1858 and 1859 United States House of Representatives elections

Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 36th Congress were held during President James Buchanan's term at various dates in different states from August 1858 to November 1859.

1858 and 1859 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1856 & 1857 June 7, 1858 – December 1, 1859[a] 1860 & 1861 →

All 238 seats in the United States House of Representatives[1][2]
120 seats needed for a majority
  First party Second party
  William Pennington portrait.jpg ThomasSBocock.png
Leader William Pennington Thomas Bocock
Party Republican Democratic
Leader's seat New Jersey 5th Virginia 5th
Last election 90 seats 132 seats
Seats won 113 83[b]
Seat change Increase 23 Decrease 49
Popular vote 1,387,921 1,823,106
Percentage 36.59% 48.06%
Swing Decrease 0.39% Decrease 1.21%

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Opposition Know Nothing
Last election Pre-creation 14 seats
Seats won 19 5
Seat change Increase 19 Decrease 9
Popular vote 191,074 133,839
Percentage 5.04% 3.53%
Swing New Party Decrease 11.68%

  Fifth party Sixth party
 
Party Whig Independent
Last election Pre-creation[c] 1 seat[d]
Seats won 4 15[e]
Seat change Increase 4 Increase 14
Popular vote 33,073 261,964[f]
Percentage 0.87% 6.91%
Swing New Party[g] Increase 6.02%

Speaker before election

James Orr
Democratic

Elected Speaker

William Pennington
Republican

Winning a plurality for the first time, Republicans benefited from multiple factors including the collapse of the nativist American Party, sectional strife in the Democratic Party, Northern voter dissatisfaction with the infamous March 1857 Dred Scott Supreme Court decision, political exposure of Democrats to chaotic violence in Kansas amid repeated attempts to impose slavery against the express will of a majority of its settlers, and a sharp decline in President Buchanan's popularity due to his perceived fecklessness. In Pennsylvania, his home state, Republicans made particularly large gains.

The pivotal Dred Scott decision was only the second time the Supreme Court had overturned law on Constitutional grounds. The decision created apprehension in the North, where slavery had ceased to exist, that a ruling in a different case widely expected to be heard by the Supreme Court would strike down any limitations on slavery anywhere in the United States.

Short of a majority, Republicans controlled the House with limited cooperation from smaller parties also opposing the Democrats. Republicans were united in opposing slavery in the territories and fugitive slave laws, while rejecting the abrogation of the Missouri Compromise, key aspects of the Compromise of 1850, the Kansas-Nebraska Act, and the Dred Scott decision. Though not yet abolitionist, Republicans openly derived a primary partisan purpose from hostility to slavery while furnishing a mainstream platform for abolitionism. None of the party's views or positions was new. However, their catalytic cohesion into a unified political vehicle, and the bold dismissal of the South, represented a newly disruptive political force.

Democrats remained divided and politically trapped. Fifteen Democratic members publicly defied their party label. Of seven Independent Democrats, six represented Southern districts. Eight Northern Anti-Lecompton Democrats favored a ban on slavery in Kansas, effectively upholding the Missouri Compromise their party had destroyed several years earlier. Democrats lacked credible leadership and continued to drift in a direction favorable to the interests of slavery despite obviously widening and intensifying Northern opposition to the expansion of those interests. A damaging public perception also existed that President Buchanan had improperly influenced and endorsed the Dred Scott decision, incorrectly believing that it had solved his main political problem. Such influence would violate the separation of powers. The wide gap between Democratic rhetoric and results alienated voters, while defeat in the North and intra-party defection combined to make the Party both more Southern and more radical.

Democrats lost seats in some slave states as the disturbing turn of national events and surge in sectional tensions alarmed a significant minority of Southern voters. Southern politicians opposing both Democrats and extremism, but unwilling to affiliate with Republicans, ran on the Southern Opposition Party ticket (not to be conflated with the Opposition Party of 1854).[h]

For 11 states, this was the last full congressional election until the Reconstruction. Twenty-nine elected members quit near the end of the session following their states' secession from the Union, whose immediate motivation was the result of the election of 1860.

Election summariesEdit

One seat each was added for the new states of Oregon[3] and Kansas.[4]

98 5 19 116
Democratic KN Opp. Republican
State Type Date Total
seats
Democratic[i] Know Nothing Opposition Republican
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Oregon [j] At-large June 7, 1858 1 1  1 0   0   0  
Arkansas Districts August 2, 1858 2 2   0   0   0  
Missouri Districts August 2, 1858 7 5[k]   1  1 0   1  1
Vermont Districts September 7, 1858 3 0   0   0   3  
Maine Districts September 13, 1858 6 0   0   0   6  
Florida At-large October 4, 1858 1 1   0   0   0  
South Carolina Districts October 10–11, 1858 6 6   0   0   0  
Indiana Districts October 12, 1858 11 4[l]  2 0   0   7  2
Iowa Districts October 12, 1858 2 0   0   0   2  
Ohio Districts October 12, 1858 21 6  3 0   0   15  3
Pennsylvania Districts October 12, 1858 25 5[m]  10 0   0   20  10
Delaware At-large November 2, 1858
(Election Day)[n]
1 1   0   0   0  
Illinois Districts 9 5   0   0   4  
Massachusetts Districts 11 0   0   0   11  
Michigan Districts 4 0   0   0   4  
New Jersey Districts 5 2[o]  1 0   0   3  1
New York Districts 33 7[p]  5 0   0   26  5
Wisconsin Districts 3 1  1 0   0   2  1
Late elections (after the March 4, 1859 beginning of the term)
New Hampshire Districts March 8, 1859 3 0   0   0   3  
Connecticut Districts April 4, 1859 4 0  2 0   0   4  2
Rhode Island Districts April 7, 1859 2 0   0   0   2  
Virginia Districts May 26, 1859 13 12[q]  1 0   1  1 0  
Alabama Districts August 1, 1859 7 7   0   0   0  
Kentucky Districts August 1, 1859 10 5  3 0  2 5  5 0  
Texas Districts August 1, 1859 2 2[r]   0   0   0  
North Carolina Districts August 4, 1859 8 4  3 0  1 4  4 0  
Tennessee Districts August 4, 1859 10 3  4 0  3 7  7 0  
California At-large September 7, 1859 2 2   0   0   0  
Georgia Districts October 3, 1859 8 6   0  2 2  2 0  
Mississippi Districts October 3, 1859 5 5   0   0   0  
Minnesota At-large October 4, 1859 2 0  2 0   0   2  2
Louisiana Districts November 7, 1859 4 3   1   0   0  
Maryland Districts November 8, 1859 6 3   3   0   0  
Kansas [s] At-large December 1, 1859 1 0   0   0   1  1
Total 238[t] 98[b]
41.4%
 35 5
2.1%
 9 19
8.0%
 19 116
48.5%
 26
Popular vote
Democratic
48.06%
Republican
36.59%
Opposition
5.04%
Know Nothing
3.53%
Whig
0.87%
Independent
6.91%
Others
0.00%
House seats
Republican
47.28%
Democratic
34.72%
Opposition
7.95%
Know Nothing
2.09%
Whig
1.67%
Independent
6.28%

Special electionsEdit

There were special elections in 1858 and 1859 to the 35th United States Congress and 36th United States Congress.

Special elections are sorted by date then district.

35th CongressEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Massachusetts 7 Nathaniel P. Banks Republican 1852 Incumbent resigned December 24, 1857 to become Governor of Massachusetts.
New member elected in December 1857 or January 1858.
Republican hold.
Successor seated January 21, 1858.[6]
Successor already elected to the next term, see below.
North Carolina 8 Thomas L. Clingman Democratic 1852 Incumbent resigned May 7, 1858 to become U.S. Senator.
New member elected August 5, 1858[7]
Know Nothing gain.
Successor seated December 7, 1858.[6]
Successor later elected to the next term, see below.
Mississippi 5 John A. Quitman Democratic 1855 Incumbent died July 17, 1858.
New member elected October 4, 1858.
Democratic hold.
Successor seated December 7, 1858.[6]
Successor later elected to the next term, see below.
Pennsylvania 8 J. Glancy Jones Democratic 1850 Incumbent resigned October 30, 1858.
New member elected November 30, 1858.[8]
Republican gain.
Successor seated December 7, 1858.[6]
Successor not elected to the next term, see below.
Illinois 6 Thomas L. Harris Democratic 1854 Incumbent died November 24, 1858.
New member elected January 4, 1859.
Democratic hold.
Successor seated January 20, 1859.[6]
Successor not elected to the next term, see below.
New York 4 John Kelly Democratic 1854 Incumbent resigned December 25, 1858.
New member elected January 4, 1859.[9]
Independent Democratic gain.
Successor seated January 17, 1859.[6]
Successor was also elected to the next term, see below.

36th CongressEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Ohio 14 Cyrus Spink Republican 1858 Incumbent died May 31, 1859.
New member elected October 11, 1859.
Republican hold.
Successor seated December 5, 1859.[10]
Virginia 4 William Goode Democratic 1853 Incumbent died May 31, 1859.
New member elected October 27, 1859.
Democratic hold.
Successor seated December 7, 1859.[10]
Illinois 6 Thomas L. Harris Democratic 1854 Incumbent died November 24, 1858.
New member elected November 8, 1859.
Democratic hold.
Successor seated December 5, 1859.[10]

AlabamaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Alabama 1
Alabama 2
Alabama 3
Alabama 4
Alabama 5
Alabama 6
Alabama 7

ArkansasEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Arkansas 1
Arkansas 2

CaliforniaEdit

California held its election September 7, 1859. From statehood to 1864, California's members were elected at-large, with the top finishers winning election.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
California at-large
2 seats on a general ticket
Charles L. Scott Democratic 1856 Incumbent re-elected.
Joseph C. McKibbin Anti-Lecompton Democratic 1856 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.

ConnecticutEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Connecticut 1
Connecticut 2
Connecticut 3

DelawareEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Delaware at-large William G. Whiteley Democratic 1856 Incumbent re-elected.

FloridaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Florida at-large George S. Hawkins Democratic 1856 Incumbent re-elected.

GeorgiaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Georgia 1
Georgia 2
Georgia 3
Georgia 4
Georgia 5
Georgia 6
Georgia 7
Georgia 8

IllinoisEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Illinois 1
Illinois 2
Illinois 3
Illinois 4
Illinois 5
Illinois 6
Illinois 7
Illinois 8
Illinois 9

IndianaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Indiana 1
Indiana 2
Indiana 3
Indiana 4
Indiana 5
Indiana 6
Indiana 7
Indiana 8
Indiana 9
Indiana 10
Indiana 11

IowaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Iowa 1
Iowa 2

KansasEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Kansas at-large New state New seat.
New member elected December 1, 1859 in advance of January 29, 1861 statehood.
Republican gain.

Kansas TerritoryEdit

See non-voting delegates, below.

KentuckyEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Kentucky 1
Kentucky 2
Kentucky 3
Kentucky 4
Kentucky 5
Kentucky 6
Kentucky 7

LouisianaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Louisiana 1 George Eustis Jr. Know Nothing Elected in 1854 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Know Nothing hold.
Louisiana 2 Miles Taylor Democratic Elected in 1854 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Miles Taylor (Democratic) 56.7%[14]
  • L.D. Nichols (Know Nothing) 43.0%
Louisiana 3 Thomas Green Davidson Democratic Elected in 1854 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Thomas Green Davidson (Democratic) 89.6%[14]
  • T. Cannon (Opposition) 10.4%
Louisiana 4 John M. Sandidge Democratic Elected in 1854 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.

MaineEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Maine 1
Maine 2
Maine 3
Maine 4
Maine 5
Maine 6

MarylandEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Maryland 1
Maryland 2
Maryland 3
Maryland 4
Maryland 5
Maryland 6

MassachusettsEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Massachusetts 1
Massachusetts 2
Massachusetts 3
Massachusetts 4
Massachusetts 5
Massachusetts 6
Massachusetts 7
Massachusetts 8
Massachusetts 9
Massachusetts 10
Massachusetts 11

MichiganEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Michigan 1
Michigan 2
Michigan 3
Michigan 4

MinnesotaEdit

Minnesota became a new state in 1858 having already elected its first two members at-large in October 1857 to finish the current term. The state then held elections to the next term October 4, 1859.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Minnesota at-large
2 seats
James M. Cavanaugh Democratic 1857 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Elected on a general ticket:
William Wallace Phelps Democratic 1857 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.

MississippiEdit

Elections held late, on October 3 1859.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Mississippi 1 Lucius Q. C. Lamar Democratic 1857 Incumbent re-elected.
Mississippi 2 Reuben Davis Democratic 1857 Incumbent re-elected.
Mississippi 3 William Barksdale Democratic 1853 Incumbent re-elected.
Mississippi 4 Otho R. Singleton Democratic 1857 Incumbent re-elected.
Mississippi 5 John J. McRae Democratic 1858 (special) Incumbent re-elected.

MissouriEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Missouri 1
Missouri 2
Missouri 3
Missouri 4
Missouri 5
Missouri 6
Missouri 7

Nebraska TerritoryEdit

See non-voting delegates, below.

New HampshireEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
New Hampshire 1
New Hampshire 2
New Hampshire 3

New JerseyEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
New Jersey 1
New Jersey 2
New Jersey 3
New Jersey 4
New Jersey 5

New YorkEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
New York 1
New York 2
New York 3
New York 4
New York 5
New York 6
New York 7
New York 8
New York 9
New York 10
New York 11
New York 12
New York 13
New York 14
New York 15
New York 16
New York 17
New York 18
New York 19
New York 20
New York 21
New York 22
New York 23
New York 24
New York 25
New York 26
New York 27
New York 28
New York 29
New York 30
New York 31
New York 32
New York 33

North CarolinaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
North Carolina 1
North Carolina 2
North Carolina 3
North Carolina 4
North Carolina 5
North Carolina 6
North Carolina 7
North Carolina 8

OhioEdit

Ohio elected its members October 12, 1858, netting a 3-seat Republican gain.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates[21]
Ohio 1 George H. Pendleton Democratic 1856 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 2 William S. Groesbeck Democratic 1856 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 3 Clement L. Vallandigham Democratic 1856[u] Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 4 Matthias H. Nichols Republican 1852 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 5 Richard Mott Republican 1854 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Ohio 6 Joseph R. Cockerill Democratic 1856 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Ohio 7 Aaron Harlan Republican 1852 Incumbent lost renomination.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
  •  Y Thomas Corwin (Republican) 63.8%
  • Charles W. Blair (Democratic) 36.2%
Ohio 8 Benjamin Stanton Republican 1854 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 9 Lawrence W. Hall Democratic 1856 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 10 Joseph Miller Democratic 1856 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 11 Albert C. Thompson Republican 1854 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 12 Samuel S. Cox Democratic 1856 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Samuel S. Cox (Republican) 51.8%
  • Lucius Case (Democratic) 48.2%
Ohio 13 John Sherman Republican 1854 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y John Sherman (Republican) 57.1%
  • S. J. Patrick (Democratic) 42.9%
Ohio 14 Philemon Bliss Republican 1854 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Successor died May 31, 1859, leading to a special election.
  •  Y Cyrus Spink (Republican) 56.3%
  • J. P. Jeffries (Democratic) 43.7%
Ohio 15 Joseph Burns Democratic 1856 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 16 Cydnor B. Tompkins Republican 1856 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 17 William Lawrence Democratic 1856 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 18 Benjamin F. Leiter Republican 1854 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Ohio 19 Edward Wade Republican 1852 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Edward Wade (Republican) 65.1%
  • J. W. Gray (Democratic) 34.9%
Ohio 20 Joshua Reed Giddings Republican 1843 Incumbent lost renomination.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Ohio 21 John Bingham Republican 1854 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y John Bingham (Republican) 57.3%
  • Thomas Means (Democratic) 42.7%

OregonEdit

35th CongressEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Oregon at-large New state New seat.
New member elected June 7, 1858.
Democratic gain.
Successor seated February 14, 1859.[6]
New member did not run for the next term.

36th CongressEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Oregon at-large New state New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
New member did not run for the current term.

PennsylvaniaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Pennsylvania 1
Pennsylvania 2
Pennsylvania 3
Pennsylvania 4
Pennsylvania 5
Pennsylvania 6
Pennsylvania 7
Pennsylvania 8
Pennsylvania 9
Pennsylvania 10
Pennsylvania 11
Pennsylvania 12
Pennsylvania 13
Pennsylvania 14
Pennsylvania 15
Pennsylvania 16
Pennsylvania 17
Pennsylvania 18
Pennsylvania 19
Pennsylvania 20
Pennsylvania 21
Pennsylvania 22
Pennsylvania 23
Pennsylvania 24
Pennsylvania 25

Rhode IslandEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Rhode Island 1
Rhode Island 2

South CarolinaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
South Carolina 1
South Carolina 2
South Carolina 3
South Carolina 4
South Carolina 5
South Carolina 6

TennesseeEdit

Elections held late, on August 4 1859.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Tennessee 1 Albert G. Watkins Democratic 1855 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Opposition gain.
Tennessee 2 Horace Maynard Know Nothing 1857 Incumbent re-elected.
Opposition gain.
Tennessee 3 Samuel A. Smith Democratic 1853 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Opposition gain.
Tennessee 4 John H. Savage Democratic 1855 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Opposition gain.
Tennessee 5 Charles Ready Know Nothing 1853 Incumbent lost re-election as an independent.
New member elected.
Opposition gain.
Tennessee 6 George W. Jones Democratic 1842 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Tennessee 7 John V. Wright Democratic 1855 Incumbent re-elected.
Tennessee 8 Felix Zollicoffer Know Nothing 1853 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Opposition gain.
Tennessee 9 John D.C. Atkins Democratic 1857 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Opposition gain.
Tennessee 10 William T. Avery Democratic 1857 Incumbent re-elected.

TexasEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Texas 1
Texas 2

VermontEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Vermont 1
Vermont 2
Vermont 3

VirginiaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Virginia 1
Virginia 2
Virginia 3
Virginia 4
Virginia 5
Virginia 6
Virginia 7
Virginia 8
Virginia 9
Virginia 10
Virginia 11
Virginia 12
Virginia 13

WisconsinEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates[33]
Wisconsin 1 John F. Potter Republican 1856 Incumbent re-elected.
Wisconsin 2 Cadwallader C. Washburn Republican 1854 Incumbent re-elected.
Wisconsin 3 Charles Billinghurst Republican 1854 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.

Non-voting delegatesEdit

District Incumbent This race
Delegate Party First elected Results Candidates
Kansas Territory Marcus Junius Parrott Republican 1856 or 1857 Incumbent re-elected in 1858 or 1859.
Nebraska Territory Fenner Ferguson Independent Democratic 1857 Incumbent retired.
New delegate elected October 11, 1859.[34]
Democratic gain.
Election was later overturned due to a successful challenge by the loser.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Regular elections, not specials
  2. ^ a b Includes two elected as Lecompton Democrats.
  3. ^ While most of the Whig State Party affiliates in the South transitioned from the American Party to the newly formed Opposition Party, the North Carolina affiliate seems to have declined to do so.
  4. ^ Included one Independent Democrat or "Benton" Democrat: Francis Preston Blair Jr. of Missouri.
  5. ^ Includes five Anti-Lecompton Democrats, seven Independent Democrats, and three Anti-Administration Democrats.
  6. ^ Includes votes for those who ran labeled as a Independent, Union Democrat, Anti-Administration Democrat, Anti-Lecompton Democrat, and Independent Democrat.
  7. ^ There was only one Whig candidate during the 1856-1857 period, who earned twenty-three votes.
  8. ^ See The Kansas-Nebraska act
  9. ^ "Democratic" includes Independent Democrats and Anti-Lecompton Democrats.
  10. ^ New state. Representative seated February 14, 1859.
  11. ^ Includes 1 Independent Democrat.
  12. ^ Includes 1 Anti-Lecompton Democrat.
  13. ^ Includes 2 Anti-Lecompton Democrats.
  14. ^ In January 1845, Congress mandated a uniform date for choosing Presidential electors.[5] Gradually, states brought other elections into conformity with this date.
  15. ^ Includes 2 Anti-Lecompton Democrats.
  16. ^ Includes 1 Independent Democrat and 3 Anti-Lecompton Democrats.
  17. ^ Includes 4 Independent Democrats.
  18. ^ Includes 1 Independent Democrat.
  19. ^ New state. Representative seated January 29, 1861.
  20. ^ An increase of one seat for the new state of Oregon. (See 11 Stat. 383 and United States congressional apportionment.)
  21. ^ Contested election

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ http://mcimaps.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/36th-Congress.png
  2. ^ "Electing the House of Representatives". dsl.richmond.edu.
  3. ^ 11 Stat. 383
  4. ^ 12 Stat. 126
  5. ^ Stat. 721
  6. ^ a b c d e f g "Thirty-fifth Congress March 4, 1857, to March 3, 1859". Office of the Historian, United States House of Representatives. Retrieved February 18, 2019 – via History.house.gov.
  7. ^ a b "Our Campaigns - NC District 08 - Special Election Race - Aug 05, 1858". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  8. ^ a b "Our Campaigns - PA District 08 - Special Election Race - Nov 30, 1858". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  9. ^ "Our Campaigns - NY District 4 - Special Election Race - Jan 04, 1859". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  10. ^ a b c "Thirty-sixth Congress March 4, 1859, to March 3, 1861". Office of the Historian, United States House of Representatives. Retrieved February 18, 2019 – via History.house.gov.
  11. ^ "Our Campaigns - Container Detail Page". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  12. ^ Greeley, Horace; Cleveland, John F. (1860). A Political Text-Book for 1860. New York, New York: The Tribune Association. p. 248. Retrieved April 28, 2021.
  13. ^ "Our Campaigns - KS at Large - Initial Election Race - Dec 01, 1859".
  14. ^ a b c d Greeley, Horace; Cleveland, John F. (1860). A Political Text-Book for 1860. New York, New York: The Tribune Association. p. 243. Retrieved April 28, 2021.
  15. ^ "Our Campaigns - MN At-Large Race - Oct 04, 1859". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  16. ^ "MS - District 01". Our Campaigns. Retrieved March 10, 2021.
  17. ^ "MS - District 02". Our Campaigns. Retrieved March 10, 2021.
  18. ^ "MS - District 03". Our Campaigns. Retrieved March 10, 2021.
  19. ^ "MS - District 04". Our Campaigns. Retrieved March 10, 2021.
  20. ^ "MS - District 05". Our Campaigns. Retrieved March 10, 2021.
  21. ^ Smith, Joseph P, ed. (1898). History of the Republican Party in Ohio. I. Chicago: the Lewis Publishing Company. pp. 84, 85.
  22. ^ Greeley, Horace; Cleveland, John F. (1860). A Political Text-Book for 1860. New York, New York: The Tribune Association. p. 247. Retrieved April 28, 2021.
  23. ^ "TN - District 01". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 18, 2021.
  24. ^ "TN - District 02". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 18, 2021.
  25. ^ "TN - District 03". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 18, 2021.
  26. ^ "TN - District 04". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 18, 2021.
  27. ^ "TN - District 05". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 18, 2021.
  28. ^ "TN - District 06". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 18, 2021.
  29. ^ "TN - District 07". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 18, 2021.
  30. ^ "TN - District 08". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 18, 2021.
  31. ^ "TN - District 09". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 18, 2021.
  32. ^ "TN - District 10". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 18, 2021.
  33. ^ "Wisconsin U.S. House Election Results" (PDF). Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 5, 2012. Retrieved August 27, 2014.
  34. ^ "Collections of the NSHS - Volume 18". USGenNet.org.

BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit