Kereta Api Indonesia

PT Kereta Api Indonesia (Persero) (English: Indonesian Railways Company, abbreviated as PT KAI or simply KAI) is the sole operator of public railways in Indonesia. It is completely state-owned and pays track access charges to the government. The headquarters of KAI are located in Bandung, West Java.

PT Kereta Api Indonesia (Persero)
FormerlyIndonesian State Railways (DKA/PNKA/PJKA) (1945–1991)
Indonesian Railway Public Corporation (Perumka) (1991–1998)
TypeState-owned perseroan terbatas
IDXKAII (bonds)
Key people
RevenueIncrease Rp 17.9 trillion (2017)[1]
Increase Rp 1.72 trillion (2017)[1]
Total assetsIncrease Rp 33.5 trillion (2017)[1]
OwnerGovernment of Indonesia
Number of employees
27,396 (2017)[1]
SubsidiariesKAI Commuter
KAI Bandara [id]
KAI Logistik [id]
KAI Wisata [id]
KAI Properti
KAI Services [id] Edit this on Wikidata
Kereta Api Indonesia
Logo PT Kereta Api Indonesia (Persero) 2020.svg
Java Transportation Network.svg
Map of railway lines in Java.
Kereta api Serayu dengan Logo KAI Terbaru.jpg
Fleet size
  • 420 locomotives
  • 578 electric multiple units (by KCI)
  • 121 diesel multiple units
  • 1,607 passenger coaches
  • 6,782 freight cars[2]
HeadquartersBandung, Indonesia
LocaleJava, Aceh, North Sumatra, West Sumatra, South Sumatra, and Lampung (current operation); All of Indonesia (future operation)
Dates of operation1945–present
PredecessorSee: List of railway companies in the Dutch East Indies
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) (Standard gauge) (for Aceh, Trans Sulawesi, LRT Jabodebek).
1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in) (Cape gauge)
Previous gauge750 mm (2 ft 5+12 in) (Aceh tramway gauge)[3]
600 mm (1 ft 11+58 in) (tramway gauge)[3]
Electrification1500 V DC overhead wiring for KCI operation
750 V DC third rail for Palembang LRT operation[4]
Length5,042 kilometres (3,133 mi)
Highest elevation1,246 m (4,088 ft) (Cikajang railway station)[5]


Logo PT Kereta Api Indonesia (Persero) used until 28 September 2020 (still seen in some locations)

Kereta Api Indonesia is the latest of a long line of successive state railway companies dating from Dutch colonial days.

Indonesia gained independence in 1945-1953, the separate systems (except the Deli Railway Company) were combined into the Djawatan Kereta Api Republik Indonesia (DKARI, Railways Service of the Republic of Indonesia). Non-state railway systems in Java retained their paper existence until 1958, when all railway lines in Indonesia were nationalised, including the Deli Railway Company, thereby creating the Perusahaan Negara Kereta Api (PNKA, the Railways State Corporation) on 25 May 1963.[6][7] On 15 September 1971 the name of PNKA was changed to Perusahaan Jawatan Kereta Api (PJKA, the Railways Service Corporation).[8] Later then, on 2 January 1991, PJKA was changed its name and status as Perusahaan Umum Kereta Api (Perumka, the Railways Public Corporation),[9][10] and as of 1 June 1999 was converted into a joint-stock company as PT Kereta Api (Persero) (PT KA).[11] On May 2010, its name was changed into PT Kereta Api Indonesia (Persero) (PT KAI) until the present day.[12]

In 2019, KAI carried 429 million passengers and 47.2 million tonnes of cargo.[13]

KAI has conducted some export operations with narrow gauge-type trains exported Australia, Malaysia, and Thailand (freight wagons), Bangladesh (passenger wagons) and locomotives and DMUs to the Philippines.[14]


In order to value assets belong to KAI (not the government), internal revaluation of assets has been done by the Ministry of Transportation. The company own Rp.35 trillion ($4.1 billion) as land and Rp.22 trillion ($2.6 billion) as other assets (bridges, signals, etc.). The exact value was to be determined by the end of 2011 or 2012, based on an audit by the Ministry of Finance.


The company currently operates two types of railways, i.e. Cape gauge (1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in)) and standard gauge (1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in)). The 1,067 mm gauge is most common in Java and all regional divisions of Sumatra, while the currently operated Aceh railway uses 1,435 mm gauge. Historically, the company had operated 600 mm gauge and 750 mm gauge for some tramway lines.[3]

The total number of trackage laid in Indonesia was 7,583 kilometres (4,712 mi), although not all lines were in operation at the same time. In 1939, the total operational trackage was 4,588 kilometres (2,851 mi) (It is unclear whether dual gauge tracks were counted once or twice). The present extent of the system is now 5,042 kilometres (3,133 mi) as of 2019, with the Aceh system, most of the West Sumatra system and most former steam tram lines abandoned, but including new tracks built alongside old tracks (double tracking projects).

Much of the branch lines constructed in the colonial era has been lifted up or abandoned in the 1980s. No major railway construction has since taken place, however, many of the busiest lines have been double tracked. The northern coast area of Java would be double tracked in May 2014 after completion of 68 kilometres Babat-Kandangan-Pasar Turi double trackage from 727 kilometres of Jakarta-Surabaya double tracked,[15] followed by the proposed completion of a 1,000 kilometres (620 mi) double tracking project on the south coast by 2015.[16][17] On 8 June 2015 Duri-Tangerang double tracks is formally used for KA Commuter Jabodetabek, but it can be also used for airport trains.[18]

Significant projects being considered include:

  • Quadrapling Manggarai-Cikarang line. The project will be divided into 2 segments: Manggarai-Bekasi, 15 kilometres long and scheduled to be finished in 2016 and Bekasi-Cikarang, 17 kilometres long scheduled to be finished in 2017[19]
  • Airport line to the Sukarno-Hatta International Airport. A 33 kilometers line from Manggarai, Dukuh Atas in Sudirman, Tanah Abang, Angke, Pluit and inline with airport toll road to the Airport. The cost will be $1.13 billion start at 2012 and complete at 2014; though the completion of the railway had been delayed to 2017, when the train also commenced operation.
  • Rebuilding of the Aceh railway, with assistance from the French railway company SNCF.
  • Building new 15-kilometres-long track between Cibungur and Tanjungrasa station. This shortcut will make trains from Bandung to Semarang do not need to go through Cikampek station.[20]

Future expansion plans of the railway will include linking of existing railway lines in Sumatra from Aceh to Lampung via both west and east coasts of the island. Railway lines are also planned to be built on the currently railway-free islands of Kalimantan[21] and Sulawesi.[22] A Memorandum of Understanding has been signed to build railway around Bali with length of 565 kilometers.[23] Nowadays, the first trackage of the Trans-Sulawesi Railway with a length of 143 kilometres from Makassar to Pare-pare has been initialised with 30 kilometres of land acquisitions and initial construction will be built in June 2015, then 70 kilometres in 2016 and the rest 43 kilometres in 2017. The train is predicted to run in 2018 with trackage wider than in Java to accommodate more weight and speed. The schedule for Pare-pare to Manado trackage will be completed in 5 years after it.[24]

There are also plans to reactivate non-operational railway lines in West Java, such as Bandung-Ciwidey line, intended to ease road traffic congestion; and Rancaekek-Tanjung Sari line. 4 other non-operational lines are still in consideration.[25]

Kedungjati-Tuntang trackage as a part of Semarang-Ambarawa reactivated trackage is the only track in Indonesia without road crossing. It has 8 fly overs or underpasses to make more safety in congested traffic roads, now still underconstruction.[26]

Rolling stockEdit

As of 2016, KAI operates:

The company is a major customer of the local railway equipment industry, PT Industri Kereta Api, by using passenger coaches, freight wagons and electric multiple units made by the Madiun-based company.

KAIs' diesel-electric locomotives are mostly made in United States or Canada, while the diesel-hydraulics are mostly German. Electric multiple units are mostly Japanese-built. Local industry is capable of building multiple units, both diesel and electric.


All locomotives of the KAI (with the exception of Steam locomotives for railway tours in Ambarawa) are diesel-engined. Most new locomotives use diesel-electric transmission, while older and lighter ones have hydraulic transmission. A more than 400 locomotives (see below) are in the books, but the actual number of operational locomotives is smaller. A current source mentioned that the company have had 409 units of diesel locomotives. The oldest diesel locomotive in the system dates from 1953.

Based on Minister of Transportation's Regulation No. 45 of 2010, all of locomotives using a combination of letters and numbers. A letter or a combination of letters is used to denote the wheel arrangement (currently there are C, D, BB and CC types), and a three-digit number is used to denote the class (2xx for classes with electric transmission and 3xx for classes with hydraulic or mechanical transmission), starting from 0. A two-digit number shows the year of operations, and two- or three-digit after the year shows the running number.


  • CC 206 13 31: The 7th generation of diesel-electric Co'Co' locomotives, has operated since 2013, and have a running number 31.
  • CC 201 77 01R: The 2nd generation of diesel-electric Co'Co' locomotives, has operated since 1977, and have a running number 01 and has been repowered.
  • BB 304 84 07R: The 5th generation of diesel-hydraulic B'B' locomotives, has operated since 1984, and have a running number 07 and has been repowered.

The steam locomotive classification was directly derived from Japanese practice. Tank locomotives were numbered from the 10s, while tender locomotives from the 50s. Letter combinations were used for articulated locomotives (in the case of Indonesia these were Mallets).

Electric locomotives in Indonesia had always been a minority, and no new electric locomotives had been acquired in the last 70 years. However, electric multiple units have been imported from Japan and elsewhere since 1976. These are operated by the Jabotabek commuter urban transport division of the KAI, which has been spun off in August 2008.

May 2011: After changing the rail between Purwosari station and Wonogiri station and also the bridges with R42 (37 kilometres), so line between Sangkrah station, Solo and Wonogiri will be served by heavy electric diesel locomotives.[28]

KAI diesel locomotive classes

Named passenger trainsEdit

KAI runs to classes of named passenger trains on Java, Executive class (class 1) and Business class (class 2), and Economy class (class 3).

Exclusive wagonEdit

Exclusive wagon is luxury wagon which a whole wagon should be rented for a certain route, because the luxury wagon should be attached to the regular train. Exclusive wagon is called as kereta wisata (tourist wagon), Main users of this exclusive cars are the president, vice-president, a group of a company for meeting, big extended family, and group of artists or tourists. The rent fee of a wagon is about Rp 15,000,000 for short trip as Jakarta-Bandung or Jakarta-Cirebon and up to Rp 27,000,000 for trip of Jakarta-Surabaya. All wagons can accommodate 22 passengers, and only 19 passengers for Nusantara wagon with a queen bed. Snacks, meals and drinks are provided for free.[29] And advanced booking with payment should be done due to big animo of the exclusive wagons.

Disability wagonsEdit

On 18 October 2014, KAI launched Jayabaya train with route Pasar Senen-Surabaya-Malang vice versa (north route on all double track) with 2 disability wagons include toilets for disability persons, wide doors and spacious area for wheel chairs. It will be implemented to other train gradually.[30][31]


To anticipate steady number of passengers, KAI has boosted cargo deliveries. At 3 May 2011 the company has tried the line from Cikarang Dry Port to Surabaya vice versa.

KAI and Danone Indonesia has made an agreement to carry Danone's water in 2013 to Jakarta. KAI will replace the track from R33 to R54 between Cicurug and Sukabumi with length 20 kilometres and spends Rp2 trillion ($222 million). One cargo train can replace 40 to 60 trucks.[32] In addition, the company also serves trains of coal in South Sumatera.

The government has appointed KAI to connect Cikarang Dry Port and Tanjung Priok Port to ease heavy traffic jam between two locations. The construction will be initialised in early 2015. Trucks and flatbeds can only run 1.5 trip per day, while a train can carry 40 TEUs (Twenty-foot Equivalent Units) per trip.[33]

Library wagonEdit

To popularise more about the business, KAI will launch Library Wagon (Kereta Pustaka Indonesia) which will display documented company activities, small size assets and books. The library wagon will make exhibition for a week in one station and then move to other station.[34]

Depot and facilitiesEdit

In front of KAI Locomotives and Rolling Stocks Workshop in Yogyakarta.

In Java, KAI has its main diesel workshop in Pengok, Special Region of Yogyakarta for maintenance of both diesel electric and diesel hydraulic locomotives. The separate systems in Sumatra has their shops in Lahat Regency (South Sumatra), Padang (West Sumatra) and Pulubrayan (North Sumatra).

Other maintenance facilities are present in Manggarai (Jakarta), Tegal (Central Java) and Gubeng (Surabaya, East Java). These are used to repair coaches and wagons.

A large stabling point and maintenance facilities for electric rail cars has been constructed in Depok, West Java.

Motive power depots are located in Medan, Tebing Tinggi, Padang, Padang Panjang, Kertapati, Tanjungkarang, Rangkasbitung, Tanahabang (Jakarta), Cipinang (Jakarta), Bandung, Banjar, Cibatu, Cirebon, Purwokerto, Cilacap, Kutoarjo, Semarang Poncol, Yogyakarta, Solo Balapan, Cepu, Madiun, Sidotopo (Surabaya), and Jember.

Large area in front of Purwakarta station (formerly a motive power depot) has been used for scrapping area of the unused economy class electric multiple units since 2013, where the non-air-conditioned electrical multiple units had not in service.

Safety and SecurityEdit

Polsuska (Indonesian: Polisi Khusus Kereta Api or Railroad Special Police) is a law enforcement unit under the auspices of the KAI. Polsuska in its role as a special railroad police is tasked to: apply sanctions in accordance with legislation and implement security, prevention of crime, and prevent non-justice actions within the scope of the Indonesian railways as a partner of the national police. Polsuska has the responsibilities relating to law and order including security of railway stations and train users.[35] Polsuska officers wear black as their uniform and wear orange berets pulled to the left. Polsuska is trained by but not part of the Indonesian National Police. Polsuska is under the command of the Indonesian Railway Company's Directorate of Safety and Security.[citation needed]

The Commuter Lines which serve Greater Jakarta maintains its own security force which are categorized as security guards. Their service uniform are in dark-blue and wear white helmets (or peaked caps) and are known as (Petugas Keamanan Dalam/PKD). These are not part of Polsuska.[citation needed]

Every railway station in Indonesia also operates several security guards to assist Polsuska in the field of law and order including security. During peak seasons such as during the last days of Ramadan and other national holidays, Polsuska may be assisted by members from the armed forces and police to provide additional security presence within the KAI system.[citation needed]


Railway operations in Indonesia was formerly regulated by the Act No. 13 of 1992 on Railways. This legislation stated that the government operates railways (arts. 4 and 6), delegates operations to an operating body [then the Perumka, and later PT Kereta Api] (art. 6) and provides and maintains railway infrastructure (art. 8). Private companies are allowed to co-operate in operation of railways (art. 6).

From 25 April 2007, the new regulation, Act No. 23 of 2007[36] is in effect. There are some changes in railway operators. In this law, track maintenance is handed over to the government (via Directorate General of Railways, Ministry of Transportation). This is expected to improve the railway's position vis-à-vis other transportation modes.

The People's Representative Council has finished an amendment to the current legislation, which is to allow greater role for private companies and regional governments in providing railway services. However, as yet there are no private operators of railway services.

Joint operationEdit

In December 2011, a memorandum of understanding has been signed between KAI and Bombardier Transportation AG related with final assembly of diesel-electric TRAXX Asia Locomotives in Surabaya, East Java begins in early 2012 for Southeast Asia market, including for Indonesian Railways itself.[37]

In early March 2012, KAI and GE Transportation have announced the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding about services and co-operation. All services will be done in Indonesia by Indonesian workers and makes traction motor remanufacturing center to serve all ASEAN countries.[38]

Heritage sitesEdit

In 2012, Indonesian Railways allocated Rp20 billion ($2.2 million) to restore and renovate 20 heritage sites from at least 260 (680 in the future) heritage sites and historical railways on the islands of Java and Sumatra. One of them is Lawang Sewu in Semarang which attracted many tourists which got Rp.1.5 billion ($0.17 million) from tickets revenue per year.[39][40]


The Railway Employee Welfare Center Foundation (Yayasan Pusaka), one of PNKA's foundations, established a company called PT Karya Pusaka which was founded on 5 December 1967 and changed its name to PT Pusaka Nusantara on 18 April 1970. Pusaka focuses on restoration companies, outsourcing, and cleanliness of train infrastructure and facilities.[41]

The first subsidiary of PT Kereta Api after its conversion to Persero is Reska Multi Usaha [id]. This company focuses on multi-business services to support railroad operations, such as restoration, parking, cleanliness on the train, restaurant and cafe, train washing, and comfort support. The company was formed on 2 July 2003. [42] Reska is also the owner of the trademark Loko, a restaurant chain with the theme of rail transportation which has opened many outlets around the station.[43]

On 12 August 2008, PT Kereta Api separated its Jabotabek Urban Transport Division, which managing electrified commuter service in Jakarta metropolitan area (currently KRL Commuterline) into a subsidiary under the name PT KAI Commuter Jabodetabek (KCJ).[citation needed] In connection with the expansion plan, PT KCJ officially changed its name to PT Kereta Commuter Indonesia (KCI) as of 20 September 2017. Thus, commuter train services will no longer only focus on the Jabodetabek area.[44]

On 8 September 2009, three subsidiary companies were formed: Kereta Api Pariwisata (branded as KA Wisata, formerly IndoRailTour) rail tourism services, the KA Properti Manajemen (KAPM) property management, and Kereta Api Logistik (Kalog) logistics company. [42] KAI also formed a joint venture with Angkasa Pura II to operate airport train service, which then given the name Railink [id]. Railink was founded on 28 September 2006, [45] but has only started operations since 2013 by launching Kualanamu Airport Rail Link train.[46] PT KAI also formed a consortium with Wijaya Karya [id] (Wika), Perkebunan Nusantara VIII [id] (PTPN VIII), and Jasa Marga, under the name Pilar Sinergi BUMN Indonesia for the Jakarta–Bandung high-speed train project operated by Indonesian – China High Speed Rail [id] (KCIC).[47]

Pursuant to Indonesia's "two shareholder minimum" on limited companies, Yayasan Pusaka owns less than one percent of shares in all of KAI's consolidated subsidiaries except KAI Bandara and PSBI/KCIC.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b c d "Annual Report" (PDF). Indonesia Railway Company. Retrieved 31 July 2018.
  2. ^[dead link]
  3. ^ a b c Nasir, Muhammad; Azril, Andi (28 June 2003). "Pembangunan Rel KA Langkat-Banda Aceh Terbengkalai". (in Indonesian). Retrieved 10 June 2020.
  4. ^ Putra, Aji YK (12 April 2018). "Ini Perbedaan LRT di Palembang dan Jakarta". KOMPAS (in Indonesian). Retrieved 14 August 2018.
  5. ^ "Mempercantik Kembali Sinyal Stasiun Cikajang-Garut" (in Indonesian). 11 May 2017. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
  6. ^ 1963 Indonesian Government's Regulation No. 22
  7. ^ Harinowo, C.; Purwita, T.; Wibowo; Wiko, G.; Primiana, I.; Sutaryono, P.; Augusta, F. (2019). Kebangkitan BUMN Sektor Perhubungan (SC). Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama. p. 9. ISBN 9786020633664.
  8. ^ 1971 Indonesian Government's Regulation No. 61, dated 15 September 1971
  9. ^ 1990 Indonesian Government's Regulation No. 57
  10. ^ "Kereta Api Resmi Jadi Perumka". AB. 3 January 1991.
  11. ^ "Situs Resmi Keterbukaan Informasi Publik | PT Kereta Api Indonesia (Persero)". (in Indonesian). Retrieved 27 March 2018. KAI didirikan sesuai dengan akta tanggal 1 Juni 1999 No. 2 yang dibuat dihadapan Imas Fatimah, S.H., Sp.N., Notaris di Jakarta, dan kemudian diperbaiki kembali sesuai dengan akta tanggal 13 September 1999 No. 14. ("KAI was incorporated by a deed of 1 June 1999 Nr. 2 executed before Imas Fatimah, LLB, Specialist of Notaries, Civil Law Notary in Jakarta, which is then amended by a deed dated 13 September 1999 Nr. 14.")
  12. ^ 2010 The Indonesian Railways Directors' Decree No. 16/OT.203/KA 2010
  13. ^ "KAI: 2019, Jumlah Penumpang Kereta Naik 4 Juta". Tempo (in Indonesian). 10 February 2020. Retrieved 17 December 2021.
  14. ^ "Indonesia's Burgeoning Railway Diplomacy".
  15. ^ Asep Munazat Zatnika (25 April 2014). "KA Jalur Ganda Pantura Beroperasi Penuh Akhir Mei".
  16. ^ "Rp 6t railway project to boost train capacity, economic expansion". 16 September 2011.
  17. ^ Ainur Rohmah (14 March 2014). "Double track railway expected to be launched in April".
  18. ^ Max Aging Pribadi (6 July 2015). "Dirjen KA Resmikan Pengoperasian Jalur Ganda Duri-Tangerang".
  19. ^ Willy Widianto (23 June 2014). "Hore ! Stasiun Matraman akan Dibangun untuk Pengguna KRL Commuter Line".
  20. ^ Kamis, 19 Mei 2011 – 14:17 WIB. "Pemotongan Jalur KA di Purwakarta Siap Dilakukan |". Archived from the original on 22 April 2012. Retrieved 15 May 2012.
  21. ^ PEMBANGUNAN KERETA API TRANS BORNEO Archived 12 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  22. ^ Archived from the original on 12 May 2007. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  23. ^ "2015, Bali punya kereta wisata – National Geographic Indonesia". Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 15 May 2012.
  24. ^ Andri Hajramurni (28 April 2015). "Trans-Sulawesi railway project to begin soon, using Chinese tracks".
  25. ^ "PT KA DAOP II Hidupkan lagi Perlintasan Mati". 8 September 2011. Archived from the original on 25 March 2012.
  26. ^ "Jalur KA Kedungjati-Tuntang Tanpa Perlintasan Sebidang Pertama di Indonesia". 8 October 2014.
  27. ^ " - Informasi Kelas Satu". Retrieved 14 April 2018.
  28. ^ "Jalur Solo Wonogiri akan Dilayani Kereta Elektrik". Media Indonesia. Archived from the original on 25 March 2012. Retrieved 15 May 2012.
  29. ^ Dewi Rachmat Kusuma. "Mau Rasakan Sensasi Kereta Mewah PT KAI? Ini Tarifnya". Retrieved 6 December 2013.
  30. ^ Max Agung Pribadi (18 October 2014). "Dua Gerbong KA Jayabaya Untuk Penyandang Cacat".
  31. ^ Indonesian Railways Magazine. November 2014. 100th Edition.
  32. ^ "Beban Jalan Raya Semakin Berat". 12 December 2011.
  33. ^ Nadya Natahadibrata. "KAI agrees to overtake Priok railway". Retrieved 12 July 2014.
  34. ^ PT KAI launches Library Wagon
  35. ^ "Dasar Hukum, Tugas, Fungsi, dan Peran Polisi Khusus Kereta Api (Polsuska)".
  36. ^
  37. ^ "KAI Gandeng Perusahaan Jerman". 25 December 2011. Retrieved 10 December 2020.
  38. ^ "Pusat Perawatan Lokomotif ASEAN Dibangun di Indonesia". 3 March 2012.
  39. ^ "PT KAI to offer 260 heritage sites as tourist attractions". 21 February 2012. Archived from the original on 22 February 2012.
  40. ^ An official site of Heritage Unit of Indonesian Railways Archived 15 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  41. ^ "Brief History - Pusaka Nusantara" (in Indonesian). Retrieved 4 October 2020.
  42. ^ a b Harinowo et al. 2019, p. 14-17.
  43. ^ (5 May 2020). "Serve the Needs #diRumahAja, KAI's Subsidiary Launches the Lokomart Application". (in Indonesian). Retrieved 28 September 2020.
  44. ^ "State-run commuter line operator PT KCJ transforms into PT KCI". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 28 September 2020.
  45. ^ Harinowo et al. 2019, p. 15.
  46. ^ VIVA, PT VIVA MEDIA BARU- (31 January 2013). "This is the First Airport Train in Indonesia". (in Indonesian). Retrieved 28 September 2020.
  47. ^ "Build a Fast Train, a Chinese-BUMN Consortium Formed". Republika Online (in Indonesian). 16 October 2015. Retrieved 28 September 2020.

External linksEdit