Copenhagen Municipality (Danish: Københavns Kommune), also known in English as the Municipality of Copenhagen, located in the Capital Region of Denmark, is the largest of the four municipalities that constitute the City of Copenhagen (Byen København), the other three being Dragør, Frederiksberg, and Tårnby. The Municipality of Copenhagen constitutes the historical city centre and the majority of its landmarks. It is the most populous in the country with a population of 655,304 inhabitants (as of February 2023[update]), and covers 86.4 square kilometres (33.4 sq mi) in area,. Copenhagen Municipality is located at the Zealand and Amager islands and totally surrounds Frederiksberg Municipality on all sides. The strait of Øresund lies to the east. The city of Copenhagen has grown far beyond the municipal boundaries from 1901, when Frederiksberg Municipality was made an enclave within Copenhagen Municipality. Frederiksberg has the largest population density of the municipalities of Denmark.
|Municipality of Copenhagen|
|Coordinates: 55°40′31″N 12°34′13″E / 55.67528°N 12.57028°ECoordinates: 55°40′31″N 12°34′13″E / 55.67528°N 12.57028°E|
|• Type||City council|
|• Body||Copenhagen City Council|
|• Lord Mayor||Sophie Hæstorp Andersen (Social Democrats)|
|• Total||86.4 km2 (33.4 sq mi)|
(1 February 2023)
| • Estimate |
|• Density||7,600/km2 (20,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
The municipal seat of government is the Copenhagen City Hall (Danish: Københavns Rådhus), the headquarters of the Copenhagen City Council. The Lord Mayor of Copenhagen is Sophie Hæstorp Andersen, since 1 January 2022. The relationship between Copenhagen Municipality and the wider city of Copenhagen is one of an administrative unit within a significantly larger city, cf. the City of London or the City of Brussels.
In the Middle Ages, Copenhagen was defined as the area enclosed within the city walls. The city centre lies in the area originally defined by the old ramparts, which are still referred to as the Fortification Ring (Fæstningsringen) and kept as a partial green band around it. In 1856 the ramparts were pulled down allowing for growth and expansion. In 1901 the city expanded to include Amager and Valby, while Frederiksberg became an enclave within the municipality. The Finger Plan in the second half of the 20th century led to expansion outside the municipal boundary along the commuter lines of the S-train and the Lokaltog rail lines going to i.e. Helsingør (The Coast Line (Kystbanen) northbound) and Stevns Municipality (East Line (from Køge southbound) along the Øresund. The Copenhagen-Ringsted Line makes Køge one of the railway hubs of Eastern Denmark. Road and rail construction is planned to relieve traffic congestion because the narrow 14.5–15.3-kilometre (9–9.5 mi) isthmus between Roskilde Fjord and Køge Bugt (Køge Bay) forms a bottleneck.
Copenhagen Municipality was one of the three last Danish municipalities not belonging to a county, the others being Frederiksberg Municipality and Bornholm. On 1 January 2007, the municipality lost its county privileges and became part of the Capital Region of Denmark.
Copenhagen Municipality is a political division covering the central city (Indre By) and certain additional areas. It encloses Frederiksberg Municipality and stretches east to the waterfront. Neighboring municipalities are Gentofte, Gladsaxe and Herlev to the north, Rødovre and Hvidovre to the west, and Tårnby to the south.
The City Hall Square (Danish: Rådhuspladsen) is the old centre of the city, from which an old shopping street leads northeast to Kongens Nytorv, which was laid out in the seventeenth century. Christiansborg Palace, which houses the Danish parliament, is located on the islet of Slotsholmen.
The municipality is divided into ten administrative, statistical and tax districts (Danish: bydele):
The suffix -bro in the names Østerbro, Nørrebro, Vesterbro and Amagerbro should not be confused with the Danish word for bridge, which is also bro. The term is thought to be an abbreviation or short form of the Danish word brolagt meaning "paved", referring to the roads paved with cobblestones leading to the city's former gates.
This section needs additional citations for verification. (April 2016)
Historic population. The two figures for 1 February 1901 are before and after the municipality annexed some nearby parishes. The apparent decline since the mid-1900s are due to the figures not including the suburban and urban areas – notably Frederiksberg – outside Copenhagen municipality. With the exception of 2005, which saw a decrease of more than 1,000 people, the population of the municipality has been increasing since 1992 after having decreased by 303,539 inhabitants (39.517%) from 1950 to 1992.
Note. The two population numbers given for 1901 are the municipality's population before annexation and following annexation of neighbouring municipalities, which in the process made Frederiksberg municipality an enclave within the municipality of Copenhagen.
Politics and governmentEdit
Copenhagen Municipality is distinct from the wider Copenhagen urban area. The seat of Copenhagen's municipal council is the Copenhagen City Hall (Rådhus). The council is chaired by the Lord Mayor who oversees the civic duties of the fifty-five representatives of the council. The council usually meets every other week at 17:30 on a Thursday. They discuss a range of issues including labour and employment, business growth, economics, international cooperation and IT, urban planning, housing and construction, and young, old, and disabled peoples' issues, healthcare, and traffic, with a central focus on making the city sustainable and meeting environmental and health targets.
All members of the council are elected every four years. In the municipal elections in November 2013 (see below), the Social Democrats remained in first place with 27.8% of the vote (down by 2.2% from 2009), while the Red-Green Alliance was in second place with 19.5%. In the 2021 elections, the Red-Green Alliance secured a higher vote total than the Social Democrats. This was the first time that a party other than the Social Democrats topped the ballot. The Social Democrats have claimed the office of mayor for the past 110 years.
The municipal government is divided into seven administrative departments: Employment and Integration, Culture and Leisure, Health and Care, Finance, Child and Youth, Social Services, and Technical and Environmental Administration. It has six political committees and a finance committee. The annual budget for the city is proposed in August and finalized in October and the annual report is published in May of every year. The accounting firm Deloitte is responsible for auditing the City of Copenhagen's accounts.
Lord mayors since 1938Edit
All lord mayors of Copenhagen have belonged to the Social Democratic party.
- 1938–1946: Viggo Christensen
- 1946–1956: Hans Peter Sørensen
- 1956–1962: Sigvard Munk
- 1962–1976: Urban Hansen
- 1976–1989: Egon Weidekamp
- 1989–2004: Jens Kramer Mikkelsen
- 2004–2005: Lars Engberg
- 2006–2009: Ritt Bjerregaard
- 2010–2020: Frank Jensen
- 2020–2021: Lars Weiss (acting)
- since 2022: Sophie Hæstorp Andersen
Copenhagen's municipal council consists of 55 members, elected every four years. Copenhagen's municipal council is by far the largest in Denmark, being the only municipal council with more than 31 seats.
Below are the municipal councils elected since 1909.
|1937||37||5||11||2||Viggo Christensen (A)|
|1946||27||3||11||11||2||1||Hans Peter Sørensen (A)|
|1958||29||3||14||1||5||3||Sigvard Munk (A)|
|1962||27||2||15||9||1||1||Urban Hansen (A)|
|1978||26||1||8||1||1||3||5||1||5||3||1||Egon Weidekamp (A)|
|1989||20||1||6||2||13||2||1||2||2||4||2||Jens Kramer Mikkelsen (A)|
|2005||21||7||3||7||3||8||6||Ritt Bjerregaard (A)|
|2009||17||5||4||13||4||6||6||Frank Jensen (A)|
|2021||10||6||8||1||6||1||1||5||15||2||Sophie Hæstorp Andersen (A)|
|Data from Kmdvalg.dk, Dst.dk and Sa.dk|
In 2009 the Copenhagen Municipal Council decided that Copenhagen will become the world's first carbon-neutral capital by 2025. In 2012 the European Commission announced that Copenhagen would be the 2014 European Green Capital.
- ^ a b "ARE207: Area by region". Statbank.dk. Statistics Denmark. January 2016. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 16 April 2016.
- ^ "Population at the first day of the quarter by municipality, sex, age, marital status, ancestry, country of origin and citizenship". statbank.dk. Statistics Denmark. 2016. Retrieved 17 November 2016.
- ^ FOLK1: Population 24 February 2016 database from Statistics Denmark (in Danish)
- ^ "Regioner, landsdele og kommuner. v 1.0: 2007-". Statistics Denmark. Retrieved 11 March 2018. See also: Provinces of Denmark.
- ^ Danish National Archive at  the last annexations (Danish: "indlemmelser") were Brønshøj (1.January.1901) followed by Valby and Sundby (1.January.1902), see smaller headline "Bemærkninger"
- ^ a b "Københavns bydele". Københavns Kommune. Archived from the original on 4 September 2013. Retrieved 31 December 2012.
- ^ a b "Borgerrepræsentationen" (in Danish). Københavns Kommune. Archived from the original on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 28 November 2013.
- ^ "Indsatsområder og politikker" (in Danish). Københavns Kommune. Archived from the original on 13 November 2013. Retrieved 28 November 2013.
- ^ "Kommunalvalg d. 19. november 2013: København Kommune" (in Danish). KMD. Retrieved 29 November 2013.
- ^ "Result of the municipal and regional election in Denmark 19th of November 2013". International Viewpoint. Retrieved 29 November 2013.
- ^ a b "S står til dårligste valg i Kbh nogensinde". Ritzau. 18 November 2013. Retrieved 18 November 2013.
- ^ "Kontakt en forvaltning" (in Danish). Københavns Kommune. Archived from the original on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 28 November 2013.
- ^ "Regnskab og budget" (in Danish). Københavns Kommune. Archived from the original on 13 November 2013. Retrieved 28 November 2013.