|Native name||Københavns Metro|
|Transit type||Rapid transit|
|Number of lines||2 (+2 under construction)|
|Number of stations||22 (+24 under construction)|
|Daily ridership||200,000 (weekday)|
|Annual ridership||61 million (2016)|
|Began operation||19 October 2002|
|Number of vehicles||34 AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro|
|Train length||3 cars|
|System length||20.4 km (12.7 mi)|
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) |
|Electrification||750 V third rail|
|Average speed||40 km/h (25 mph)|
|Top speed||80 km/h (50 mph)|
The 20.4-kilometre (12.7 mi) system opened between 2002 and 2007, and has two lines, M1 and M2. The driverless light metro supplements the larger S-train rapid transit system, and is integrated with DSB local trains and Movia buses. Through the city center and west to Vanløse, M1 and M2 share a common line. To the southeast, the system serves Amager, with the 13.9-kilometre (8.6 mi) M1 running through the new neighborhood of Ørestad, and the 14.2-kilometre (8.8 mi) M2 serving the eastern neighborhoods and Copenhagen Airport. The metro has 22 stations, of which nine are underground. In 2016, the metro carried 61 million passengers.
The system is owned by Metroselskabet (The Metro Company), which is owned by the municipalities of Copenhagen and Frederiksberg, and the Ministry of Transport. The 34 trains are of the AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro class and stationed at the Control and Maintenance Center at Vestamager. The trains are 2.65 m (8 ft 8 in) wide and three cars long; their 630-kilowatt (840 hp) power output is supplied by a 750-volt third rail. The metro trains were originally planned to be four cars long, but trains were reduced to three cars per set as a savings measure. Platforms are – although shorter than originally planned – built to accommodate trains with four cars, and the automatic doors can be modified accordingly should the need arise.
Operation of the system is subcontracted to Metro Service. Trains run continually, twenty-four hours a day, with the headway varying from two to four minutes, but with longer intervals (up to twenty minutes) during the night only. While a 6 train per hour (tph) service with 8-car trains, moves 48 cars per hour in each direction, Copenhagen Metro with 30 tph with 3 cars only, actually moves 90 cars per hour in each direction. So, in terms of capacity, the Copenhagen Metro is roughly equivalent to a system with 8 cars and 12 tph (or a train every fifth minute). The S-trains have 8 cars and generally 12 tph in the suburbs, but 30 tph in the city centre and therefore higher capacity than the metro.
Planning of the Metro started in 1992 as part of the redevelopment plans for Ørestad with construction starting in 1996, and stage 1, from Nørreport to Vestamager and Lergravsparken, opened in 2002. Stage 2, from Nørreport to Vanløse, opened in 2003, followed by stage 3, from Lergravsparken to Lufthavnen, in 2007.
Three extensions are currently under construction. The City Circle Line is an entirely underground 15.5 km loop through central Copenhagen and Frederiksberg with 17 stops. This loop is scheduled to open in July 2019. This loop will not share any track with the M1 and M2 lines, but will intersect them at Kongens Nytorv and Frederiksberg stations. When it opens, two lines will run on the loop. M3 will run the full length of the loop in both direction and M4 will run the busiest south-eastern section, also in both directions. With the City loop open in 2019, the Metro expects that its ridership will almost double from its 2016 levels to 116 million annual passengers.
The M4 line will gradually evolve into a separate line between 2020 and 2024 as extensions to Nordhavn and Sydhavn open. The two-stop, 3 km long, line to Nordhavn is under construction and will open in 2020. The extension will add an interchange with Nordhavn S-train station. The five-stop, 4.5 km, extension to Sydhavn is also under construction, with planned opening in 2024. The Sydhavn line will terminate at Ny Ellebjerg where it will create a new regional rail transport hub by connecting the metro system to the S-train network, regional trains, and long-distance trains on the current lines and the upcoming high speed Copenhagen-Ringsted railway. Once these extensions are complete, Metro expects the daily ridership to triple from its current level of 200,000 riders per weekday to 600,000 riders per weekday in 2030 
The planning of the metro was spurred by the development of the Ørestad area of Copenhagen. The principle of building a rail transit was passed by the Parliament of Denmark on 24 June 1992, with the Ørestad Act. The responsibility for developing the area, as well as building and operating the metro, was given to the Ørestad Development Corporation, a joint venture between Copenhagen Municipality (45%) and the Ministry of Finance (55%). Initially, three modes were considered: a tramway, a light rail and a rapid transit. In October 1994, the Development Corporation chose a light rapid transit.
The tram solution would have been a street tram, without any major infrastructure investments in the city centre, such as a dedicated right-of-way. Through Ørestad it would have had level crossings, except for a grade-separated crossing with the European Route E20 and the Øresund Line. It would have had a driver and have operated at about a 150-second interval—twice the cycle time of the city's traffic lights. Power would have been provided with overhead wires. Stops were to be located about every 500 m (550 yd) at street level. The articulated trams would have been about 35 m (115 ft) long and have a capacity for 230 passengers.
The light rail model would have used the same approach as the tram in Ørestad, but would instead have run through a tunnel in the city centre. The tunnel sections would be shorter, but the diameter larger because it would have to accommodate overhead wires. The system would have the same frequency as the tram, but use double trams and would therefore require larger stations. The metro solution was chosen because it combined the highest average speeds, the highest passenger capacity, the lowest visual and noise impact, and the lowest number of accidents. Despite requiring the highest investment, it had the highest net present value.
The decision to build stage 2, from Nørreport to Vanløse, and stage 3, to the airport, was taken by Parliament on 21 December 1994. Stage 2 involved the establishment of the company Frederiksbergbaneselskabet I/S in February 1995, owned 70% by the Ørestad Development Corporation and 30% by Frederiksberg Municipality. The third stage would be built by Østamagerbaneselskabet I/S, established in September 1995 and owned 55% by the Ørestad Development Corporation and 45% by Copenhagen County. In October 1996, a contract was signed with the Copenhagen Metro Construction Group (COMET) for building the lines (Civil Works), and with Ansaldo STS for delivery of technological systems and trains, and to operate the system the first five years. COMET was a single-purpose consortium composed of Astaldi, Bachy, SAE, Ilbau, NCC Rasmussen & Schiøtz Anlæg and Tarmac Construction.
Construction of lines M1 and M2Edit
Construction started in November 1996, with the moving of underground pipes and wires around the station areas. In August 1997, work started at the depot, and in September, COMET started the first mainline work. In October and November, the two tunnel boring machines (TBM), christened Liva and Bette, were delivered. They started boring each barrel of the tunnel from Islands Brygge in February 1998. The same month, the Public Transport Authority gave the necessary permits to operate a driverless metro. The section between Fasanvej and Frederiksberg is a former S-train line, and was last operated as such on 20 June 1998.
The first section of tunnel was completed in September 1998, and the TBMs moved to Havnegade. By December 1998, work had started on the initial nine stations. Plans for M2 were presented to the public in April 1999, with a debate emerging if the proposed elevated solution was the best. In May, the first trains were delivered, and trial runs began at the depot. In December, the tunnels were completed to Strandlodsvej, and the TBMs were moved to Havnegade, where they started to grind towards Frederiksberg. From 1 January 2000, the S-train service from Solbjerg to Vanløse was terminated, and work commenced to rebuild the section to metro. The last section of tunnel was completed in February 2001.
In March 2001, Copenhagen County Council decided to start construction of stage 3. On 6 November 2001, the first train operated through a tunnel section. On 28 November, laying of tracks along stage 1, and stage 2A from Nørreport to Frederiksberg, was completed. An agreement about financing stage 3 was reached on 12 April. By 22 May, the 18 delivered trains had test-run 100,000 km (62,000 miles). The section from Nørreport to Lergravsparken and Vestamager was opened on 19 October 2002. Initially, the system had a 12-minute headway on each of the two services. From 3 December this was reduced to 9 minutes, and from 19 December to 6 minutes. Operation of the system was subcontracted to Ansaldo, who again subcontracted it to Metro Service, a subsidiary of Serco. The contract had a duration of five years, with an option for extension for another three.
Opening of lines M1 and M2Edit
Trial runs on stage 2A began on 24 February 2003 and opened on 29 May. All changes to bus and train schedules in Copenhagen took place on 25 May, but to allow Queen Margrethe II to open the line, the opening needed to be adapted to her calendar. This caused four days without a bus service along the line. Stage 2B, from Frederiksberg to Vanløse, opened on 12 October.
Forum Station was nominated for the European Union Prize for Contemporary Architecture in 2005. On 2 December 2005, the final agreement to build the City Circle Line was made between the local and national governments. The price was estimated at 11.5 to 18.3 billion Danish krone (DKK), of which DKK 5.4 billion will be financed though ticket sales, and the remaining from the state and municipalities. In 2006, it was announced that the contract with Ansaldo to operate the metro had been prolonged another three years. However, the subcontract between Ansaldo and Serco Group was not extended, and the contract was instead given to Azienda Trasporti Milanesi in joint venture with Ansaldo; they took over operations from October 2007. The Ørestad Development Corporation was discontinued in 2007, and the ownership of the metro was transferred to Metroselskabet I/S.
In January 2007, the city council decided that a branch was to be built during construction at Nørrebro, to allow a future branch line from the City Circle Line towards Brønshøj. The first part of this line was intended to be constructed at the same time as the City Circle Line, to avoid a multitude-higher construction cost and long interruptions of operations later. This did not involve a final decision, only an option for future construction. The Herlev/Brønshøj line was ultimately dropped as the City of Copenhagen withdrew its share of the cost of the Nørrebro branch chamber in its 2009 budget, and the state refused to continue the project. Any branch to the Herlev / Brønshøj region would now require a shutdown of the City Circle Line for an extended period of time.
In March 2007, a proposal to establish a station at Valby, where the Carlsberg Group is planning an urban redevelopment, was scrapped. The proposal would have increased construction costs by DKK 900 million and was deemed not economical. The increased cost was, in part, due to an extra TBM being needed to complete the project on time. The City Circle Line was passed by parliament on 1 June 2007, with only the Red–Green Alliance voting in disfavor.
The 4.5 km (2.8-mile) stage 3 opened on 28 September 2007, from Lergravsparken to the airport. It followed, for the most part, the route of the former Amager Line of the Danish State Railways. With this stage complete, the 34 trains were delivered. However, the line caused a heated debate, with several locals organized themselves into the Amager Metro Group. The group argued that the line should have been built underground, citing concerns that it would create noise pollution and a physical barrier in Amager. In April 2008, the Copenhagen Metro won the award at MetroRail 2008 for the world's best metro. The jury noted the system's high regularity, safety and passenger satisfaction, as well as the efficient transport to the airport. During 2008, the metro experienced a 16% passenger growth to 44 million passengers per year.
An agreement made in September 2008, the Social Democrats, the Conservative People's Party, the Liberal Party and the Danish People's Party agreed to not fund an expansion of the metro northwest. Initially, the system operated trains from 01:00 to 05:00 only on Thursdays through Saturdays, but, starting on 19 March 2009, night service was extended to the rest of the week. This caused a logistical challenge, because Metro Service used the nights for maintenance. The routes were therefore set up in such a way that the system could be operated on only a single track, leaving the other free for work. In May 2009, six companies were pre-qualified to bid for the public service obligation to operate the metro. These were Serco-NedRailways, Ansaldo STS, Arriva, S-Bahn Hamburg, Keolis and DSB Metro—a joint venture between DSB and RATP. The process was delayed because of a procedural error by Metroselskabet, who failed to pre-qualify DSB Metro.
Construction of lines M3 and M4, the City Circle Line and the Harbour LineEdit
An expansion of the metro, the City Circle Line, is under construction and scheduled to open in 2019. Independent of the existing system, it will circle the city center and connect the areas of Østerbro, Nørrebro and Vesterbro to Frederiksberg and Indre By. The line will be 15.5 km (9.6 miles) long and run entirely in tunnel. The circle will have 17 stations, two of which are interchanges with both the M1 and M2 lines, as well with three Copenhagen S-train stations, it will take 25 minutes to complete a full lap in either direction. Archaeological and geological surveys started in 2007, preferred bidders were announced in November 2010 and contracts were signed in 2011. Preparations began by moving utilities etc. in 2010, and construction of work sites and stations began in 2011. Drilling of tunnels will begin in 2013. On 7 January 2011 the new project called Cityringen started with the signature by Metroselskabet of new contracts, with Ansaldo Breda and Ansaldo Sts (Finmeccanica Group) for the supply of trains and control systems and with an Italian joint-venture led by Salin Construttori (about 60%) and Tecnimont (about 40%) with Seli as third partner for the construction part. In July 2013, Natur- og Miljøklagenævnet, the environmental appeals board, ruled that the city was wrong to grant Metroselskabet permission for 24-hour work days and noise up to 78 db at the Marmorkirken site. The company is now required to stop work 6PM until a final ruling is made, which could take up to half a year, potentially delaying the completion date.
The line will operate as M3 and M4. The former will run a full circle, while M4 will only operate on the eastern half from Copenhagen Central Station (København H) via Østerport to Nørrebro. This solution is temporary, once the metro network has been extended to Nordhavn, the M4 will start at Copenhagen Central Station but leave the City Circle Line at Østerport and service the Nordhavn branch. Later, when the Sydhavn extension has been completed, the M4 will have Ny Ellebjerg as its southern terminus. Trains will operate both ways through the circle. The line will have transfer to M1 and M2 at Frederiksberg and Kongens Nytorv. The line is estimated to carry 240,000 daily passengers, bringing the metro's total daily ridership to 460,000.
A northwestern expansion of the City Circle Line was planned, where M4 would divert at Nørrebro and run to the suburbs of Brønshøj and Gladsaxe. This project was abandoned, as the interchange chamber between any such line and the City Circle Line was scrapped as part of the City of Copenhagen's 2009 budget. In subsequent plans, the northern extension of the M4 has instead been relocated as a Nordhavn branch which will connect with the City Circle Line at Østerport. A Nordhavn line with two stations has been approved by the Danish parliament, and is planned to open in 2019. The southern extension of the M4 will run from Copenhagen Central Station through Sydhavn to Ny Ellebjerg, where the M4 will link up with the S-train and regional train system. The Danish Transport Authority (Trafikstyrelsen) has suggested to convert the F-line of the S-train network to metro standard as an M5 line, but as the only linkup between the M5 and the existing network would be at Flintholm Station (interchange with M1 and M2), this plan is dependent on the approval of a southern extension of the M4, also providing the M5 with an interchange with the M4 at Ny Ellebjerg Station.
The fourth line, M4 or the Harbour line, will share tracks with the upcoming M3 between Copenhagen Central Station and Østerport station (in all, will M3 and M4 share six stations). North of Østerport will two new stations become inaugurated within months after the opening of M3. Those stations are Nordhavn station and Orientkaj station.
While the largely underground southern section will reach Ny Ellebjerg station from The Central Station by 2023. South of the Central Station will four new stations be built before the line terminus at Ny Ellebjerg. Three of these four stations will pass through the southern parts of Copenhagen's harbour. The northern terminus will presumably be moved farther and farther out at the peninsula, which constitutes a large part of Copenhagen's northern harbour part, as the city aims to rebuild typical harbour buildings with housing. However the political decisions on the M4 topic, so far only deals with a line with a total of 13 stations between Orientkaj and Ny Ellebjerg. In the end of 2019 will there be 4 Metro lines and 39 stations within the Copenhagen Metro system. And by 2023 will the Metro still comprises 4 lines, but 44 stations will be served instead of 39. Of the 44 stations in 2023, will 8 stations serve both Metro as well as S-train.
Future lines discussedEdit
Many new lines have been discussed. Initially Line M4 was supposed to have its northern end at Husum station passing through Brønshøj to Nørrebro station, where it would merge with the circular M3 line. This was abandoned in favour of the branch at Østerport station to the Nordhavn harbour area.
The City of Copenhagen suggested two additional lines M5 and M6, and a western extension of the M1 or M2 to Brøndbyøster was also suggested. The "M5"-label appears to having been reserved for a future possible (vague) "Metrofication" of the Copenhagen S-train Line F.
As of January 2018, no further development will be done after the construction of the Harbour line, or Line M4. Between Ny Ellebjerg station and Orientkaj in the Nordhavn area, except for a few more stations northeast of Orientkaj.
Speculations of extension to Malmö vs other future possible connectionsEdit
In September 2011, the local governments in Copenhagen and the neighbouring Malmö in Sweden announced that they were seeking European Union funding to study a potential metro line under the Øresund to the neighbourhood of Malmö Central Station, providing faster trips and additional capacity beyond that of the existing Øresund Bridge. The study, for which the EU granted funding in the following December, will consider both a simple shuttle between the two stations and a continuous line integrated with the local transport networks on each side, and they anticipate a travel time of 15 minutes between the two city centers.
The drawbacks are several, as an extension to Malmö includes a long distance without any stations. Combined with just one Metro station in Malmö (whilst the existing railway uses three and a fourth existing station can rather easily be used), the "Malmö-extension" is however not the only idea for a second fixed connection across Øresund.
If a second fixed rail connection is to be built across Øresund, other railway traction have at least equal prerequisites. Railway connections has also been discussed along the HH Ferry route as well as between Landskrona and Copenhagen. Unlike a Metro connection to Malmö, all trains from the Swedish western coast and from Norway, will reach Copenhagen city centre around 20 to 25 minutes faster compared to by the use of the already existing Øresund bridge. Further a circular train traffic would be enabled through a more northern location of a second connection. Hence, it's far from unlikely, that far more passengers could benefit from a second Øresund connection located farther north of Malmö at the Swedish side. And if so, as a railway rather than a Metro.
Especially the "Central alternative", a low bridge from Landskrona build on the very shallow Lundåkrabukten followed by a 8–10 kilometres (5.0–6.2 mi) tunnel to the Nordhavn area of Copenhagen (where the existing metro is due for a future extension) satisfies both circular traffic and the fastest possible Øresund crossing time from for instance Oslo, Gothenburg, Halmstad and actually also from Helsingborg to the Danish Capital city.
The prospects for any second connection at Scandinavia's largest population area (more than 3 million people lives close to the Øresund shores), has a very low priority as Denmark has other bridges to build and the matter is of poor interest in Sweden's remotely located (seen from an Øresund perspective) Capital city.
The metro consists of two lines, M1 and M2. They share a common 7.69-kilometre (4.78 mi) section from Vanløse to Christianshavn, where they split along two lines: M1 follows the Ørestad Line to Vestamager, while M2 follows the Østamager Line to the airport. The metro consists of a total route length of 20.4 kilometres (12.7 mi), and 22 stations, 9 of which are on the section shared by both lines. M1 is 13.9 kilometres (8.6 mi) long and serves 15 stations, while M2 is 14.2 kilometres (8.8 mi) long and serves 16 stations. About 10 km (6 miles) of the lines and 9 stations are in tunnel, located at 20 to 30 m (70 to 100 ft) below ground level. The remaining sections are on embankments, viaducts or at ground level.
The section from Vanløse to Frederiksberg follows the Frederiksberg Line, a former S-train line which runs on an embankment. Between Solbjerg and Frederiksberg, the line runs underground, and continues through the city center. After Christianshavn, the line splits in two. M1 reaches ground level at Islands Brygge, and continues on a viaduct through the Vestamager area. M2 continues in tunnel until after Lergravsparken, where it starts to follow the former Amager Line.
The tunnels consist of two parallel tunnels; that run through stable limestone at about 30 m (100 ft) depth, but are elevated slightly at each station. There are emergency exits every 600 m (660 yd), so that no train is ever further than 300 m (330 yd) from an exit. The outer tunnel diameter is 5.5 m (18 ft), while the inner diameter is 4.9 m (16 ft). The tunnels were excavated by the cut-and-cover method, the New Austrian Tunnelling method and by tunnel boring machines (TBM). Along the elevated sections, the tracks run on alternating sections of separate reinforced concrete viaducts and joint embankments made of reinforced earth.
The system operates 24/7 with a varying headway throughout the day. During rush hour (07:00–10:00 and 15:00–18:00), there is a two-minute headway on the common section and a four-minute headway on the single-service sections. During Thursday through Saturday night (0:00–05:00), there is a seven/eight-minute headway on the common section and a fifteen-minute headway on the single-service sections, and other nights it is twenty minutes on all sections of the metro. At all other times, there is a three-minute headway on the common section and a six-minute on the split sections. Travel time from Nørreport to Vestamager on M1 is 14 minutes, to the airport on M2 is 15 minutes, and to Vanløse on M1 and M2 is 9 minutes. In 2009, the metro transported 50 million passengers, or 137,000 per day; by 2013, the metro's ridership increased to 55 million.
The metro operates with a proof-of-payment system, so riders must have a valid ticket before entering the station platforms. The system is divided into zones, and the fare structure is integrated with other public transport in Copenhagen, including the buses managed by Movia, local DSB trains and the S-train. The system lies within four different zones. Ticket machines are available at all stations, where special tickets for dogs and bicycles can also be purchased. A two-zone ticket costs DKK 24, and a three-zone ticket DKK 36, and tickets are good for 60 minutes. Holders of the Copenhagen Card museum pass ride free of charge, as do up to two children under twelve years of age accompanied by an adult. As of 2012, the metro has fully adapted to the national electronic fare card system Rejsekort. Outside the Central zones, the outer zones are divided into sub-zones and ticketing can be a bit confusing for visitors familiar with how zones work in London or Berlin. Passengers must specify, on their ticket which sub-zone they wish to travel to.
The system is integrated with other public transport in Copenhagen. There is transfer to the S-train at Vanløse, Flintholm and Nørreport, to DSB's local trains at Nørreport, Ørestad and Lufthavnen, and to Copenhagen Airport at Lufthavnen. There are transfers to Movia bus services at all but four stations.
The system is owned by Metroselskabet, who is also responsible for building the City Circle Line. The company is owned by Copenhagen Municipality (50.0%), the Ministry of Transport (41.7%) and Frederiksberg Municipality (8.3%). The company is organized with as few employees as possible. Construction and operation is subcontracted through public tenders, while consultants are used for planning. The contract to operate the system was made with Ansaldo STS, who has subcontracted it to Metro Service, a joint venture between them and Azienda Trasporti Milanesi (ATM), the public transport company of the city of Milan, Italy. The company has 285 employees, the majority of whom work as stewards.
There are twenty-two stations on the network, of which nine are underground and six are deep-level. They were all designed by KHR Arkitekter, who created open stations with daylight. Stations have an information column in front, marked with a large 'M' and featuring information screens. All stations have a vestibule at ground level, which has ticket and local information, ticket machines and validators. The stations are built with island platforms and are fully accessible for people with disabilities.
The six deep-level stations are built as rectangular, open boxes 60 m (200 ft) long, 20 m (66 ft) wide and 20 m (66 ft) deep. The platforms are located 18 m (59 ft) below the surface. Access to the surface is reached via escalators and elevators. The design allows the stations to be located below streets and squares, allowing the stations to be built without expropriation. Access to the track is blocked by platform screen doors. The underground stations were built as cut-and-cover from the top down (except Christianshavn, which was excavated as a large hole and the station built bottom-up), and the first part of construction was building a water-tight wall on all sides. There are glass pyramids on the roof of the stations permitting daylight to enter. Inside the pyramids, there are prisms reflecting and splitting the light, sometimes resulting in rainbows on the walls. The light in the stations is automatically regulated to make best use of the daylight and maintain a constant level of illumination of the stations at all times.
The elevated stations are built in glass, concrete and steel to minimize their visual impact. Outside, there is parking for bicycles, cars, buses and taxis. Access to the trains are blocked by platform screen doors.
The trains are 39 m (128 ft) long, 2.65 m (8 ft 8 in) wide, and weigh 52 tonnes (51 long tons; 57 short tons). Each train consists of three articulated cars with a total of six automated, 1.6 m (5 ft 3 in) wide doors, holding up to 96 seated and 204 standing passengers (300 in total). There are four large 'flex areas' in each train with folding seats providing space for wheelchairs, strollers and bicycles.
Each car is equipped with two three-phase asynchronous 105-kilowatt (141 hp) motors, giving each train a power output of 630 kilowatts (840 hp). In each car, the two motors are fed by the car's own insulated-gate bipolar transistor. They transform the 750-volt direct current collected from the third rail shoe to the three-phase alternating current used in the motors. The trains' top speed are 80 km/h (50 mph), while the average service speed is 40 km/h (25 mph), with an acceleration and deceleration capacity of 1.3 m/s2 (4.3 ft/s2) along the standard-gauge track.
The entire metro system and the trains are run by a fully automated computer system, located at the Control and Maintenance Center south of Vestamager Station. The automatic train control (ATC) consists of three subsystems: automatic train protection (ATP), automatic train operation (ATO) and automatic train supervisory (ATS). The ATP is responsible for keeping the trains' speed, ensuring that doors are closed before departure and switches are correctly set. The system uses fixed block signaling, except around stations, where moving block signaling is used.
The ATO is the autopilot that runs the trains on a predefined schedule, ensures that the trains stop at the station and open the doors. The ATS keeps track of all the components in the network, including the rails and all of the trains in the system, and displays a live schematic at the control center. The ATC is designed so that the ATP is the only safety-critical system, as it would halt the trains if the other systems fail. The safety and signaling specifications are based on the German BOStrab, and controlled by TÜV Rheinland and Det Norske Veritas under supervision of the Public Transport Authority. Other aspects of the system, such as power supply, ventilation, security alarms, cameras and pumps, are controlled by a system called "control, regulating and surveillance".
The Control and Maintenance Center is a 1.1-hectare (2.7-acre) facility located at the south end of M1. It consists of a storage area for trains not in use, a maintenance area and the control facility. Trains operate automatically through the system, and can also automatically be washed on the exterior. The facility has 5 km (3.1 mi) of track, of which 800 m (870 yd) is a test track for use after maintenance. The most common repairs are wheel grinding; more complicated repairs are made by replacing entire components that are sent to the manufacturer. By having components in reserve, trains can have shorter maintenance time. The depot also has several maintenance trains, including diesel locomotives that are able to retrieve broken down or disabled trains.
At any time, there are four or five people working at the control center: two monitor the ATC system, one monitors passenger information, and one is responsible for secondary systems, such as power supply. In case of technical problems, there is always a team of linepeople that can be dispatched to perform repairs. Although the trains are not equipped with drivers, there are stewards at stations and on most trains that help passengers, perform ticket controls and assist in emergency situations.
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