Réseau express métropolitain

The Réseau express métropolitain (REM; lit.'Metropolitan Express Network') is a light metro rapid transit system in Greater Montreal, Quebec, Canada. It consists of five stations and connects Downtown Montreal with the suburb of Brossard.[5] Extensions to the western Montreal suburbs and Montréal–Trudeau International Airport are under construction and will open in two stages in 2024 and 2027.[6] A portion of the route was taken over from the Exo commuter rail Deux-Montagnes line and is being converted to light metro standards.

Réseau express métropolitain
Overview
OwnerCDPQ Infra
LocaleGreater Montreal
Transit typeLight metro
Number of lines1 (3 branches)
Number of stations5 (+21 under construction)
Daily ridership190,000 (projected)[1]
Websiterem.info/en
Operation
Began operation31 July 2023; 8 months ago (2023-07-31)
Operator(s)SNC-LavalinAlstom
Number of vehicles212 Alstom Metropolis[2]
Train length4 cars
Technical
System length
  • 16.6 km (10.3 mi) (first phase)[3]
  • 67 km (42 mi)[4]
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) standard gauge
ElectrificationOverhead line1,500 V DC
Average speed51 km/h (32 mph)
Top speed100 km/h (62 mph)
System map
Deux-Montagnes
Anse-à-l'Orme
Grand-Moulin
Kirkland
Fairview–Pointe-Claire
Sainte-Dorothée
Des Sources
Île-Bigras
Montréal–Trudeau International Airport
YUL–Montréal–
Trudeau Airport
Marie-Curie
Pierrefonds-Roxboro
Sunnybrooke
Bois-Franc
Du Ruisseau
Montpellier
Côte-de-Liesse
Ville-de-Mont-Royal
Canora
Édouard-Montpetit
McGill
Amtrak
Central
Station
Griffintown–
Bernard-Landry
Île-des-Soeurs
Panama
Du Quartier
Brossard

The 67-kilometre (42 mi) light metro rail system is projected to cost CA$7.95 billion.[7] It is independent of, but connects to and hence complements, the existing Montreal Metro, operated by the STM. Trains on the network are fully automated and driverless,[8] and the stations are completely enclosed and climate controlled, featuring platform screen doors.[9]

The line has been built by CDPQ Infra, part of the Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec, an institutional investor that manages public pension plans and insurance programs in Quebec.

History edit

On 13 January 2015, Quebec premier Philippe Couillard and Michael Sabia, CEO of Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec (CDPQ), agreed to a partnership in which the Crown corporation could assume financing for major transportation projects in the province, with CA$7.4 billion planned to be spent on infrastructure from 2014 to 2024.[10] Two of these projects were the South Shore Line and the Train de l'Ouest toward the West Island, which eventually merged to become the core of the REM project.[11]

On 22 April 2016, Sabia and Montreal Mayor Denis Coderre unveiled the project, then known as the Réseau électrique métropolitain, to the media.[12] The estimated completion date for the first portion of the system was December 2020.[12] On 22 June 2016, CDPQ Infra published two requests for qualification: one for the engineering, procurement and construction contract and the other for the rolling stock, systems, operation, and maintenance. The estimated value of the two contracts are $4 billion and $1.5 billion respectively.[13]

On 25 November 2016, CDPQ Infra announced the addition of three new stations to the project. These new stations—Central Station, McGill, and Édouard-Montpetit—would improve downtown Montreal service by integrating the REM with the Metro system through connections to the Orange, Green and Blue Lines. Included with news of the three new stations was an increased price tag of $5.9 billion for the entire project.[14][15]

On 15 June 2017, the Government of Canada pledged $1.28 billion to finance the project,[16] completing the financing of the project. Construction on the project was announced as starting at the end of 2017.

On 1 December 2017, the CDPQ extended the tender process on the project to the end of January 2018, citing a need for additional discussions with the bidders.[17]

Procurement edit

On 28 June 2016, CDPQ Infra launched two public tenders in parallel: one for "Engineering, Procurement and Construction" (EPC, or "Ingénierie, Approvisionnement et Construction des infrastructures" (IAC) in French), and a second, for "Rolling Stock, Systems and Operation and Maintenance Services" (RSSOM, or "Fourniture du Matériel Roulant, de Systèmes de conduite automatique et de Services d'Exploitation et de Maintenance" (MRSEM) in French).[18][19] Following a prequalification phase, the Caisse's subsidiary announced, on 10 November 2016, the qualified candidates that would be allowed to submit a bid:

According to LaPresse, final bids were submitted to CDPQ Infra on 27 October 2017.[22] On 10 November 2017, the date of the planned announcement of the selected contractors, the procurement process was "postponed indefinitely" to provide more time for analysis and evaluation of the bids received.[23] On 8 February 2018, CDPQ Infra finally announced its selection: Groupe NouvLR consortium for the EPC contract (SNC-Lavalin Grands Projets, Dragados, Aecon, Pomerleau, EBC and AECOM) and the Groupe des Partenaires pour la Mobilité des Montréalais for the RSSOM contract (Alstom and SNC-Lavalin O&M).[21][24] The contracts' value is estimated to be around $6.3 billion, of which approximately 80% is for the EPC contract.[25]

Construction edit

Preparatory work began in late March 2018.[26] On 12 April 2018, the project broke ground officially.[27]

In December 2019, CDPQ revised the capital cost of the project to $6.5 billion, an increase of $230 million.[28][29]

In October 2020, the tunnel boring machine "Alice" (named after Canadian geologist Alice Wilson) started the tunnelling process.[30]

In November 2020, a disruption from an "unexpected" explosion during the renovation of the Mont Royal Tunnel, likely caused by leftover century-old explosives, delayed the opening of the central section of the REM from 2022 to 2023.[31]

In June 2021, CDPQ updated the project costs to $6.9 billion, an increase of $350 million, citing impacts from the COVID-19 pandemic in Montreal.[32][33] In June 2022, CDPQ Infra acknowledged that construction issues with the Mount Royal Tunnel,[34] labour shortages and material supply issues would postpone the opening of most REM stations to 2024. The delay had also resulted in higher costs for the project overall, exceeding the last projected budget estimate of $6.9 billion.[35] No new estimate of the project cost was provided.

Operational history edit

 
Network opening ceremony

The first five stations on the network, between Central Station and Brossard, opened for full service on 31 July 2023.[36][37] An opening ceremony was held on 28 July 2023, with Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, Premier of Quebec François Legault, Mayor of Montreal Valérie Plante, president and CEO of CDPQ Charlies Emond and president and CEO of CDPQ Infra Jean-Marc Arbaud inaugurating the line.[38]

On the weekend of 29 and 30 July 2023, free service was available to the public.[39][40] On the first day of public access, over 20,000 people rode the REM in the morning, prompting staff to turn away new riders.[41]

Within the first three days of revenue operation, the new line suffered a number of service disruptions caused by stuck railway switches and computer issues. A spokesperson remarked that "there's always some adjustments to be made" with a new system on the scale of the REM.[42][43][44][45]

As of 11 September 2023, the system had carried more than 1 million passengers, with daily ridership of more than 30,000 for the month following its opening.[46]

Future sections edit

Further sections of the line are planned to open in stages, with eighteen stations opening in the fourth quarter of 2024.[47] A further extension to Montréal–Trudeau International Airport is planned to open in 2027.[47] At present, the opening date of Griffintown–Bernard-Landry station has not been confirmed.[47]

Route edit

The primary route follows the Mount Royal Tunnel, where new underground stations are being built to connect with the existing McGill and Édouard-Montpetit Metro stations. A new connection to the Mascouche commuter rail line is being built near the A-40 at the Côte-de-Liesse station to allow this line that previously used the tunnel to have access to downtown.

Southeast from Central Station, the line follows existing rail lines until Marc-Cantin Street, where it transitions to an elevated guideway and crosses to Nuns' Island, and then uses a rail deck constructed on the new Champlain Bridge to cross the St. Lawrence River. Three stations in Brossard on the South Shore have been built: Panama, connecting to the existing bus terminal; Du Quartier, directly connected to the DIX30 commercial district; and Brossard, the location of a bus terminal built along with the station, along with the line's maintenance depot.

The northwest branch is a conversion of the Deux-Montagnes line, with a second track added beyond Bois-Franc station and the elimination of all level crossings. On the West Island, a new airport branch separates from the main line near the A-13, with a stop at Technoparc Montreal before terminating at Montréal–Trudeau International Airport. The main West Island branch follows an existing freight rail spur through Pointe-Claire, then follows the A-40 just east of St-Jean Boulevard and continues through Kirkland before ending in Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue. These lines are mostly elevated to avoid level crossings.

In the city centre, Central Station connects with the Orange Line at Bonaventure and two more stations will also connect with existing Metro lines: McGill will connect with the Green Line[15] and Édouard-Montpetit will connect with the Blue Line.[15]

Stations edit

 
Map of the proposed REM network

The REM will consist of 26 stations on three branches. Twelve of these stations are on the former suburban Deux-Montagnes line and will become part of the REM after being converted to rapid transit standards. Several have received new names since the project's inception.[48] All stations on the REM will be accessible, and Metro interchange stations at McGill and Édouard-Montpetit will also be retrofitted for accessibility.[49]

Main line edit

All stations on the main line of the Réseau express métropolitain are projected to have a train frequency of 2.5 minutes during rush hour and every 5 minutes otherwise, both towards Brossard station and towards the three different branches.[50]

Station Opening for REM[47] Opened Parking spaces[48] Bike racks Connections Location
Brossard 31 July 2023[36] 2,950 50   Terminus Brossard Brossard
Du Quartier 74   RTL
Panama 700 200   Terminus Panama
Île-des-Sœurs 20   STM Verdun
Griffintown–Bernard-Landry[51] 2027[52]   STM Le Sud-Ouest
Central Station 31 July 2023[36] 1943 Ville-Marie
McGill Q4 2024 1966
Édouard-Montpetit 1988 30 Côte-des-Neiges–Notre-Dame-de-Grâce
Canora 1918 100   STM
Ville-de-Mont-Royal 1918 60   STM Mont Royal
Côte-de-Liesse Q4 2024 35 Saint-Laurent
Montpellier 1918 60   STM
Du Ruisseau 1994 1,060 45   STM
Bois-Franc 1994 740 120   STM

Deux-Montagnes branch edit

Stations on the Deux-Montagnes branch are projected to run every five minutes during rush hour, and every fifteen minutes otherwise.

Station Opening for REM[47] Opened Parking spots Bike racks Connections Location
Sunnybrooke Q4 2024 1994 400 40   STM Pierrefonds-Roxboro
Pierrefonds-Roxboro 1944 1,140 80   STM
Île-Bigras 1995 45 20   STL Laval
Sainte-Dorothée 1995 975 45   STL
Grand-Moulin 1925[55] 304[56] 44   Exo Deux-Montagnes
Deux-Montagnes 1995 1,256[57] 247   Exo

Anse-à-l'Orme branch edit

The Anse-à-l'Orme (formerly Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue) branch of the Réseau express métropolitain is projected to run every ten minutes during rush hour, and every fifteen minutes otherwise.

Station Planned opening[47] Parking spots Bike racks Connections Location
Des Sources Q4 2024 500 20   STM Pointe-Claire
Fairview–Pointe-Claire 700 50   Terminus Fairview
Kirkland 2,500 30   STM Kirkland
Anse-à-l'Orme 200 20
  •   STM
  •   Exo
Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue

YUL–Montréal–Trudeau Airport branch edit

The Airport branch of the Réseau express métropolitain is projected to run every ten minutes during rush hour and every fifteen minutes otherwise.

Station Planned opening[47][58] Parking spots Bike racks Connections Location
Marie-Curie 2027[59]   STM Saint-Laurent
YUL–Montréal–Trudeau Airport Dorval

Rolling stock edit

Alstom Metropolis Saint-Laurent[60]
 
 
In service2023–present
ManufacturerAlstom
AssemblySri City, India
Family nameMetropolis
Constructed2019–2021
Entered service31 July 2023
Number built212 carriages (106 units)
Formation2-car units, 1–2 units per train
Capacity64 seated / 390 maximum (2-car unit)
DepotsBrossard
Specifications
Train length38.1 m (125 ft) per unit
Car length19.05 m (62 ft 6 in) over coupler faces
Width2.94 m (9 ft 7+34 in)
Height3.9 m (12 ft 9+12 in) (excluding pantograph)
Doors3 per side, per car
Wheel diameter840–770 mm (33–30 in) (new–worn)[61]
Wheelbase
  • Bogie: 2,300 mm (7 ft 6+12 in)
  • 14,910 mm (48 ft 11 in) (between outer axles)
Maximum speed100 km/h (62 mph)
Weight232 t (228 long tons; 256 short tons), 2 units
Axle load14.5 t (14.3 long tons; 16.0 short tons)[61]
Traction motorsAlstom 4LCA 2138[62] (4 × 185 kW (248 hp) each)
Power output
  • 740 kW (990 hp) per car
  • 1,480 kW (1,980 hp) per unit
Electric system(s)Overhead line1,500 V DC
Current collector(s)Pantograph
UIC classificationBo′Bo′+Bo′Bo′ (one unit)
BogiesAlstom B23[61]
Braking system(s)Air
Safety system(s)Fully automated (GoA4)
Coupling systemDellner
SeatingLongitudinal
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) standard gauge
Notes/references
[63]

The Alstom Metropolis Saint-Laurent is a type of light metro train built by Alstom for the Réseau express métropolitain. Part of the Alstom Metropolis family, 106 two-car trains were built in Sri City, India. Trains run as a single two-car train at quieter times and as paired four-car trainsets during rush hour.[63] The trains are fully automated (GoA4) with no driver or attendant on board the train.[63]

Each two-car train seats 64 passengers, with standing capacity for around 300. A four-car trainset can carry a maximum of 780 people at rush hour.[63][64] The livery is white, grey, and bright green, matching the REM logo.[63]

The trains have large front windows, allowing passengers to take in views from the front of the train.[60] A dedicated space for wheelchair users is available, and the trains features WiFi, air conditioning and heated floors.[60] CDPQ Infra indicated it is "confident that the trains ... will be able to withstand ... winter conditions", with the trains featuring double glazing, ice scraping pantographs and heated automatic couplings.[65]

Compared to the Azur trains used on the Montreal Metro, the REM trains use steel wheels (rather than rubber tires), are 17% wider, are faster (with a top speed of 100 kilometres per hour (62 mph) on the Champlain Bridge) and are fully automated.[64][60] However, the REM trains are shorter and can carry fewer passengers per trainset, although the REM has the ability to increase capacity to meet demand.[64][60] The REM trains are also exposed to the weather, unlike the fully underground Metro.

History edit

In April 2018, CDPQ Infra awarded a $2.8 billion contract to Alstom and SNC-Lavalin to deliver a driverless light metro including rolling stock and automatic signalling, as well as operation and maintenance for the line.[66] This contract included 212 Alstom Metropolis cars, forming 106 two-car trains.[66] Later that year, a consultation took place regarding the external design of the trains – with the Saint-Laurent design chosen, with front lights inspired by the Champlain Bridge.[63] The final design was unveiled in April 2019.[67]

Built at Alstom's Sri City plant in India, the trains were delivered to Montreal by ship, arriving in October 2020.[68] They were first unveiled in November 2020.[69][70] By November 2021, 37 of the 106 trains had been delivered and trains were undergoing testing.[71] As of September 2023, 87 of the 106 trains had been delivered.[72]

Controversies edit

In a report prepared by the Bureau d'audiences publiques sur l'environnement [fr] (BAPE) and released on 20 January 2017, the project was criticized for failing to provide crucial information on the project's financial model, environmental impact, as well as the impact on ridership levels throughout the public transit network across Montreal. Without such information, the BAPE declared that it was "premature to authorize the approval of this project".[73] The BAPE also stated that CDPQ Infra had not met its obligations for transparency, as it had failed to provide information in a timely fashion on the ridership levels of the REM's three branches.[73] The CDPQ Infra was also reproached for not studying the impact of the REM on existing public transit authorities.[73] CDPQ Infra was criticized for not being able to answer questions like how much tickets would cost, whether municipalities on the REM would themselves have to pay for the necessary infrastructure for access to it, and whether municipalities would also have to contribute to the REM's operation.[73]

A lawsuit filed by Coalition Climat further alleged that the REM project violated federalism for a lack of federal assessment of the potential harm to citizens' environmental rights by its potential contribution to noise pollution and urban heat islands. The lawsuit was dismissed by the Quebec Superior Court on 13 December 2017.[74]

Another controversy occurred in November 2019, when Montreal mayor Valerie Plante proposed naming Griffintown's REM station after former premier of Quebec Bernard Landry, who was part of the Parti Quebecois. This sparked a backlash from the city's Irish community.[75] As a compromise, the station was named Griffintown–Bernard-Landry, which still proved controversial.[76]

Financial model edit

As agreed in 2018, the financial model behind the line requires Autorité régionale de transport métropolitain (ARTM) to pay CDPQ Infra $0.72 for each kilometre traveled by a passenger, following the opening of the line. This amount will increase by inflation.[77][78] CDPQ expects a rate of return of around 8 or 9 percent over the 99-year period.[78]

Although passenger income will not fund other transit projects or agencies (such as Société de transport de Montréal), CDPQ argued that the REM will provide long-term income for pensions, stating "when a user takes the REM, they are helping to finance their future retirement".[79] CDPQ also argued that the project risk lies with themselves and not the provincial government or local municipalities.[78]

The $6.5-billion construction cost of the project has been funded by CDPQ ($3.2 billion), the Government of Quebec ($1.283 billion), the Government of Canada ($1.283 billion) and Hydro-Québec ($295 million).[80]

Proposed lines, stations, and extensions edit

On 20 May 2019, the Quebec government announced that it had requested CDPQi to study two REM extensions. One route would be nearly 20 kilometres (12 mi) north to Carrefour Laval and the other nearly 30 kilometres (19 mi) south to Chambly and St-Jean-sur-Richelieu.[81] The government also made a request to determine the best electrified transit system to be put in place for the East Island, with the possibility of it being a new REM line.[81] The proposal became the REM de l'Est Project.

Dorval station edit

The federal government requested the Canadian Infrastructure Bank study a possible extension of the REM to Dorval Exo train station and to Dorval Via Rail station to connect with Exo and Via Rail trains.[82] This station would be about a 1-kilometre (0.62 mi) extension from the Airport station. The STM bus station is located south of the CP, CN tracks and west of the Via Rail station.

Bridge–Bonaventure station edit

The city of Montreal requested two stations, instead of one station, at Bassin Peel.[83] The second station would be added between Île-des-Soeurs and Griffintown–Bernard-Landry stations.[84][85]

REM de l'Est edit

The "REM de l'Est" was a planned second REM line which would have been 32 km (20 mi) long and included 23 stations. Announced in 2020,[86][87] it would have used the existing REM technology but not be connected directly to the first section of the network.

Beginning a few blocks east of Boulevard Robert-Bourassa (and therefore from Central Station), the line would have run east on an elevated guideway along Boulevard René-Lévesque and Rue Notre-Dame until Rue St-Clément, where it would have turned north and split into two branches:

In May 2022, the project was abandoned[88] and, as of mid-2023, nothing has been announced about its eventual replacement, which is under study, except that it is to be named Projet structurant de l’Est (PSE) instead of REM.[89]

South Shore "REM 2.0" along Taschereau Boulevard axis edit

In partnership with the City of Longueuil and the Municipality of Brossard, the Quebec government announced a proposed extension of the REM through the South Shore of Montreal. This branch was originally referred to as "REM 2.0", but is also commonly called the Taschereau REM, and is planned to connect the existing REM line at Terminus Panama to the Montreal metro at Terminus Longueuil.[90] REM 2.0 would follow the axis of Taschereau Boulevard for much of its length, superseding earlier proposals for an electric tramway, the "East–West Electric Line" (Lien électrique est–ouest or LÉEO),[91] to connect these transit hubs. The Quebec government suggested that this REM line could ultimately continue in either direction to the municipalities of Châteauguay and Boucherville respectively.[92]

 
The planned route of the Réseau Express Métropolitain, with the Taschereau REM added. Firmly announced destinations (Terminus Longueuil, Panama station, CEGEP Edouard-Montpetit) are marked with a solid line, and potential destinations are marked with a dotted line (Châteauguay, Boucherville).

Mayor of Longueuil Catherine Fournier was present during the REM's inauguration and first rides. During the ride, Fournier made clarifying remarks about the REM 2.0, confirming the future of the project. Fournier added that the segments of the REM 2.0 along Taschereau Boulevard will be aerial supports, while the portions along the Quebec Route 132 will be at ground-level to service Old Longueuil and beyond.[93][94]

Following the REM's inauguration, Fournier held an interview with La Presse where she indicated that she had taken part in continued conversation with Quebec's Minister of Transport, Geneviève Guilbault, who reiterated the province's interest in the project and stated that the extension was under study. CDPQ Infra responded to the interview, confirming that the project is still planned, with ongoing discussions involving the provincial authorities.[94]

Following this interview, in late 2023, Mayor of Brossard Doreen Assaad announced a plan to construct a new, pedestrianized downtown for Brossard, centred around Panama station, to be completed by 2040.[95][96] The announcement indicated that Brossard would aim to implement a double-track, street-level electric tram along Taschereau Boulevard. In follow-up interviews, the administration of Brossard opposed the construction of an elevated REM extension along the Taschereau axis, indicating that it was not compatible with their vision of the new Brossard downtown.[97]

Assaad then elaborated on this statement in a press release about road safety on Taschereau Boulevard, stating that the citizens and mayor's office did not see a return in investment for an aerial REM on Taschereau, but would defer to the Government of Quebec as Taschereau Boulevard is a Quebec Route and under their jurisdiction.[98] The mayor indicated that the city was designing its future downtown with a lighter mode of public transit to test the feasibility of the REM model and sought to keep the municipality's voice in the conversation.

In an early 2024 press release, CDPQ Infra indicated that they would be releasing the results of their analysis of the Taschereau REM branch, as well as conducting a tour of meetings with municipal officials and other relevant parties to inform the direction of their upcoming public transit projects.[99] In response to this announcement, Fournier commented that she was supportive of the Taschereau REM project, but that Longueuil had not received an update from CDPQ Infra for over a year and a half.

On January 29, 2024, CDPQ Infra announced that it would be withdrawing from the proposed extension, leaving the local mayors to coordinate any future development of Taschereau Boulevard with the soon-to-be created provincial government agency for large public transit projects.[100]

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "Sommaire des previsions d'achalandage du REM" (PDF). www.cdpqinfra.com. CDPQ Infra Inc. February 2017. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 September 2017. Retrieved 17 July 2017.
  2. ^ Codère, Jean-François (12 April 2018). "Les trains du REM seront construits en Inde". La Presse (in French). Retrieved 13 April 2018.
  3. ^ "REM light rail on South Shore could launch 'within 30 to 45 days'". Montreal. 26 June 2023. Retrieved 26 June 2023.
  4. ^ Magder, Jason (22 April 2016). "Electric light-rail train network spearheaded by Caisse de dépôt to span Montreal by 2020". Montreal Gazette. Retrieved 22 April 2016.
  5. ^ "Montreal's new light-rail line launches at the end of the month". CTV News Montreal. 7 July 2023. Retrieved 9 July 2023.
  6. ^ "Work Schedule 2024". REM. Retrieved 7 April 2024.
  7. ^ Nerestant, Antoni (13 September 2023). "Montreal's REM cost rises 26% to $7.95B". CBC News. Archived from the original on 13 October 2023. Retrieved 14 October 2023.
  8. ^ "Réseau électrique métropolitain". cdpqinfra.com. 10 October 2019. Archived from the original on 2 May 2021. Retrieved 2 May 2021.
  9. ^ "Travel FAQ".
  10. ^ Magder, Jason. "The Caisse's first two mass transit projects in brief – Montreal Gazette". Montreal Gazette.
  11. ^ Delean, Paul. "Caisse revs up for new role as infrastructure provider". Montreal Gazette.
  12. ^ a b "Ambitious light rail project for Montreal proposed by Caisse de dépôt". CBC News. 22 April 2016. Retrieved 16 August 2023.
  13. ^ Briginshaw, David (30 June 2016). "Tendering starts for Montreal rail project". International Railway Journal. Retrieved 5 July 2016.
  14. ^ Magder, Jason (25 November 2016). "Three REM train stations added to proposed route through downtown Montreal". Montreal Gazette. Retrieved 25 November 2016.
  15. ^ a b c Wanek-Libman, Mischa (28 November 2016). "Proposed Montréal REM project grows by three stations and CA$400M". Railway Track & Structures. Simmons-Boardman Publishing Inc. Archived from the original on 29 November 2016.
  16. ^ "The Government of Canada confirms a $1.28-billion investment in the Réseau électrique métropolitain". www.newswire.ca. Retrieved 20 July 2017.
  17. ^ "Citing 'value for money', Caisse extends bidding for REM electric-train project". Montreal Gazette. 1 December 2017. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  18. ^ "Ingénierie, Approvisionnement et Construction des infrastructures du Réseau Électrique Métropolitain de Montréal" (PDF) (in French). 28 June 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 August 2016. Retrieved 21 October 2016.
  19. ^ "Fourniture du Matériel Roulant, de Systèmes et de Services d'Exploitation et de Maintenance du Réseau Électrique Métropolitain de Montréal" (PDF) (in French). 28 June 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 August 2016. Retrieved 21 October 2016.
  20. ^ a b c "Appel de qualification : résultats" (PDF) (in French). 10 November 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 November 2016. Retrieved 11 November 2016.;
  21. ^ a b "Main partners". REM.info. Retrieved 1 March 2018.
  22. ^ "REM: les offres finales des soumissionnaires déposées aujourd'hui" (in French). 27 October 2017. Retrieved 30 October 2017.
  23. ^ "REM: le choix des consortiums reporté". 11 November 2017. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
  24. ^ "REM: les offres finales des soumissionnaires déposées aujourd'hui" (in French). 8 February 2018. Retrieved 8 February 2018.
  25. ^ "CDPQ Infra awards contracts for Montreal REM". 8 February 2018. Retrieved 9 February 2018.
  26. ^ "South Shore preparatory work gets underway | REM". rem.info. 15 March 2018.
  27. ^ "Construction of the Réseau express métropolitain has officially started". CDPQ. 12 April 2018. Retrieved 8 October 2022.
  28. ^ "Montreal REM cost revised up to $6.5 billion – constructconnect.com". Daily Commercial News. 9 January 2020. Retrieved 5 June 2021.
  29. ^ Boshra, Basem (17 December 2019). "Closing of Mount Royal Tunnel postponed, cost of REM project jumps by $230 million". Montreal. Retrieved 5 June 2021.
  30. ^ Gobert, Céline (16 October 2020). "REM: le tunnelier «Alice» a commencé à creuser". Journal Métro (in French). Retrieved 26 March 2024.
  31. ^ "Opening of REM delayed after COVID-19 work stoppages and an 'unexpected' explosion". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 11 November 2020.
  32. ^ "REM construction moving forward in Greater Montreal but problems remain". Global News. Retrieved 5 June 2021.
  33. ^ "REM light rail project price tag rises due to pandemic complications". Montreal. 3 June 2021. Retrieved 5 June 2021.
  34. ^ "Century-old Mount Royal tunnel gets shored up for REM's McGill station". montrealgazette. Retrieved 22 June 2022.
  35. ^ "Tunnel problems and labour shortage delay opening of most REM stations". montrealgazette. Retrieved 22 June 2022.
  36. ^ a b c "Le REM ouvert au public le 31 juillet". La Presse (in French). 7 July 2023. Retrieved 7 July 2023.
  37. ^ Magder, Jason (28 July 2023). "And they're off: REM starts shuttling people across Montreal area". Montreal Gazette. Retrieved 31 July 2023.
  38. ^ "Official opening of the first 5 REM stations". rem.info. 1 August 2023. Retrieved 2 August 2023.
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