 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
  • George T. Cobb (Democratic) 52.63%
  • Benjamin Edsell (Republican) 47.37%
New Jersey 5 William Pennington Republican 1858 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.

New YorkEdit

New York its members on the November 6, 1860 Election Day.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
New York 1 Luther C. Carter Republican 1858 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
New York 2 James Humphrey Republican 1858 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
New York 3 Daniel Sickles Democratic 1856 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
  • Benjamin Wood (Democratic) 52.83%
  • Amer J. Williamson (Republican) 41.11%
  • John Y. Savage (Independent Democratic) 6.05%
New York 4 Thomas J. Barr Independent Democratic 1858 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Independent Democratic hold.
  • James Kerrigan (Independent Democratic) 41.30%
  • Michael Tuomy (Democratic) 32.02%
  • John Commerford (Republican) 26.68%
New York 5 William B. Maclay Democratic 1856 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
  • William Wall (Republican) 41.00%
  • Nelson Taylor (Democratic) 40.61%
  • John Duffy (Independent Democratic) 18.39%
New York 6 John Cochrane Democratic 1856 Incumbent lost renomination.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
New York 7 George Briggs Republican 1858 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
  • Elijah Ward (Democratic) 56.23%
  • Augustus F. Dow (Republican) 43.77%
New York 8 Horace F. Clark Anti-Lecompton Democratic 1856 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
New York 9 John B. Haskin Anti-Lecompton Democratic 1856 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
  • Edward Haight (Democratic) 53.54%
  • Thomas Nelson (Republican) 46.46%
New York 10 Charles Van Wyck Republican 1858 Incumbent re-elected.
New York 11 William S. Kenyon Republican 1858 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
New York 12 Charles Lewis Beale Republican 1858 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
  • Stephen Baker (Republican) 51.99%
  • Ambrose Wager (Democratic) 46.34%
  • John H. Overheister (Breckinridge Democratic) 1.67%
New York 13 Abram B. Olin Republican 1856 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Abram B. Olin (Republican) 51.13%
  • Issac McConihe (Democratic) 48.87%
New York 14 John H. Reynolds Anti-Lecompton Democratic 1858 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
  • Erastus Corning (Democratic) 51.85%
  • Thomas W. Olcott (Republican) 48.15%
New York 15 James B. McKean Republican 1858 Incumbent re-elected.
  • James B. McKean (Republican) 58.76%
  • Emerson E. Davis (Democratic) 41.24%
New York 16 George W. Palmer Republican 1856 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
New York 17 Francis E. Spinner Republican 1854 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
New York 18 Clark B. Cochrane Republican 1856 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
New York 19 James H. Graham Republican 1858 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
New York 20 Roscoe Conkling Republican 1858 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Roscoe Conkling (Republican) 58.28%
  • De Witt C. Grover (Democratic) 41.72%
New York 21 R. Holland Duell Republican 1858 Incumbent re-elected.
  • R. Holland Duell (Republican) 62.21%
  • Simon C. Hitchcock (Democratic) 21.94%
  • Judson C. Nelson (Breckinridge Democratic) 15.86%
New York 22 M. Lindley Lee Republican 1858 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
New York 23 Charles B. Hoard Republican 1856 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
  • Ambrose W. Clark (Republican) 59.90%
  • James F. Starbuck (Democratic) 38.21%
  • George C. Sherman (Breckinridge Democratic) 1.90%
New York 24 Charles B. Sedgwick Republican 1858 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Charles B. Sedgwick (Republican) 60.42%
  • Lake Tefft (Democratic) 32.92%
  • Luther Hay (Breckinridge Democratic) 6.67%
New York 25 Martin Butterfield Republican 1858 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
New York 26 Emory B. Pottle Republican 1856 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
  • Jacob P. Chamberlain (Republican) 58.26%
  • John L. Lewis (Democratic) 41.02%
  • George N. Clark (Independent) 0.72%
New York 27 Alfred Wells Republican 1858 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
New York 28 William Irvine Republican 1858 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
New York 29 Alfred Ely Republican 1858 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Alfred Ely (Republican) 59.41%
  • Mortimer F. Reynolds (Democratic) 40.59%
New York 30 Augustus Frank Republican 1858 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Augustus Frank (Republican) 67.49%
  • Martin F. Robinson (Democratic) 32.51%
New York 31 Edwin R. Reynolds Republican 1860 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
  • Burt Van Horn (Republican) 58.81%
  • Phineas L. Ely (Democratic) 39.94%
  • Jonathan L. Woods (Breckinridge Democratic) 1.26%
New York 32 Elbridge G. Spaulding Republican 1858 Incumbent re-elected.
New York 33 Reuben Fenton Republican 1856 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Reuben Fenton (Republican) 66.79%
  • Charles H. Lee (Democratic) 33.21%

North CarolinaEdit

North Carolina seceded May 20, 1861 and did not elect members of the 37th Congress.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
North Carolina 1 William N. H. Smith Opposition 1859 Incumbent retired.
No member elected.
Opposition loss.
None.
North Carolina 2 Thomas H. Ruffin Democratic 1853 Incumbent retired.
No member elected.
Democratic loss.
None.
North Carolina 3 Warren Winslow Democratic 1855 Incumbent retired.
No member elected.
Democratic loss.
None.
North Carolina 4 Lawrence O'Bryan Branch Democratic 1855 Incumbent retired.
No member elected.
Democratic loss.
None.
North Carolina 5 John A. Gilmer Opposition 1857 Incumbent retired.
No member elected.
Opposition loss.
None.
North Carolina 6 James M. Leach Opposition 1859 Incumbent retired.
No member elected.
Opposition loss.
None.
North Carolina 7 F. Burton Craige Democratic 1853 Incumbent retired.
No member elected.
Democratic loss.
None.
North Carolina 8 Zebulon B. Vance Democratic 1858 (Special) Incumbent retired.
No member elected.
Democratic loss.
None.

OhioEdit

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates[40]
Ohio 1 George H. Pendleton Democratic 1856 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 2 John A. Gurley Republican 1858 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 3 Clement Vallandigham Democratic 1858 (s) Incumbent re-elected.
  • Clement Vallandigham (Democratic) 50.16%
  • Samuel Craighead (Republican) 49.55%
  • Andrew McClary (Independent) 0.30%
Ohio 4 William Allen Democratic 1858 Incumbent re-elected.
  • William Allen (Democratic) 51.73%
  • James Hart (Republican) 48.27%
Ohio 5 James M. Ashley Republican 1858 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 6 William Howard Democratic 1858 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold
Ohio 7 Thomas Corwin Republican 1858 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 8 Benjamin Stanton Republican 1854 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold
Ohio 9 John Carey Republican 1858 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain
Ohio 10 Carey A. Trimble Republican 1858 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 11 Charles D. Martin Democratic 1858 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain
Ohio 12 Samuel S. Cox Democratic 1856 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 13 John Sherman Republican 1854 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 14 Harrison G. O. Blake Republican 1859 (s) Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 15 William Helmick Republican 1858 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain
Ohio 16 Cydnor B. Tompkins Republican 1856 Incumbent lost renomination.
New member elected.
Republican hold
Ohio 17 Thomas C. Theaker Republican 1858 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain
Ohio 18 Sidney Edgerton Republican 1858 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 19 Edward Wade Republican 1852 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold
Ohio 20 John Hutchins Republican 1858 Incumbent re-elected.
  • John Hutchins (Republican) 71.97%
  • David M. Wilson (Democratic) 28.03%
Ohio 21 John A. Bingham Republican 1854 Incumbent re-elected.
  • John A. Bingham (Republican) 61.17%
  • George Wells (Democratic) 33.71%
  • J. S. Blakely (Independent) 5.12%

OregonEdit

Oregon elected its member June 4, 1860.[e]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Oregon at-large George K. Shiel Democratic 1860 Incumbent lost renomination.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Election Challenged
George Shiel Later Seated

PennsylvaniaEdit

Pennsylvania elected its members October 9, 1860.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Pennsylvania 1 Thomas B. Florence Democratic 1848 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Pennsylvania 2 Edward J. Morris People's 1856 Incumbent re-elected.
Republican gain.
Pennsylvania 3 John P. Verree People's 1858 Incumbent re-elected.
Republican gain.
Pennsylvania 4 William Millward People's 1858 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Pennsylvania 5 John Wood People's 1858 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Pennsylvania 6 John Hickman Democratic 1856 Incumbent re-elected.
Republican gain.
  • John Hickman (Republican) 55.97%
  • John H. Brinton (Democratic) 42.51%
  • Frazier Smith (D - Anti-Lecompton) 1.52%
Pennsylvania 7 Thomas Corwin Republican 1858 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 8 Jacob K. McKenty Democratic 1860 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold
Pennsylvania 9 Thaddeus Stevens People's 1858 Incumbent re-elected.
Republican gain.
Pennsylvania 10 John W. Killinger People's 1858 Incumbent re-elected.
Republican gain.
Pennsylvania 11 James H. Campbell People's 1858 Incumbent re-elected.
Republican gain
Pennsylvania 12 George W. Scranton People's 1858 Incumbent re-elected.
Republican gain
Pennsylvania 13 William H. Dimmick Democratic 1856 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold
  • Philip Johnson (Democratic) 57.30%
  • David K. Shoemaker (Republican) 42.70%
Pennsylvania 14 Galusha A. Grow People's 1850 Incumbent re-elected.
Republican gain
  • Galusha A. Grow (Republican) 71.38%
  • Daniel L. Serwood (Democratic) 28.62%
Pennsylvania 15 James Tracy Hale People's 1858 Incumbent re-elected.
Republican gain
Pennsylvania 16 Benjamin F. Junkin People's 1858 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain
Pennsylvania 17 Edward McPherson People's 1858 Incumbent re-elected.
Republican gain
Pennsylvania 18 Samuel S. Blair People's 1858 Incumbent re-elected.
Republican gain
  • Samuel S. Blair (Republican) 57.64%
  • Archibald McAllister (Democratic) 42.36%
Pennsylvania 19 John Covode People's 1854 Incumbent re-elected.
Republican gain
  • John Covode (Republican) 54.66%
  • Darwin Phelps (Democratic) 45.34%
Pennsylvania 20 William Montgomery Democratic 1856 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
  • Jesse Lazear (Democratic) 52.90%
  • Andrew Stewart (Republican) 47.10%
Pennsylvania 21 James K. Moorhead People's 1858 Incumbent re-elected.
Republican gain
Pennsylvania 22 Robert McKnight People's 1858 Incumbent re-elected.
Republican gain
  • Robert McKnight (Republican) 66.26%
  • Lewis Z. Mitchell (Independent Democratic) 23.12%
  • George Case (Democratic) 10.62%
Pennsylvania 23 William Stewart People's 1856 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain
  • John W. Wallace (Republican) 55.58%
  • Samuel Holstein (Democratic) 44.42%
Pennsylvania 24 Chapin Hall People's 1858 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain
  • John Patton (Republican) 53.58%
  • James K. Kerr (Democratic) 46.42%
Pennsylvania 25 Elijah Babbitt People's 1858 Incumbent re-elected.
Republican gain
  • Elijah Babbitt (Republican) 65.85%
  • Edwin C. Wilson (Democratic) 34.15%

Rhode IslandEdit

Rhode Island elected its members April 3, 1861, after the new term began but before Congress convened..

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Rhode Island 1 Christopher Robinson Republican 1859 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Unionist gain.
William P. Sheffield (Unionist) 51.25%
Christopher Robinson (Republican) 48.75%[41]
Rhode Island 2 William D. Brayton Republican 1859 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Unionist gain.
George H. Browne (Unionist) 53.53%
William D. Brayton (Republican) 46.48%[42]

South CarolinaEdit

South Carolina its members October 8–9, 1860.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
South Carolina 1 John McQueen Democratic 1844 Incumbent re-elected.
Seat later vacated.
  • John McQueen (Democratic) 96.94%
  • Charles W. Miller (Independent) 3.06%
South Carolina 2 William P. Miles Democratic 1856 Incumbent re-elected.
Seat later vacated.
South Carolina 3 Laurence M. Keitt Democratic 1853 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Seat later vacated.
South Carolina 4 Milledge L. Bonham Democratic 1858 Incumbent re-elected.
Seat later vacated.
South Carolina 5 John D. Ashmore Democratic 1858 Incumbent re-elected.
Seat later vacated.
South Carolina 6 William W. Boyce Democratic 1853 Incumbent re-elected.
Seat later vacated.

TennesseeEdit

Tennessee its members August 1, 1861, but only in East Tennessee, after the first session of the new Congress began.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Tennessee 1 Thomas A. R. Nelson Opposition 1859 Incumbent re-elected as a Unionist but failed to be seated.
Unionist gain.
Winner was prevented from taking his seat by his arrest.
Thomas A. R. Nelson (Unionist) 53.86%
Joseph B. Heiskell (Confederate States of America) 39.84%
Robert P. Caldwell (Confederate States of America) 4.98%
William McFarland (Unknown) 1.32%[43]
Tennessee 2 Horace Maynard Opposition 1857 Incumbent re-elected as a Unionist.
Unionist gain.
Horace Maynard (Unionist) 59.23%
James T. Shields (Confederate States of America) 40.77%[44]
Tennessee 3 Reese B. Brabson Opposition 1859 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Unionist gain.
Winner was prevented from taking his seat by his arrest.
George W. Bridges (Unionist) 52.75
A. B. Welcker (Confederate States of America) 46.80%
Samuel A. Smith (Unknown) 0.45%[45]
Tennessee 4 William B. Stokes Democratic 1859 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost.
New member elected.
Unionist gain.
Andrew J. Clements (Unionist)
Unopposed[46]
Tennessee 5 Robert H. Hatton Opposition 1859 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost.
No member elected.
Opposition loss.
None.
Tennessee 6 James H. Thomas Opposition 1859 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost.
No member elected.
Opposition loss.
None.
Tennessee 7 John V. Wright Democratic 1855 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost.
No member elected.
Democratic loss.
None.
Tennessee 8 James M. Quarles Opposition 1859 Incumbent retired.
No member elected.
Opposition loss.
None.
Tennessee 9 Emerson Etheridge Opposition 1853
1857 (Lost)
1859
Unknown if incumbent retired or lost.
No member elected.
Opposition loss.
None.
Tennessee 10 William T. Avery Democratic 1857 Incumbent retired.
No member elected.
Democratic loss.
None.

TexasEdit

Texas seceded February 1, 1861 and did not elect members of the 37th Congress.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Texas 1 John H. Reagan Democratic 1859 Incumbent resigned January 15, 1861.
No member elected.
Democratic loss.
None.
Texas 2 Andrew J. Hamilton Independent Democratic 1859 Incumbent retired.
No member elected.
Independent Democratic loss.
None.

VirginiaEdit

Virginia its members October 24, 1861.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Virginia 1 Muscoe Garnett Democratic 1856 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New member elected October 24, 1861.
Unionist gain.
Winner was later disqualified.
Joseph Segar (Unionist)
Unopposed[47]
Virginia 2 John S. Millson Democratic 1853 Incumbent retired.
No member elected.
Democratic loss.
None.
Virginia 3 Daniel Coleman DeJarnette Sr. Independent Democratic 1853 Incumbent retired.
No member elected.
Independent Democratic loss.
None.
Virginia 4 Roger Pryor Democratic 1859 (Special) Incumbent retired.
No member elected.
Democratic loss.
None.
Virginia 5 Thomas S. Bocock Democratic 1853 Incumbent retired.
No member elected.
Democratic loss.
None.
Virginia 6 Shelton F. Leake Independent Democratic 1859 Incumbent retired.
No member elected.
Independent Democratic loss.
None.
Virginia 7 William Smith Democratic 1841 (Special)
1843 (Lost)
1857
Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Unionist gain.
Winner was later disqualified.
Charles H. Upton (Unionist)
Unopposed[48]
Virginia 8 Alexander Boteler Opposition 1859 Incumbent retired.
No member elected.
Opposition loss.
None.
Virginia 9 John T. Harris Independent Democratic 1859 Incumbent retired.
No member elected.
Independent Democratic loss.
None.
Virginia 10 Sherrard Clemens Democratic 1857 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Unionist gain.
William G. Brown Sr. (Unionist) 99.69%
Zedekiah Kidwell (Unknown) 0.31%[49]
Virginia 11 Albert G. Jenkins Democratic 1857 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Unionist gain.
John S. Carlile (Unionist)
Unopposed[50]
Virginia 12 Henry A. Edmundson Democratic 1849 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Unionist gain.
Kellian Whaley (Unionist)
Unopposed[51]
Virginia 13 Elbert S. Martin Independent Democratic 1859 Incumbent lost re-election.
No member elected.
Independent Democratic loss.
None.

VermontEdit

Vermont its members September 4, 1860.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Vermont 1 Eliakim P. Walton Republican 1856 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Eliakim P. Walton (Republican) 73.60%
  • Silas Wilcox (Democratic) 24.29%
  • U. M. Robinson (Breckinridge Democratic) 2.11%
Vermont 2 Justin S. Morrill Republican 1854 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Justin S. Morrill (Republican) 74.81%
  • Charles N. Davenport (Democratic) 19.63%
  • Asa M. Dickey (Breckinridge Democratic) 5.55%
Vermont 3 Homer E. Royce Republican 1856 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
  • Portus Baxter (Republican) 72.48%
  • Arzo D. Chaffee (Democratic) 22.53%
  • Wyllys Lyman (Breckinridge Democratic) 4.99%

WisconsinEdit

Wisconsin its members on the November 6, 1860 Election Day.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Wisconsin 1 John F. Potter Republican 1856 Incumbent re-elected.
  • John F. Potter (Republican) 54.53%
  • Jonathan Arnold (Democratic) 45.47%
Wisconsin 2 Cadwallader C. Washburn Republican 1854 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
  • Luther Hanchett (Republican) 61.16%
  • James D. Reymert (Democratic) 38.85%
Wisconsin 3 Charles H. Larrabee Democratic 1858 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.

Non-voting membersEdit

All are trans-Mississippi west non-voting delegates in the 37th Congress. Nevada was admitted as a state in the next Congress.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Included eight Anti-Lecompton Democrats and seven independent Democrats.
  2. ^ a b c d e Includes one independent Democrat, James E. Kerrigan, elected from New York's 4th congressional district.
  3. ^ Includes Unionists, Constitutional Unionists, and the two "Union" members from Rhode Island.
  4. ^ Kansas was not admitted until January 29, 1861, near the end of the 36th Congress, the winner of this election served in both the 36th and 37th Congresses.
  5. ^ a b Poorly coordinated state legislation created confusion. As a result, two elections were held in 1860, one on June 4 and one on November 6. The winner of the June election contested the winner of the November election, who was seated on March 4, 1861. On July 30, 1861, the House Committee on Elections instead seated the June winner for the rest of the term ending March 3, 1863. Both disputants were Democrats.
  6. ^ a b Know-Nothings
  7. ^ In 1845, Congress set a uniform date for choosing presidential electors (5 Stat. 721). Other elections were unaffected by this law, but the date was gradually adopted by the states for congressional elections as well.
  8. ^ a b c d e Previously Opposition members.
  9. ^ East Tennessee only
  10. ^ 7 vacancies
  11. ^ 1 seat added
  12. ^ 1 Opposition and 1 Know-Nothing
  13. ^ Remained in the House.
  14. ^ 8 vacancies
  15. ^ Remained in the House.
  16. ^ Excludes states that seceded before the start of Congress
  17. ^ Compared to 19 Opposition and 5 Know-Nothings in previous election of 1858.
  18. ^ Frederick F. Low, the candidate with the third highest vote in the at-large election for California's Congressional delegation, was seated when Congress approved California's third seat in the House of Representatives, from June 3, 1862.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Martis (1994), pp. 114–115.
  2. ^ Martis (1994), pp. 47.
  3. ^ "MO District 1 - Special Election". November 22, 2007. Retrieved August 14, 2018 – via Our Campaigns.
  4. ^ "PA District 08 - Special Election". April 10, 2009. Retrieved August 14, 2018 – via Our Campaigns.
  5. ^ "ME District 5 - Special Election". January 11, 2011. Retrieved August 14, 2018 – via Our Campaigns.
  6. ^ "NY District 31 - Special Election". April 7, 2011. Retrieved August 14, 2018 – via Our Campaigns.
  7. ^ "OH - District 07 Special Election". April 16, 2008. Retrieved August 14, 2018 – via Our Campaigns.
  8. ^ "OH - District 13 Special Election". April 16, 2018. Retrieved August 14, 2018 – via Our Campaigns.
  9. ^ "MA - District 3 Special Election". March 17, 2011. Retrieved August 14, 2018 – via Our Campaigns.
  10. ^ "PA - District DDDD Special Election". May 3, 2009. Retrieved August 14, 2018 – via Our Campaigns.
  11. ^ "PA - District 12 Special Election". January 17, 2009. Retrieved August 14, 2018 – via Our Campaigns.
  12. ^ "IA - District 01 Special Election". March 18, 2010. Retrieved August 13, 2008 – via Our Campaigns.
  13. ^ "VA - District 11 Special Election". March 18, 2010. Retrieved August 14, 2018 – via Our Campaigns.
  14. ^ "MA - District 5 Special Election". March 10, 2011. Retrieved August 14, 2018 – via Our Campaigns.
  15. ^ "IL District 06-Special". March 12, 2010. Retrieved August 14, 2018 – via Our Campaigns.
  16. ^ 12 Stat. 411
  17. ^ https://history.house.gov/Institution/Session-Dates/30-39
  18. ^ http://www.tn4me.org/minor_cat.cfm/minor_id/1/major_id/5/era_id/5
  19. ^ Martis, pp. 111, 113, 115.
  20. ^ Martis, pp. 31–35.
  21. ^ Simon, Harold (2008). Lincoln: President Elect. Abraham Lincoln and the Great Secession Winter 1860-1861. Simon & Schuster. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-7432-8947-4.
  22. ^ Martis, p. 36.
  23. ^ Martis, p. 34.
  24. ^ Martis, pp. 114, 115.
  25. ^ Freehling, William W. (2007). The Road to Disunion. Vol. II: Secessionists Triumphant: 1854-1861. Oxford University Press. p. 2 (map). ISBN 978-0-19-505815-4.
  26. ^ Long, E.B. (1985). "Appendix". The Civil War Day By Day: An Almanac, 1861-1865. Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0-306-80255-3.
  27. ^ Biographical Directory of the U.S. Congress, (1774–2005), "Official Annotated Membership Roster by State with Vacancy and Special Election Information for the 37th Congress".
  28. ^ "CT - District 01 - History". May 24, 2008. Retrieved August 10, 2018 – via Our Campaigns.
  29. ^ "CT - District 02 - History". May 24, 2008. Retrieved August 10, 2018 – via Our Campaigns.
  30. ^ "CT - District 03 - History". May 24, 2008. Retrieved August 10, 2018 – via Our Campaigns.
  31. ^ "CT - District 04 - History". May 24, 2008. Retrieved August 10, 2018 – via Our Campaigns.
  32. ^ https://www.ourcampaigns.com/ContainerHistory.html?ContainerID=462
  33. ^ https://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=722062
  34. ^ https://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=722071
  35. ^ https://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=69043
  36. ^ "CRAIG, James, (1818 - 1888)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved March 20, 2015.
  37. ^ https://www.ourcampaigns.com/ContainerHistory.html?ContainerID=522
  38. ^ https://www.ourcampaigns.com/ContainerHistory.html?ContainerID=523
  39. ^ https://www.ourcampaigns.com/ContainerHistory.html?ContainerID=3091
  40. ^ Smith, Joseph P, ed. (1898). History of the Republican Party in Ohio. I. Chicago: the Lewis Publishing Company. pp. 128, 129.
  41. ^ "RI - Eastern District". January 8, 2011. Retrieved August 14, 2018.
  42. ^ "RI - Western District". January 8, 2011. Retrieved August 14, 2018.
  43. ^ "TN - District 01". February 17, 2010. Retrieved August 13, 2018 – via Our Campaigns.
  44. ^ "TN - District 02". February 17, 2010. Retrieved August 13, 2018 – via Our Campaigns.
  45. ^ "TN - District 03". February 17, 2010. Retrieved August 13, 2018 – via Our Campaigns.
  46. ^ "TN - District 04". February 17, 2010. Retrieved August 13, 2018 – via Our Campaigns.
  47. ^ "VA - District 01". March 19, 2010. Retrieved August 14, 2018 – via Our Campaigns.
  48. ^ "VA - District 07". January 3, 2011. Retrieved August 14, 2018 – via Our Campaigns.
  49. ^ "VA - District 10". March 18, 2010. Retrieved August 14, 2018 – via Our Campaigns.
  50. ^ "VA - District 11". March 18, 2010. Retrieved August 14, 2018 – via Our Campaigns.
  51. ^ "VA - District 12". March 18, 2010. Retrieved August 14, 2018 – via Our Campaigns.

BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit