List of railway electrification systems

  (Redirected from 750V DC)

This is a list of the power supply systems that are, or have been, used for tramway and railway electrification systems.

Note that the voltages are nominal and vary depending on load and distance from the substation.

Many modern trams and trains use on-board solid-state electronics to convert these supplies to run three-phase AC induction motors.

Trams electrification systems are listed here.

Key to the tables belowEdit

Systems using standard voltagesEdit

Voltages are defined by two standards: BS EN 50163[1] and IEC 60850.[2]

Overhead systemsEdit

600 V DCEdit

Country Location Name of system Notes
Many tram systems This voltage is mostly used by older tram systems worldwide but by a few new ones as well. See List of tram systems by gauge and electrification
  Australia Adelaide Trams in Adelaide  
Melbourne Melbourne Tramway Network  
  Hungary Budapest Budapest Metro Line M1
  Japan Chōshi, Chiba Chōshi Electric Railway  
Kyoto, Kyoto Eizan Electric Railway  
Kanagawa Enoshima Electric Railway  
Matsuyama, Ehime Iyotetsu Takahama Line  
Shizuoka, Shizuoka Shizuoka Railway  
  Romania Sibiu county Sibiu-Răşinari Narrow Gauge Railway part of the former Sibiu tram line
  Spain Madrid Madrid Metro lines 1, 4, 5, 6 and 9. In process to be converted to 1500 V

750 V DCEdit

Country Location Name of system Notes
Many tram systems This voltage is used for most modern tram systems.[citation needed]. See List of tram systems by gauge and electrification
  Australia Sydney Sydney Light Rail  
Canberra Canberra Metro  
Gold Coast G:link  
  Austria Upper Austria Local lines of Stern & Hafferl also listed as having 1500  and 600 V lines
Rhine / Lake Constance Internationale Rheinregulierungsbahn Construction railway for the regulation works of the river Rhine near its outfall into Lake Constance, now preserved. The river forms the border between Austria and Switzerland, and the railway operated in both countries.
  Brazil Rio de Janeiro Rio de Janeiro Metro Lines 1, 2 and 4
São Paulo São Paulo Metro Lines 1, 2, 3 and 15 (monorail), 17 (future, monorail)
  Germany Karlsruhe to Bad Herrenalb with a branch to Ittersbach Albtalbahn railway of the Upper Rhine
  Italy Genova Metropolitana di Genova
  Japan Hamamatsu, Shizuoka Enshū Railway  
Hakone, Kanagawa Hakone Tozan Railway Line between Hakone-Yumoto and Gōra
Ehime Iyotetsu Yokogawara Line and Gunchū Line  
Yokkaichi, Mie Yokkaichi Asunarou Railway Utsube Line, Hachiōji Line  
Mie Sangi Railway Hokusei Line  
  Mexico Mexico City STC Line A
  Netherlands The Hague, Zoetermeer, Rotterdam and adjacent cities Randstadrail  
Rotterdam Rotterdam Metro North of Capelsebrug station overhead wires
  Philippines Metro Manila Manila LRT Line 1 (Manila Light Rail Transit System) between Baclaran to Roosevelt
Metro Manila Manila MRT Line 3 (Manila Metro Rail Transit System) between North Avenue to Taft Avenue
  Switzerland Canton of Aargau Wynental- und Suhrentalbahn (WSB)  
  Republic of China (Taiwan) Taipei, New Taipei, Taoyuan, Kaohsiung Taipei Metro, Taoyuan Metro, and Kaohsiung Metro all lines
  Turkey Adana Adana Metro  
Istanbul Istanbul Metro Line M1, M2, M6

1,200 V DCEdit

Country Location Name of system Notes
  Cuba HavanaMatanzas and branches Ferrocarriles Nacionales de Cuba originally (and still known as) the Hershey Electric Railway
  Estonia     (Elektriraudtee) 1924–1941 and 1946–1958, converted to 3000 V DC
  Germany Lusatian   900 mm (2 ft 11 716 in) gauge mining railways in the lignite district
  Spain Barcelona, Catalonia Barcelona Metro uses an overhead conductor rail/beam system
PalmaSóller, Majorca Sóller Railway [3]
  Switzerland Canton of Bern / canton of Solothurn Aare Seeland mobil (ASm) [4][5]
Dietikon, canton of ZürichWohlen, canton of Aargau Bremgarten-Dietikon-Bahn
ZürichEsslingen, canton of Zürich Forchbahn Forchbahn proper only; Forchbahn trains access their Zürich terminus via the Zürich tram network, which is electrified at 600 V DC. The rolling stock is equipped to run off both voltages.
Frauenfeld, canton of ThurgauWil, canton of St. Gallen Frauenfeld-Wil-Bahn
MeiringenInnertkirchen, canton of Bern Meiringen–Innertkirchen Bahn
ZürichUetliberg, canton of Zürich Sihltal Zürich Uetliberg Bahn Uetliberg line only – uses an offset overhead line and pantograph to allow running on track shared with the AC-electrified Sihltal line[6]
  US East Bay, California East Bay Electric Lines 1911–1941
Los AngelesInland Empire, California Pacific Electric Upland–San Bernardino 600 V in city limits

1,500 V DCEdit

Country Location Name of system Notes
  Argentina Buenos Aires Buenos Aires Metro Lines A, C, D, E and H
Buenos Aires Tren de la Costa Suburban line
  Australia Melbourne Melbourne Suburban Railways  
Sydney Sydney Trains  
Sydney Metro  
  Brazil São Paulo São Paulo Metro Lines 4 and 5
  Bulgaria Sofia Sofia Metro Line 3
  Canada Montreal Réseau express métropolitain  
Ottawa O-Train Confederation Line only; the Trillium Line is diesel LRT.
  China Beijing Beijing Subway Lines 6, 14 and 16
Changchun Changchun Rail Transit Lines 1 and 2
Changsha Changsha Metro
Changzhou Changzhou Metro
Chengdu Chengdu Metro Except lines 17, 18 and 19
Chongqing Chongqing Rail Transit Lines 1, 4, 5, 6, 10 and Loop Line
Dalian Dalian Metro
Dongguan Dongguan Rail Transit
Fushun Fushun Electric Railway
Fuzhou Fuzhou Metro
Guangzhou Guangzhou Metro except Lines 4, 5, 6, 14 and 21, but overhead wires installed in depots.
Guiyang Guiyang Metro
Hangzhou Hangzhou Metro
Harbin Harbin Metro
Hefei Hefei Metro
Hohhot Hohhot Metro
Jinan Jinan Metro
Lanzhou Lanzhou Metro
Nanchang Nanchang Metro
Nanjing Nanjing Metro
Nanning Nanning Metro
Ningbo Ningbo Rail Transit Line 4 uses third rail for returning current
Shanghai Shanghai Metro except Lines 16 and 17, but overhead wires installed in the depot for line 16.
Shenyang Shenyang Metro
Shenzhen Shenzhen Metro Except Lines 3 and 6, but overhead wires installed in the depot for line 6.
Shijiazhuang Shijiazhuang Metro
Suzhou Suzhou Metro
Tianjin Tianjin Metro Lines 5, 6 and 9 only
Ürümqi Ürümqi Metro
Wuhan Wuhan Metro Line 6 only
Xi’an Xi'an Metro
Xiamen Xiamen Metro
Xuzhou Xuzhou Metro
Zhengzhou Zhengzhou Metro
  Colombia Medellín Medellín Metro Lines A and B
  Czech Republic Tábor-Bechyně Czech Railway Infrastructure Administration (SŽDC) Tábor-Bechyně line only
  Denmark Copenhagen Copenhagen S-train  
  Dominican Republic Santo Domingo Santo Domingo Metro  
  Egypt Cairo Cairo Metro Line 1[7][8]
  France Société Nationale des Chemins de fer (SNCF) 25 kV AC used on new high speed lines (TGV) and in the north
  Hong Kong Hong Kong Mass Transit Railway Corporation East Rail Line, West Rail Line, Ma On Shan Line are 25 kV AC
  Hungary Budapest Budapest Cog-wheel Railway Converted from 550 V DC (city trams nominal voltage at that time) during the 1973 reconstruction.
  Indonesia Jakarta KRL Jabodetabek

Jakarta MRT

  Ireland Dublin Dublin Area Rapid Transit  
  Italy Roma Metropolitana di Roma Line A, Line B, Line Roma-Ostia Lido
  Japan   Japan Railways (JR) lines most electrified lines in Kantō, Chūbu, Kansai, Chūgoku, and Shikoku (except Shinkansen and Hokuriku region)
  Most private railway lines  
  Most subway lines  
  Mexico Mexico City STC Line 12
Monterrey Sistema de Transporte Colectivo Metrorrey
  Netherlands Nederlandse Spoorwegen - Dutch Railways (NS) 25 kV AC used on new high speed lines and new freight line Betuweroute
  New Zealand Wellington Wellington suburban except Wairarapa Line beyond Upper Hutt. Since 2011, the nominal voltage was 1600 V but with the same tolerances as 1500 V (i.e. 1300–1800 V), making it backwards-compatible with 1500 V rolling stock. Since May 2016 the operating voltage was increased to 1700 V DC following the full introduction of the Matangi EMUs.
  Philippines Metro Manila Manila MRT Line 2 (Manila Light Rail Transit System) between Santolan to Recto
  Portugal Lisbon, Oeiras and Cascais Linha de Cascais  
  Portugal Oeiras Ramal do Estádio Nacional Closed
  Singapore Singapore Mass Rapid Transit North East Line, operated by SBS Transit
  Slovakia   Tatra Electric Railway  
  South Korea Seoul National Capital Area Seoul Subway except Korail Subway Line (except Line 3)
(see 25 kV 60 Hz below)
Busan Busan Subway  
Daegu Daegu Subway  
Daejeon Daejeon Subway  
Gwangju Gwangju Subway  
Incheon Incheon Subway Line 1  
  Spain Cataluña Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat de Catalunya  
Madrid ADIF only Cercedilla-Cotos line
Mallorca Serveis Ferroviaris de Mallorca  
Asturias-León-Cantabria-País Vasco FEVE  
País Vasco Euskotren  
Comunidad Valenciana Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat Valenciana  
  Sweden Stockholm Roslagsbanan  
  Switzerland AigleLeysin, canton of Vaud Chemin de fer Aigle–Leysin (AL)  
Aigle, VaudChampéry, canton of Valais Chemin de fer Aigle–Ollon–Monthey–Champéry (AOMC)  
AigleLes Diablerets, canton of Vaud Chemin de fer Aigle–Sépey–Diablerets (ASD)  
InterlakenLauterbrunnen / Grindelwald, canton of Bern Berner Oberland Bahn (BOB)  
Canton of Jura Chemins de fer du Jura (CJ) metre gauge lines only; standard gauge lines are electrified at 15 kV 16 2/3 Hz
LausanneBercher, canton of Vaud Chemin de fer Lausanne–Échallens–Bercher (LEB)
NyonLa Cure, canton of Vaud Chemin de fer Nyon-St-Cergue-Morez (NStCNM) converted in the 1980s from 2200 V DC
Vitznau / GoldauRigi Rigi Bahnen (VRB/ARB)
WilderswilSchynige Platte, canton of Bern Schynige Platte Bahn (SPB)  
LiestalWaldenburg, canton of Basel-Country Waldenburgerbahn (WB)  
LauterbrunnenGrindelwald, canton of Bern Wengernalpbahn (WAB)  
  Turkey Bursa Bursa Metro  
Istanbul Istanbul Metro Except lines M1, M2 and M6
  United Kingdom Newcastle, Sunderland, Gateshead and Tyneside Tyne and Wear Metro  
London (Liverpool Street) to Shenfield (then Chelmsford) Great Eastern Main Line Opened in 1949.
Converted to 6.25 kV 50 Hz AC in 1960 and later to 25 kV 50 Hz AC[9][10]
Manchester Manchester, South Junction and Altrincham Railway Opened in 1931.
Converted to 25 kV 50 Hz AC in 1971
Converted again to 750 V DC in 1991 (Metrolink).[11][12]
Manchester to Sheffield Manchester-Sheffield-Wath Operated 1949–1984. Abandoned east of Hadfield in 1981; suburban services in Manchester converted to 25 kV, 50 Hz AC as far as Hadfield and Glossop in 1984.[13]
Shildon to Newport County Durham industrial line; operated 1915–1935[14]
  United States Chicago Metra Electric District  
Maryland Maryland Transit Administration Purple Line (under construction)
Northern Indiana & Chicago South Shore Line  
Seattle Central Link light rail

3 kV DCEdit

Country Location Name of system Note
  Belgium Nationwide Belgium National Railways (SNCB) National standard. 25 kV AC used on high speed lines and some lines in the south area.
  Brazil Rio de Janeiro suburban network; SuperVia Trens Urbanos;  
  Canada Montreal Deux-Montagnes Line built by CNoR in 1918 as 2400 V DC, converted to 3000 V DC in the 1980s, converted to 25 kV AC/60 Hz in 1995 by ARTM, being converted to 1500 V DC for the REM system.
  Czech Republic Czech Railway Infrastructure Administration (SŽDC) Northern part of network only (approx. the Děčín - Praha - Ostrava route). The system change stations are Kadaň-Prunéřov, Beroun, Benešov u Prahy, Kutná Hora hl.n., Svitavy, Nezamyslice, Nedakonice. The southern part uses 25 kV 50 Hz.
  Estonia Tallinn Elron commuter rail only
  Georgia Georgian Railway LLC In fact 3,300 V
  Italy RFI - Rete Ferroviaria Italiana (Italian Railways Network) 25 kV AC used on new high speed lines
  North Korea   Korean State Railway national standard
  Latvia Latvian Railways (LDz) commuter rail only, to be converted to 25 kV AC which to be intended to connect with Russia, Belarus and Lithuania.
  Morocco   ONCF (Office National des Chemins de Fer) national standard
  Poland Polish State Railways (PKP) planned new high-speed lines will use 25 kV AC[15]
Warszawa and suburbs Warszawska Kolej Dojazdowa (WKD) 600 V DC until 27 May 2016
  Russian Federation Russian Railways (RZD) new electrification use only 25 kV AC, except Moscow Central Circle and other interconnection lines in Moscow, and 2 interconnection lines (Veymarn line and Kamennogorsk line) in St. Petersberg. For Sverdlovsk railway and West Siberian railway to be converted to 25 kV AC.
  Slovakia Slovak Republic Railways (ŽSR) Northern main line (connected to Czech Republic and Poland) and eastern lines (around Košice and Prešov), conversion to 25 kV AC planned, and the broad gauge line between Košice and the Ukraine border (it will remain 3 kV until new broad gauge line construction, then convert to 25 kV AC), planned new broad gauge line is supposed to use 25 kV AC. Currently, the part north and east of the station Púchov uses 3 kV DC, the rest uses 25 kV 50 Hz.
  Slovenia Slovenian Railways (SŽ) national standard
  South Africa Transnet Freight Rail (TFR); Metrorail national standard; also 25 kV AC and 50 kV AC used
  Spain ADIF (Administrador de Infraestructuras Ferroviarias) 25 kV AC used on high speed lines
  Ukraine Ukrainian Railways in east (Donetsk industrial zone), in west (west from L'viv – connecting to Slovakia and Poland), to be converted to 25 kV AC[16]
  United States New Jersey, lines towards New York City Morris & Essex Lines By Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad in 1930.[17] Converted to 25 kV 60 Hz by NJT in 1984

15 kV AC, ​16 23 Hz / 16.7 HzEdit

Country Location Name of system Notes
  Austria Austrian Federal Railways national standard
  Germany German National Railways national standard
  Norway Norwegian National Rail Administration national standard
  Sweden Swedish Transport Administration national standard
  Switzerland Canton of Bern BLS  
Central Switzerland and Bernese Highlands Zentralbahn  
Canton of Vaud Chemin de fer Bière-Apples-Morges (BAM)  
Canton of Zürich Sihltal Zürich Uetliberg Bahn Sihltal line only; shares track with the 1200 V DC electrified Uetliberg line that uses an offset overhead line and pantograph to allow such sharing
Throughout the country Swiss Federal Railways  

25 kV AC, 50 HzEdit

Country Location Name of system Notes
  Argentina Buenos Aires Roca Line Constitución - Ezeiza
Constitución - Alejandro Korn
Constitución - Bosques
Constitución - La Plata
  Australia Queensland: Brisbane, North Coast Line, Blackwater and Goonyella Coal Railways Queensland Rail
Western Australia: Perth Transperth
South Australia: Adelaide Adelaide Metro Seaford line electrified (Gawler line being electrified)
  Belarus     national standard
  Belgium High-speed lines and some other lines Belgium National Railways (NMBS/SNCB) the rest of the network is 3 kV DC — see rail transport in Belgium
  Bosnia and Herzegovina   Rail transport in Bosnia and Herzegovina  
  Botswana     proposed line to Namibia
  Bulgaria   Bulgarian State Railways BDZ  
  China Nationwide China Railway Corporation national standard
Beijing Beijing Subway Daxing Airport Line only
Chengdu Chengdu Metro Lines 17, 18 and 19 only
Wenzhou Wenzhou Rail Transit
  Croatia Nationwide Croatian Railways (HŽ) national standard
  Czech Republic Southern lines only (linking Karlovy Vary - Cheb - Plzeň - České Budějovice - Tábor - Jihlava - Brno - Břeclav - Slovakia) Czech Railway Infrastructure Administration (SŽDC)  
  Denmark nationwide Banedanmark See rail transport in Denmark
  Djibouti Addis Ababa–Djibouti Railway Ethiopian Railway Corporation
  Ethiopia Addis Ababa–Djibouti Railway Ethiopian Railway Corporation
  Finland Nationwide Finnish Railway network National standard
  France north and new lines French National Railways (SNCF)  
  Germany Harz Rübelandbahn
  Greece Nationwide Hellenic Railways Organisation (OSE) National standard. See Railways of Greece for details of progress.
  Hong Kong Kowloon, New Territories Mass Transit Railway Corporation (East Rail Line) (West Rail Line) and (Ma On Shan Line)  
  Hungary   Hungarian State Railways (MÁV) and Raaberbahn (GYSEV)  
  India Nationwide Indian Railways (IR) Entire IR network uses the current system since 2016.
Mumbai Mumbai Suburban Railway Conversion from 1.5 kV DC to the current system was completed in 2012 (for Western Line[18]) and 2016 (for Central Line[19][20][21]) respectively
Mumbai Mumbai Metro (Line 1)
Chennai (Madras) Chennai Metro  
Delhi Delhi Metro  
  Iran     Planned
  Israel   Israel Railways Construction contract awarded in December 2015.[22] Initial test runs began December 2017.
  Italy     new high-speed lines only
  Japan Kantō (northeast of Tokyo), Tōhoku, and Hokkaido regions JR East Tohoku Shinkansen, Joetsu Shinkansen, and Hokuriku Shinkansen (sections between Tokyo - Karuizawa, and between Jōetsumyōkō - Itoigawa)
JR Hokkaido Hokkaido Shinkansen
60 Hz in some areas, see 60 Hz overhead below.
  Latvia   Latvian Railways (LDz) Eastern lines only (planned)
  Lithuania Kena — Kaunas and Lentvaris — Trakai Lithuanian Railways (LG) Electrification of Naujoji Vilnia – Kena —

Gudogai (BCh) route for Vilnius – Minsk (Belarus) services is established on 2017. Further Kaunas – Klaipeda corridor electrification will follow project.

  Luxembourg nationwide Chemins de fer luxembourgeois (CFL) National standard, but the Luxembourg – Arlon line is electrified under 3 kV DC
  Malaysia Padang Besar - KL Sentral - Gemas KTM ETS (run through West Coast railway line), Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad Under Construction: Hat Yai (in Thailand) - Padang Besar (to be opened by 2020) and Gemas - Johor Bahru (to be opened by 2022)
Bukit Mertajam - Padang Regas and Butterworth - Padang Besar KTM Komuter Northern Sector, Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad  
Batu Caves - Pulau Sebang/Tampin, Tanjung Malim - Port Klang and KL Sentral - Terminal Skypark KTM Komuter Central Sector (Seremban Line, Port Klang Line and Skypark Link), Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad  
KL Sentral - KLIA2 Express Rail Link (KLIA Ekspres and KLIA Transit)  
  Montenegro Belgrade–Bar railway and Nikšić–Podgorica railway Railways of Montenegro  
  Morocco Kenitra–Tangier high-speed rail line ONCF Casablanca–Kenitra section of high-speed rail remains at 3 kV DC[23]
  Namibia Proposed line to Botswana    
  Netherlands Used on new High Speed Lines and Freight Lines Dutch Railways (NS) 1.5 kV DC used on the rest of the network
  New Zealand Auckland Auckland suburban 77 km between Swanson and Papakura; first service 28 April 2014
  North Island Main Trunk Railway Central North Island section, 411 km between Palmerston North and Hamilton
  North Macedonia   Makedonski Železnici  
  Portugal   Portuguese Railways (CP) except the Linha de Cascais (1500 V DC)
  Romania   Romanian Railways (CFR)  
  Russian Federation   Russian Railways (RZD) National standard
  Saudi Arabia Haramain high-speed railway Saudi Railways Organization Renfe Operadora and Adif will operate the trains and manage the line until 2030
  Serbia nationwide Serbian Railways  
  Slovakia   Slovak Republic Railways (ŽSR) South-western lines only (around Bratislava, Kuty, Trencin, Trnava, Nove Zamky, Zvolen) and the entire network (except narrow gauge lines) to follow
  Spain   ADIF Alta Velocidad High-speed lines only
  South Africa   Transnet Freight Rail (TFR), Gautrain  
  Thailand Bangkok Suvarnabhumi Airport Link  
  Tunisia      [24]
  Turkey nationwide Turkish State Railways (TCDD) National standard
  United Kingdom Nationwide Network Rail except Southern region and Merseyside
  Ukraine   Ukrainian Railways national standard, in most of the west; also 3000 V DC in the east
  Zimbabwe Gweru-Harare National Railways of Zimbabwe (NRZ) de-energised in 2008

25 kV AC, 60 HzEdit

While 25 kV 60 Hz is not standardized by BS EN 50163 and IEC 60850; it is the logical equivalent of 25 kV 50 Hz in countries where 60 Hz is the normal grid power frequency.

Country Location Name of system Notes
  Canada Montreal Deux-Montagnes Line built by CNoR in 1918 as 2400 V DC, converted to 3000 V DC in the 1980s, converted to 25 kV AC/60 Hz in 1995 by ARTM, being converted to 1500 V DC for the REM system.
  Japan Kantō (west of Tokyo), Chūbu, Kansai, Chūgoku, and Kyushu regions Tōkaidō-Sanyō Shinkansen
Hokuriku Shinkansen (sections between Karuizawa - Jōetsumyōkō, and between Itoigawa - Kanazawa)
Kyushu Shinkansen
50 Hz in eastern Japan; see 25 kV AC 50 Hz overhead above
  South Korea South Korea Korail all Korail freight/passenger lines except Seoul subway Line 3 (see 1500 V DC overhead above)
Seoul Shinbundang line
Incheon, Seoul A'REX  
  Mexico Mexico City Ferrocarril Suburbano de la Zona Metropolitana del Valle de México  [25]
  Taiwan Taiwan Taiwan Railways Administration all electrified lines
Western Taiwan Taiwan High Speed Rail
  United States New Jersey Morris & Essex Lines, New Jersey Transit former 3,000 V DC system
Aberdeen-Matawan to Long Branch, New Jersey North Jersey Coast Line, New Jersey Transit Converted in 1978 from Pennsylvania Railroad 11 kV 25 Hz system to the 12.5 kV 25 Hz on the Rahway-Matawan ROW and 12.5 kV 60 Hz electrification extended to Long Branch in 1988. The Matawan-Long Branch voltage converted from 12.5 kV 60 Hz system to the 25 kV 60 Hz in 2002.
New York, NY to Boston Northeast Corridor (NEC), Amtrak electrified in 2000; see Amtrak's 60 Hz traction power system
Denver Denver RTD opened in 2016; separate 750 V DC system for light rail
San Francisco Peninsula Caltrain under construction, expected by 2022; see Electrification of Caltrain
New Mexico Navajo Mine Railroad
Texas Texas Utilities, Monticello & Martin Lake see E25B and Internet reference[26]

Conductor rail systemsEdit

600 V DC conductorEdit

All third rail unless stated otherwise.
Used by most older US subways.

Using this type of electrification
No longer using this type of electrification
Type Country Location Name of system Notes
Top contact   Argentina Buenos Aires Urquiza Line Federico Lacroze-General Lemos
Top contact   Canada Toronto Toronto Subway and Rapid Transit only on subway lines
Top contact   Greece Athens EIS/ISAP used between 1904 and 1985
Top contact   Italy Turin Superga Rack Railway  
Top contact   Japan Tokyo Tokyo Metro Ginza Line and Marunouchi Line  
  Nagoya, Aichi Nagoya Municipal Subway Higashiyama Line and Meijō Line  
Top contact   Sweden Stockholm Stockholm Metro 650 V, Green and Red Lines
Top contact   United Kingdom Glasgow Glasgow Subway  
Top contact   United States Boston Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority Red and Orange Lines, the subway part of the Blue Line southwest of Airport Station
Top contact Chicago Chicago "L" elevated and subway lines
Top contact New York City New York City Subway  
Top contact Staten Island Railway  
Top contact New York City metro area PATH  
Top contact Philadelphia Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority
Bay Lake, Florida Walt Disney World Monorail System

750 V DC conductorEdit

Conductor rail systems have been separated into tables based on whether they are top, side or bottom contact. All systems are third rail unless stated otherwise.

Bottom contactEdit
Country Location Name of system Notes
  Algeria Algiers Algiers Metro  
  Austria Vienna Vienna U-Bahn  
  Brazil São Paulo São Paulo Metro except Lines 4 and 5
  China Beijing Beijing Subway Capital Airport Line only
Kunming Kunming Metro except Line 4
Tianjin Tianjin Metro Lines 2 and 3 only
Wuhan Wuhan Metro Lines 1, 2, 3 and 4 only
  Czech Republic Prague Prague Metro  
  Denmark Copenhagen Copenhagen Metro  
  Egypt Cairo Cairo Metro Line 2 and Line 3
  Finland Helsinki Helsinki Metro  
  Germany Berlin Berlin U-Bahn Lines from U5 to U9 (large profile). Negative polarity.
Hamburg Hamburg U-Bahn  
Munich Munich U-Bahn  
Nuremberg Nuremberg U-Bahn  
  India Bangalore Namma Metro  
Kochi Kochi Metro  
  South Korea Busan Busan-Gimhae Light Rail Transit  
  Malaysia Klang Valley Klang Valley Integrated Transit System LRT & MRT (Ampang, Sri Petaling, Kelana Jaya and Sungai Buloh–Kajang lines), and KL Monorail to be used on Bandar Utama–Klang and Sungai Buloh–Serdang–Putrajaya lines
  Netherlands Amsterdam Amsterdam Metro including line 51 north of Station Zuid
Rotterdam Rotterdam Metro North of Capelsebrug station overhead wires
  Norway Oslo Oslo T-bane  
  Poland Warsaw Warsaw Metro  
  Romania Bucharest Bucharest Metro  
  Singapore Singapore Mass Rapid Transit North South Line, East West Line and Circle Line operated by SMRT Trains

Downtown Line operated by SBS Transit
Thomson-East Coast Line

  Taiwan Kaohsiung Kaohsiung Mass Rapid Transit
Taipei Taipei Metro
TaoyuanTaipei Taoyuan Metro
  Turkey Ankara Ankara Metro  
Istanbul Istanbul Metro Lines M2 and M6 only
Izmir Izmir Metro  
  United Kingdom London Docklands Light Railway  
  United States New York City Metro-North Railroad  
Side contactEdit
Country Location Name of system Notes
  Canada Montreal Montreal Metro (guide bars, see DC, four-rail below)
  Chile Santiago Santiago Metro  
  France Paris Paris Métro (Rubber tired) Positive (and sometimes negative) polarity on guide bars.
See DC, four-rail below.
Lyon Lyon Métro
Marseille Marseille Métro
Lille Lille Métro
Rennes Rennes Métro
Toulouse Toulouse Métro
  Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong International Airport
Automated People Mover (APM)
Mitsubishi "Crystal Mover" system using two power rails (positive and negative) with side collection.
  Indonesia Palembang, South Sumatra Palembang Light Rail Transit
  Japan Sapporo, Hokkaido Sapporo Municipal Subway Namboku Line  
  Singapore Singapore Light Rail Transit Sengkang LRT Line and Punggol LRT Line operated by SBS Transit
Singapore Sentosa Express Sentosa Express operated by SDC
  United States Las Vegas Las Vegas Monorail  
Top contactEdit
Country Location Name of system Notes
  China Beijing Beijing Subway Capital Airport Line use bottom contact
Tianjin Tianjin Metro Line 1 only
  France Paris Paris Métro (Conventional metro)  
  Germany Berlin Berlin U-Bahn Lines from U1 to U4 (small profile)
  Greece Athens Athens Metro Line 1 was 600 V before 1985.
  Hungary Budapest Budapest Metro except line M1, which is 600 V DC with overhead lines.
  India Kolkata Kolkata Metro  
  Japan Osaka, Osaka Osaka Metro except the Sakaisuji Line, Nagahori Tsurumi-ryokuchi Line, and the Imazatosuji Line, which are 1,500 V DC with overhead lines.
Suita, Osaka
Toyonaka, Osaka
Kita-Osaka Kyuko Railway  
Higashiosaka, Osaka
Ikoma, Nara
Nara, Nara
Kintetsu Keihanna Line  
Yokohama, Kanagawa Yokohama Municipal Subway Blue Line (Line 1 and Line 3) only
  North Korea Pyongyang Pyongyang Metro based on fleet of cars from Beijing and Germany
  South Korea Yongin Everline  
  Portugal Lisbon Lisbon Metro  
  Puerto Rico San Juan Tren Urbano  
  Sweden Stockholm Stockholm Metro Nominal voltage 650 V, subway 3 (blue line) 750 V. Subway 1 and 2 will change in the long term to 750 V.
  United Kingdom Liverpool Merseyrail  
London Northern City Line access to City (Moorgate)
London LNWR Suburban Network formerly four-rail out of Euston and Broad Street, curtailed, upgraded and standardised
Southern England Southern Region of British Railways and successors 660 V system upgraded and expanded
  United States Atlanta, Georgia MARTA
Los Angeles, California Los Angeles Metro Rail B and D Lines
Miami, Florida Metrorail
New York City and Long Island
East River Tunnels shared with Amtrak
Long Island Rail Road Central, Greenport, and Oyster Bay branches not electrified; Montauk Branch not electrified east of Babylon; Port Jefferson Branch not electrified east of Huntington
Philadelphia, PA PATCO Speedline  
Puerto Rico Tren Urbano
Washington, D.C. Washington Metro  
within the Hudson and East River Tunnels as well as under Manhattan
Northeast Corridor
within the Hudson Tunnel into Manhattan New Jersey Transit  
Using this type of electrification
No longer using this type of electrification
Type Country Location Name of system Notes
See note   China Tianjin Tianjin Metro Top contact in Line 1, bottom contact in Lines 2 and 3

1200 V DC conductorEdit

All systems are third rail unless stated otherwise.

Using this type of electrification
No longer using this type of electrification
Side contactEdit
Country Location Name of system Notes
  Germany Hamburg Hamburg S-Bahn 15 kV/16.7 Hz with overhead line in part of network.
 United Kingdom Manchester Manchester-Bury Dismantled 1991, converted to Manchester Metrolink tramway (750 V DC overhead)

Systems using non-standard voltagesEdit

Overhead systemsEdit

DC voltageEdit

Voltage Country Location Name of system Notes
120   United Kingdom Seaton, Devon Seaton Tramway Half scale trams. Operated 1969-now. Substations have battery banks for back up.
250   United States Chicago Chicago Tunnel Company operated 1906–1959
525   Switzerland Lauterbrunnen Bergbahn Lauterbrunnen-Mürren  
550   China  Hong Kong Hong Kong Tramways  
550   Isle of Man Isle of Man Manx Electric Railway including Snaefell Mountain Railway
  India Kolkata Trams in Kolkata  
650   United States Buffalo, New York Buffalo Metro Rail
El Paso, Texas El Paso Streetcar
Pittsburgh Pittsburgh Light Rail
  Switzerland Basel Basel Trams (BVB/BLT)
700   Switzerland BexCol de Bretaye, Vaud Chemin de fer Bex-Villars-Bretaye
740   USA Oklahoma City Oklahoma City Streetcar
800   Poland Tricity Szybka Kolej Miejska (Tricity) Operated 1951-1976. Converted to 3,000 V DC in 1976.
825   USA Portland, Oregon MAX, TriMet light rail sections west of NE 9th Avenue & Holladay Street utilize a 750 V system
850   Switzerland CapolagoMonte Generoso, Ticino Ferrovia Monte Generoso (MG)
900   Switzerland Fribourg Gruyere – Fribourg – Morat  
  Switzerland Montreux Montreux-Oberland Bernois  
1,000   Switzerland
St Moritz, canton of GraubündenTirano, Lombardy Rhätische Bahn (RhB) Bernina line only; remainder of system electrified at 11 kV AC, 16 2⁄3 Hz. The Bernina line is an international line linking Switzerland (St. Moritz) with Italy (Tirano)
  Hungary Budapest Budapest Commuter Rail and Rapid Transit (BHÉV) [27]
1,100   Argentina Buenos Aires Buenos Aires Metro (Subterráneos de Buenos Aires) only Line A (converted to 1,500 V DC with La Brugeoise trains replaced by new rolling stock in 2013)
1,250   Switzerland Canton of Bern Regionalverkehr Bern-Solothurn (RBS) All lines except tram line 6 between Bern and Worb, which is electrified at 600 V DC[28]
1,350   Italy   Switzerland Domodossola, PiedmontLocarno, canton of Ticino Ferrovia Domodossola–Locarno (FART/SSIF) International railway between Italy (Domodossola) and Switzerland (Locarno)
  Switzerland LuganoPonte Tresa, canton of Ticino Ferrovia Lugano–Ponte Tresa (FLP)
2,400   Germany Lausitzer   work line of the Lausitzer Brown Coal AG company
  Poland Konin PAK KWB KONIN[29]
  Poland Turek PAK KWB ADAMÓW[29]
  France Grenoble Chemin de fer de La Mure −1,200 V, +1,200 V two wire system from 1903 to 1950. 2,400 V since 1950.[30]
3,000   USA Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific Railroad 645 miles (1,038 km) on two sections, dismantled 1974
3,500   United Kingdom Manchester Bury – Holcombe Brook operated 1913–1918
6,000   Russia     experiments in the late 1970s (3,000 V DC lines)

AC voltageEdit

Voltage Frequency Country Location Name of system Notes
5,500 16 23 Hz   Germany Murnau Ammergau Railway 1905–1955, after 1955 15 kV, 16.7 Hz
6,250 50 Hz   United Kingdom London, Essex, Herts Great Eastern suburban lines Great Eastern suburban lines from Liverpool Street London, 1950s–c1980 (converted to 25 kV)
  United Kingdom Glasgow Glasgow suburban lines Sections of the North Clyde Line and Cathcart Circle Line from 1960-1970s
6,300 25 Hz   Germany Hamburg Hamburg S-Bahn Operated with AC 1907–1955. Used both AC and DC (1,200 V 3rd rail) 1940–1955.
6,500 25 Hz   Austria Sankt Pölten Mariazellerbahn  
6,600   Norway Orkdal Thamshavnbanen  
6,600 50 Hz   Germany Cologne Lowland Hambachbahn and Nord-Süd-Bahn transports lignite from open-pit mines to powerplants. Owned by RWE.
6,700 25 Hz   United Kingdom Morecambe branch line Lancaster to Heysham 1908–1951
Converted to 25 kV 50 Hz as a test bed for the future main line electrification system
South London line London Victoria station to London Bridge station 1909–1928
Converted to 660 V (later 750 V) DC third-rail supply
8 kV 25 Hz   Germany Karlsruhe Alb Valley Railway 1911–1966, today using 750 V DC
10 kV   Netherlands The Hague - Rotterdam Hofpleinlijn from 1908, in 1926 converted to 1,500 DC, In 2006 replaced by 750 V DC light rail
10 kV 50 Hz   Russia industrial railways at quarries Russian Railways operated from 1950s at coal and ore quarries
  Ukraine Ukrainian Railways
  Kazakhstan some private industrial railways in Kazakhstan
11 kV 16 23 Hz   Switzerland Graubünden Rhätische Bahn (RhB) Except the Bernina line, which is electrified at 1,000 V DC
  Matterhorn-Gotthard-Bahn (MGB) formerly Furka Oberalp Bahn (FO) and BVZ Zermatt-Bahn
50 Hz   France Saint-Gervais-les-Bains Mont Blanc Tramway  
11 kV 25 Hz   United States   Pennsylvania Railroad
All lines now 12 kV 25 Hz or 12.5 kV 60 Hz
See Railroad electrification in the United States
  United States Washington Cascade Tunnel Converted from three-phase 6600 V 25 Hz in 1927, dismantled 1956
  United States Colorado Denver and Intermountain Railroad dismantled c. 1953[31]
12 kV 16 23 Hz   France lines in Pyrenees Chemin de fer du Midi most converted to 1,500 V 1922–23; Villefranche-Perpignan diesel 1971, then 1,500 V 1984
12 kV 25 Hz   United States Washington, DC - New York City Northeast Corridor (NEC), Amtrak 11 kV until 1978
Harrisburg, PA to Philadelphia, PA Keystone Corridor, Amtrak 11 kV until 1978
Philadelphia SEPTA Regional Rail system only; 11 kV until 1978
12 kV 25 Hz   United States Rahway to Aberdeen-Matawan, New Jersey North Jersey Coast Line, New Jersey Transit 1978-2002 (11 kV until 1978). Converted to 25 kV 60 Hz
12.5 kV 60 Hz   United States Pelham, NY-New Haven, CT New Haven Line, Metro-North Railroad, Amtrak 11 kV until 1985
16 kV 50 Hz   Hungary Budapest–Hegyeshalom railway Budapest to Hegyeshalom Kandó system 1931–1972, converted to 25 kV 50 Hz
20 kV 50 Hz   Germany Freiburg Höllentalbahn Operated 1933–1960. Converted to 15 kV ​16 23 Hz.
  France Aix-les-BainsLa Roche-sur-Foron Société Nationale des Chemins de fer (SNCF) Operated 1950–1953. Converted to 25 kV 50 Hz.
20 kV 50 Hz   Japan most electrified JR/the third sector lines in Hokkaidō and Tōhoku JR East, JR Hokkaidō, and others  
60 Hz most electrified JR/the third sector lines in Kyūshū and Hokuriku region JR Kyūshū and others  
50 kV 50 Hz   South Africa Northern Cape, Western Cape Sishen–Saldanha railway line opened in 1976 and hauls iron ore
60 Hz   Canada British Columbia Tumbler Ridge Subdivision of BC Rail (Now Canadian National Railway) Opened in 1983 to serve a coal mine in the northern Rocky Mountains. No longer in use.
60 Hz   United States Arizona Black Mesa and Lake Powell Railroad First line to use 50 kV electrification when it opened in 1973. This was an isolated coal-hauling short line; no longer in use.
60 Hz   United States Utah Deseret Power Railroad Formerly Deseret Western Railway. This is an isolated coal-hauling short line.

Three-phase AC voltageEdit

Two wiresEdit
Voltage Current Country Location Name of system Notes
725 50 Hz,   Switzerland ZermattGornergrat, canton of Valais Gornergratbahn
750 40 Hz, 3Ø BurgdorfThun Burgdorf-Thun Bahn Operated 1899–1933
converted to 15 kV ​16 23 Hz in 1933
800 60 Hz, 3Ø   Brazil Rio de Janeiro Corcovado Rack Railway  
1125 50 Hz, 3Ø   Switzerland Interlaken Jungfraubahn
3600 15 Hz, 3Ø   Italy Northern Italy Valtellina Electrification 1902–1917
50 Hz, 3Ø   France Saint-Jean-de-Luz to Larrun Chemin de Fer de la Rhune  
3600 16 Hz, 3Ø   Switzerland,   Italy Simplon Tunnel   1906–1930
3600 16 23 Hz, 3Ø   Italy     operated 1912–1976 in Upper Italy (more info needed)
Porrettana railway FS 1927–1935
3600 16 23 Hz, 3Ø   Italy Trento/Trient to Brenner Brenner Railway 1929 - 1965
5200 25 Hz, 3Ø   Spain AlmeriaGergal   1911–1966?
6600 25 Hz, 3Ø   United States Cascade Tunnel Great Northern Railway (U.S.) 1909 - 1929
10 kV 45 Hz, 3Ø   Italy Roma - Sulmona FS 1929–1944[32]
Three wiresEdit
Voltage Current Country Location Name of system Notes
3000 V 50 Hz   Germany Kierberg Zahnradbahn Tagebau Gruhlwerk rack railway (0.7 km)
operated 1927–1949
10000 V 50 Hz Berlin-Lichterfelde (de)   test track (1.8 km);
variable voltage and frequency;
trial runs 1898–1901
14 kV
(See notes)
38 Hz - 48 Hz
(See notes)
Zossen - Marienfelde   test track (23.4 km);
trial runs 1901–1904

variable voltage between 10 kV and 14 kV and frequency between 38 Hz and 48 Hz.

50 Hz   Russia Ship elevator of Krasnoyarsk Reservoir   length: 1.5 km, 9000 mm gauge

Conductor rail systems (all DC voltage)Edit

Conductor rail systems have been separated into tables based on whether they are top, side or bottom contact.

Top contact systemsEdit

Voltage Type Country Location Name of system Notes
50 See notes   United Kingdom Brighton Volk's Electric Railway Volk's Railway prior to 1884
(current fed through running rails)
110 third rail Claims to be the world's oldest operational electric railway
160 Volk's Railway between 1884 and 1980s
100 fourth rail Beaulieu Monorail at National Motor Museum current fed by 2 contact wires
180 See notes   Germany Berlin-Lichterfelde Siemens streetcar Current fed through the running rails
Operated 1881–1891
200 third rail   United Kingdom Southend Southend Pier Railway Until 1902[33]
250 Hythe, Hampshire Hythe Pier Railway  
  USA Chicago, Illinois Chicago Tunnel Company Morgan Rack

1904, revenue service 1906–1908

300   Georgia New Athos Cave Railway
400   Germany Berchtesgaden Berchtesgaden Salt Mine Railway
440   United Kingdom London Post Office Railway Disused by post office since 2003[34] Now small section near Mount Pleasant operated as tourist attraction with battery powered stock[35]

150 V was used in station areas to limit train speed

550   Argentina Buenos Aires Buenos Aires Metro (Subterráneos de Buenos Aires) Only Line B
630   United Kingdom Isle of Wight Island Line  
630 4th rail London London Underground (LUL) Supplied at +420 V and -210 V (630 V total); It is proposed to increase the voltage to 750 V (+500 V and -250 V)[36]
650 See notes London Euston to Watford DC Line Third rail with fourth rail bonded to running rail

To enable London Underground trains to operate between Queens Park and Harrow & Wealdstone. Similar bonding arrangements are used on the North London Line between Richmond and Gunnersbury and South West Trains Putney Bridge to Wimbledon.

660 third rail   Southern Railway & LSWR some areas up to 1939, original standard, mostly upgraded to 750 V (except for sections that operate with LUL stock).
700   USA Baltimore, Maryland Baltimore Metro SubwayLink
800  Germany Berlin Berlin S-Bahn discontinued, today 750 V
825  North Korea Pyongyang Pyongyang Metro uses old 750 V Berlin U-Bahn rolling stock
1000   USA San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit [37]
1500   France Chambéry - Modane Culoz–Modane railway used between 1925 and 1976, today overhead wire

Side contact systemsEdit

Voltage Type Country Location Name of system Notes
850 third rail   France Martigny Ligne de Saint Gervais - Vallorcine
1200 third rail  United Kingdom Manchester Manchester-Bury Dismantled 1991, converted to Manchester Metrolink tramway (750 V DC overhead)
1200 third rail   Germany Hamburg Hamburg S-Bahn Since 1940. Used both third rail DC (1200 V) and overhead line AC (6300 V 25 Hz) until 1955. Also uses German standard 15 kV, 16 2/3 Hz overhead electrification on the section between Neugraben and Stade on line S3, opened in December 2007.

Bottom contact systemsEdit

Voltage Type Country Location Name of system Notes
650 third rail   Canada Vancouver SkyTrain Expo Line (1985) and Millennium Line (2006)
700 third rail   United States New York Metro-North Railroad Hudson and Harlem Lines, southern part of New Haven Line. Original New York Central Railroad electrification scheme to Grand Central Terminal.
Philadelphia Market-Frankford Line Originally 600 V, raised to 700 V
825 third rail   Bulgaria Sofia Sofia Metro Lines 1 and 2
  Russia Moscow Moscow Metro Nominal voltage: 825 V; allowed range: 550 V - 975 V[38]
Saint Petersburg Saint Petersburg Metro
Novosibirsk Novosibirsk Metro
Nizhny Novgorod Nizhny Novgorod Metro
Samara Samara Metro
Yekaterinburg Yekaterinburg Metro
Kazan Kazan Metro
  Ukraine Kyiv Kyiv Metro FSU underground systems share the same standard[39]
Kharkiv Kharkiv Metro
Dnipro Dnipro Metro
830 third rail   Argentina Buenos Aires Mitre Line Retiro - José León Suárez
Retiro - Bartolomé Mitre
Retiro - Tigre
Once - Moreno Sarmiento Line
850 third rail   France Villefranche Ligne de Cerdagne Often referred to as the "Yellow Train"
  Austria Vienna Wiener Lokalbahn  
900 third rail   Belgium Brussels Brussels Metro
1500 third rail   China Beijing Beijing Subway Line 7 only
Guangzhou Guangzhou Metro Lines 4, 5, 6, 14 and 21 only. Overhead wires in depots; all trains are equipped with pantographs
Kunming Kunming Metro Line 4 only
Qingdao Qingdao Metro
Shanghai Shanghai Metro Lines 16 and 17 only. Overhead wires in depot of Line 16, all trains on Line 16 have pantographs for depot use.
Shenzhen Shenzhen Metro Lines 3 and 6 only. Overhead wires in depot of Line 6, all trains on Line 6 have pantographs for depot use.
Wuhan Wuhan Metro Lines 7, 8, 11 and Yangluo Line only
Wuxi Wuxi Metro

Special or unusual typesEdit

DC, plough collection from conductors in conduit below trackEdit

DC, one ground-level conductorEdit

  • Wolverhampton Corporation Tramways, England (stud contact) (1902–1921)
  • Bordeaux Tramway, France (conductor rail)
  • Sydney Light Rail (tramway)(Under construction)

DC, two-wireEdit

DC, power from running railsEdit

DC, four-railEdit

Voltage Type Contact system Name of system Location Country Notes
750 guide bars lateral to both guide bars (one guide connected to running rail) Paris Metro Paris France rubber-tyred lines only
Lateral (positive) and top of running rails (negative) contact Montreal Metro Montreal Canada rubber-tyred lines
Mexico City Metro Mexico City Mexico rubber-tyred lines
Third and fourth rail lateral (positive) and top (negative) contact Milan Transportation System Milan Italy metro (only line 1)
Top contact London Underground London UK Transport for London[40]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ BS EN 50163 (2007).
  2. ^ IEC 60850 (2007).
  3. ^ Sóller Website
  4. ^ Schweers+Wall (2012), p. 11.
  5. ^ Schweers+Wall (2012), p. 19.
  6. ^ "Bahn S4/S10" [Railway S4/S10] (in German). SZU. Retrieved 2011-09-01.
  7. ^ Barrow, Keith (14 March 2014). "Cairo to order new trains for metro Line 1". International Railway Journal. Simmons-Boardman Publishing Inc. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
  8. ^ "Cairo Metro Tender for New Rolling Stock". MENA RAIL POST. MENA RAIL POST. 16 March 2014. Archived from the original on 23 January 2015. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
  9. ^ Boddy et al. (1990), p. 139.
  10. ^ Swain (1990), p. 19.
  11. ^ Boddy et al. (1990), p. 135.
  12. ^ Dixon (1994), p. 119.
  13. ^ Boddy et al. (1990), p.101 & p.142
  14. ^ Boddy et al. (1990), p. 92–93.
  15. ^ Michał Szymajda (17 January 2020). "Szybka linia kolejowa „Y" przez CPK ma być gotowa do 2030 roku" [High-speed 'Y' railway line through CPK should be completed by 2030]. Rynek Lotniczy (in Polish). Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  16. ^ Railway Gazette International April 2008, p 240
  17. ^ Electrified D. L. & W. Time magazine archives Retrieved 2007-08-12
  18. ^ "Western Railway sets stage for AC system - Times of India". Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  19. ^ "From May 5, faster Central Railway with AC power - Times of India". Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  20. ^ "Soon, faster trains on Kalyan-LTT route - Times of India". Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  21. ^ "Central Railway plans DC/AC switch in May - Times of India". Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  22. ^ "Israel Railways awards USD 500m electrification contract to Spanish SEMI". Think Railways. Retrieved 17 January 2016.
  23. ^ "Africa's first high speed line inaugurated". Railway Gazette. 16 November 2018. Retrieved 14 December 2018.
  24. ^
  25. ^ "Espacio del Viajero: Conoce los Trenes" (in Spanish). Mexico City: Ferrocarriles Suburbanos. Retrieved 24 May 2011. Alimentación (Vcc. catenaria): 25000, 60 Hz
  26. ^ "TXU - Monticello Line". 1999-11-02. Retrieved 2013-04-22.
  27. ^ "Railway Technical Info - Hungary". Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  28. ^ Schweers+Wall (2012), p. 66.
  29. ^ a b
  30. ^ "ERS - Presentation, La Mure". Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  31. ^ "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form" (PDF). National Park Service. Retrieved 22 September 2020.
  32. ^ Cacozza, Marco (August 2016). "Three-Phase Electrification: An Italian Story". Today's Railways Europe #248. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  33. ^ "Southend Pier Railway".
  34. ^ Karslake, Colin. "Unofficial MailRail Website - Home". Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  35. ^
  36. ^ London Underground (October 2014), New Tube for London - Feasibility Report (PDF), p. 26
  37. ^ "BART System Facts". San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District. Retrieved 2014-02-05.
  38. ^ "Rules of technical operation of undergrounds of the Russian Federation (Правила технической эксплуатации метрополитенов Российской Федерации)" (PDF) (in Russian). International Metro Association. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-10-10. Retrieved 2017-11-30.
  39. ^ "Structures, devices and rolling stock of underground (Сооружения, устройства и подвижной состав метрополитена)" (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2017-09-19. Retrieved 2017-11-30.
  40. ^ "Tube | Transport for London". Retrieved 2013-04-22.


External linksEdit