Znojmo (Czech pronunciation: [ˈznoimo]; German: Znaim) is a town in the South Moravian Region of the Czech Republic. It has about 33,000 inhabitants. Znojmo is the historical and cultural centre of southwestern Moravia and the second most populated town in the South Moravian Region. The historical centre of Znojmo is well preserved and is protected by law as an urban monument reservation.

Znojmo
View from the south
View from the south
Flag of Znojmo
Coat of arms of Znojmo
Znojmo is located in Czech Republic
Znojmo
Znojmo
Location in the Czech Republic
Coordinates: 48°51′20″N 16°2′56″E / 48.85556°N 16.04889°E / 48.85556; 16.04889Coordinates: 48°51′20″N 16°2′56″E / 48.85556°N 16.04889°E / 48.85556; 16.04889
Country Czech Republic
RegionSouth Moravia
DistrictZnojmo
First mentioned1226
Government
 • MayorJakub Malačka
Area
 • Total65.90 km2 (25.44 sq mi)
Elevation
290 m (950 ft)
Population
 (2022-01-01)[1]
 • Total33,370
 • Density510/km2 (1,300/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
669 02
Websitewww.znojmocity.cz

Administrative partsEdit

Villages of Derflice, Kasárna, Konice, Mramotice, Načeratice, Oblekovice, Popice and Přímětice are administrative parts of Znojmo.

GeographyEdit

 
Znojmo Castle

The town is situated on a rock outcropping on the steep left bank of the Thaya River, about 55 kilometres (34 mi) southwest of the regional capital Brno. Located near the border with Austria, it is connected to Vienna by railway and road.

HistoryEdit

 
Column commemorating the plague

A fortress at the site possibly already existed during the time of the Great Moravian Empire in the 9th century. From about 1055, Znojmo Castle served as the residence of a Přemyslid principality within the Bohemian March of Moravia and a strategically important outpost near the border with the Bavarian March of Austria in the south. In 1101, Luitpold of Znojmo, Duke of Moravia, built the Rotunda of St. Catherine in the castle.[2]

The Znojmo Castle was seized and demolished by Duke Vladislaus II of Bohemia in 1145. In 1190, Duke Conrad II founded the Premonstratensian Louka Abbey at Znojmo, which became the centre for settlement of German-speaking immigrants, as part of the medieval Ostsiedlung movement.[citation needed]

The first written mention of Znojmo is from 1226. The royal town of Znojmo was founded shortly before 1226 by King Ottokar I of Bohemia on the plains in front of the rebuilt castle and was fortified. It was the first royal town on Moravia.[3]

The town survived the Hussite Wars unscathed, and prospered. In the 15th and 16th centuries, networks of burgher houses with a system of underground passages were built as a part of fortifications. The Renaissance and late Gothic houses are preserved to this day. The development ended with the Thirty Years' War. Znojmo was conquered and ransacked repeatedly. It took over a hundred years for the town to recover.[2]

From the 19th century, Znojmo is best known as the site for the Armistice of Znaim concluded there on 12 July 1809 after the Battle of Znaim, following the decisive Battle of Wagram, between Emperor Napoleon and the archduke Charles, which had taken place seven days earlier.

Since the end of World War I, Znojmo was within the newly established state of Czechoslovakia, except for 1938–1945 during the Nazi German occupation when it was included in Reichsgau Niederdonau. The German population of the town were expelled in 1945 under the Beneš decrees.

DemographicsEdit

Historical population
YearPop.±%
186915,606—    
188018,740+20.1%
189021,153+12.9%
190023,316+10.2%
191025,840+10.8%
YearPop.±%
192125,993+0.6%
193030,794+18.5%
195025,146−18.3%
196127,456+9.2%
197029,645+8.0%
YearPop.±%
198034,550+16.5%
199136,134+4.6%
200135,758−1.0%
201134,122−4.6%
202133,736−1.1%
Source: Censuses[4][5]

EconomyEdit

Znojmo is famous for local production of cucumbers, pickled in the original sweet-sour and spicy pickle, whose cultivation in the Znojmo region was introduced in 1571 by the Louka monastery Abbot George II.[6] The special taste is also the result of local type of cucumbers, cultivation method, soil, climatic conditions, processing and also the packaging in which they are kept.

Thanks to the favorable climatic conditions, the town is also successful in winery and fruit growing. It is the centre of viticulture of the Znojmo wine sub-region.[3][6]

TransportEdit

There is a railway station where railway lines divide into three directions: Břeclav, Okříšky, and Retz.

CultureEdit

 
Louka Monastery

Znojmo is known for its Znojmo Vintage Festival which takes place every September. The main attraction of the festival is the historical parade commemorating the visit of King John of Bohemia to Znojmo in 1327.[7]

The annual Cucumber Feast is dedicated to tradition of growing cucumbers in the region.[3][8]

SportEdit

1. SC Znojmo FK is a local football club competing in the Moravian–Silesian Football League (3rd tier of the Czech football league system).

Orli Znojmo is an ice hockey club playing the international ICE Hockey League.

SightsEdit

 
Church of Saint Nicholas

The Gothic Church of St. Nicholas and the late Gothic Town Hall tower are the most recognizable landmarks. The original church was founded in around 1100, and replaced by a new church gradually built from 1338 until the late 15th century.[9] The town hall, with its 80 metres (260 ft) high tower, dates from 1445–1448.[10]

Overlooking the Thaya River valley, on the edge of the medieval city, there is the Znojmo Castle, dating back to 11th century, founded by the Přemyslid dukes.[11] The only remains of the castle used by the Přemysl dukes is the Romanesque Rotunda of Saint Catherine, the interior of which is covered with 11th-century frescoes depicting scenes from the Bible and illustrating the life of Přemysl the Ploughman.[12]

Beneath the grounds of the old town, there is a vast labyrinth of connected passageways and cellars, Znojmo Catacombs, developed in the 14th and 15th centuries for defence purposes, containing wells, drainage, fireplaces, trap doors and escapeways that led beyond the fortifications of the town.[13][14] The catacombs are the largest system of underground corridors and cellars in the Czech Republic – they are almost 27 kilometres (17 mi) long and up to 4 levels deep.[15]

The Church of Saint Michael the Archangel was probably built in the 12th century. It is the second most significant church in the town after Church of Saint Nicholas.[16] The church was first mentioned in 1226 and completely rebuilt in the late Gothic style in 1508. It is considered a monument of national importance.[17]

Notable peopleEdit

Twin towns – sister citiesEdit

Znojmo is twinned with:[18]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Population of Municipalities – 1 January 2022". Czech Statistical Office. 2022-04-29.
  2. ^ a b "Historie a památky" (in Czech). Město Znojmo. Retrieved 2021-11-08.
  3. ^ a b c "Interesting facts". Město Znojmo. Retrieved 2021-11-08.
  4. ^ "Historický lexikon obcí České republiky 1869–2011 – Okres Znojmo" (in Czech). Czech Statistical Office. 2015-12-21. pp. 11–12.
  5. ^ "Population Census 2021: Population by sex". Public Database. Czech Statistical Office. 2021-03-27.
  6. ^ a b "Znojmo" (in Czech). Nadace Partnerství. Retrieved 2021-11-08.
  7. ^ "History of the Grape Harvest". znojemskevinobrani.cz. Retrieved 2021-08-05.
  8. ^ "Slavnosti okurek ve Znojmě 2022" (in Czech). Czech Tourism. Retrieved 2021-11-08.
  9. ^ "Kostel sv. Mikuláše" (in Czech). Město Znojmo. Retrieved 2022-01-09.
  10. ^ "Town-hall tower". Znojemská Beseda. Retrieved 2022-01-09.
  11. ^ "Znojmo Castle". Znojemská Beseda. Retrieved 2017-01-24.
  12. ^ "The Ducal Rotunda of the Virgin Mary and St Catherine". Znojemská Beseda. Retrieved 2017-01-24.
  13. ^ "Underground in Znojmo - Top Výletní cíle jižní Morava". vyletnicile.cz. Retrieved 2017-01-24.
  14. ^ "Underground". Znojemská Beseda. Retrieved 2017-01-24.
  15. ^ "Tip for a Trip: Znojmo". foreigners.cz. Foreigners.cz Blog. 2020-07-28. Retrieved 2020-10-01.
  16. ^ "Chrám sv. Michala" (in Czech). Město Znojmo. Retrieved 2022-01-09.
  17. ^ "Kostel sv. Michala" (in Czech). National Heritage Institute. Retrieved 2022-01-09.
  18. ^ "Partnerská města" (in Czech). Město Znojmo. Retrieved 2020-06-27.

External linksEdit