The South Shore Line (reporting mark NICD) is an electrically powered interurban commuter rail line operated by the Northern Indiana Commuter Transportation District (NICTD) between Millennium Station in downtown Chicago and the South Bend International Airport in South Bend, Indiana, United States. The name refers to both the physical line and the service operated over that route. The line was built in 1901–1908 by predecessors of the Chicago South Shore and South Bend Railroad, which continues to operate freight service. Passenger operation was assumed by the NICTD in 1989. The South Shore Line is one of the last surviving interurban trains in the United States. In 2022, the system had a ridership of 1,406,400, or about 5,000 per weekday as of the second quarter of 2023.

South Shore Line
Silver single-level electric passenger train on the street in front of a brick church in Michigan City, Indiana
A street running South Shore Line train passes a church in Michigan City, Indiana
LocaleChicago, Illinois to South Bend, Indiana
TypeCommuter rail, Interurban
Operator(s)Northern Indiana Commuter Transportation District
Daily ridership5,000 (weekdays, Q2 2023)[1]
Ridership1,406,400 (2022)[2]
Line length90 miles (140 km)
Track gauge4 ft 8+12 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge
ElectrificationOverhead line1,500 V DC
Route map
Map South Shore Line highlighted in red
Millennium Station Metra
0.8 mi
1.3 km
Van Buren Street
1.4 mi
2.3 km
Museum Campus/11th Street
2.7 mi
4.3 km
McCormick Place
7.0 mi
11.3 km
57th Street
7.9 mi
12.7 km
63rd Street
Kensington/115th Street
Metra trains only
Red to Howard (planned)
130th (planned)
Bishop Ford Freeway
19.0 mi
30.6 km
Hammond Gateway
maintenance and
storage facility
South Hammond
Munster Ridge Road
Munster/Dyer Main Street
20.9 mi
33.6 km
23.4 mi
37.7 km
East Chicago
Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal
Grand Calumet River Branch
28.0 mi
45.1 km
Gary/Chicago Airport Gary/Chicago International Airport
30.9 mi
49.7 km
Gary Metro Center
34.7 mi
55.8 km
38.9 mi
62.6 km
Portage/Ogden Dunes
Portage Burns Waterway
Dune Acres
46.0 mi
74 km
Dune Park
Kemil Road
50.4 mi
81.1 km
Beverly Shores
55.8 mi
89.8 km
11th Street
Under reconstruction
57.5 mi
92.5 km
Carroll Avenue
Carroll Avenue
Yard and Shops
74.6 mi
120.1 km
Hudson Lake
to Michigan City
New Carlisle
to South Bend
90.1 mi
145 km
South Bend Airport South Bend International Airport
South Bend Amtrak
South Bend
South Bend Terminal Yard
South Shore Line
West Lake Corridor
Metra Electric District Metra

Route Edit

Departing South Bend Airport, the South Shore Line heads south alongside Bendix Drive, then west along Westmoor Street, before connecting with the tracks that ran to its former terminus. Between that point and Hudson Lake, Indiana, the South Shore Line runs parallel to Norfolk Southern's Chicago Line, also used by Amtrak's Lake Shore Limited and Capitol Limited, on the north side of the tracks. Just before Hudson Lake, the line crosses from St. Joseph County into LaPorte County and enters the Central Time Zone.

From Hudson Lake, the South Shore continues straight west to Michigan City. In Michigan City, the track runs down the middle of 11th street from Michigan Boulevard to Tennessee Street, where it crosses over to Tenth Street, and has an at-grade diamond with Amtrak's Michigan Services. The track then runs down Tenth Street to Sheridan Avenue on the west side of Michigan City. Leaving Michigan City, the track travels through Indiana Dunes State Park, crosses over the Chicago Line and runs parallel to it, this time on the south side, past Long Lake. At Gary, Indiana, the route heads west to service the Gary Airport, at times running parallel to the Indiana Toll Road, as far as Hammond, Indiana. Just west of the Hammond station, the route crosses into Illinois and Chicago city limits, at which point the track curves northwest, through the Hegewisch neighborhood and, after crossing the Bishop Ford Freeway and the Calumet River, converges with the Metra Electric line south of Kensington/115th Street station. The South Shore Line then runs over the Metra Electric from Kensington/115th Street the rest of the way to Millennium Station.

The line is quadruple tracked along the section shared with the Metra Electric line from Millennium Station to Kensington/115th Street, double-tracked from Kensington/115th Street to east of Gary Metro Center. From there it is single-tracked with passing sidings to South Bend Airport, save for a 6.5-mile (10.5 km) stretch of double track around Ogden Dunes and the yard at Michigan City.[3] On January 7, 2021, an agreement was announced between the Federal Transit Administration and the Northern Indiana Commuter Transportation District to double-track an additional 17 miles (27 km) between Gary and Michigan City at an estimated total cost of $491 million, including improvements to grade crossings and upgrades to five stations.[4]

Service Edit

The public Monday-Friday timetable shows 20 eastbound trains operating; 18 of those operate out of Millennium Station. Of those, five terminate at Adam Benjamin Metro Center in Gary, seven at South Bend Airport, and 10 at Carroll Avenue station in Michigan City. Two daily trains begin at Carroll Avenue and continue to South Bend Airport.

Westbound, 16 trains operate, with seven originating in South Bend (including one rush-hour express to Millennium Station) and nine originating at Carroll Avenue. Of these, 14 terminate at Millennium Station, while two run from South Bend to Carroll Avenue.

History Edit

Private operation Edit

The South Shore Line was constructed between 1901 and 1908 by the Chicago and Indiana Air Line Railway (reorganized as the Chicago, Lake Shore and South Bend Railway [CLS&SB] in 1904). Revenue service between Michigan City and South Bend began on July 1, 1908. The CLS&SB leased the Kensington and Eastern Railroad on April 4, 1909, giving it access to Chicago. That year the full line to Kensington on the Illinois Central was completed, and beginning on June 2, 1912, the electric cars were coupled to IC steam locomotives and run to downtown Chicago.[5]

A Chicago, Lake Shore & South Bend limited train near the Indiana Dunes in the 1920s

The Chicago, Lake Shore and South Bend entered bankruptcy in 1925 and was bought by Samuel Insull's Chicago South Shore and South Bend Railroad (CSS&SB).[6] The line continued to handle both freight and passengers. Under Insull, the CSS&SB embarked on a major rehabilitation program. This included new ballast and ties, 100-pound (45 kg) rail in place of 70-pound (32 kg) rail, brush clearance, and an overhaul of the line's block signals.[7] In 1949, the company acquired three Little Joe electric locomotives for freight service. These locomotives had originally been constructed for the Soviet Union, but changing attitudes due to the Cold War prevented them from being delivered. Although the exact same type as the Milwaukee Joes, the South Shore bought them before the Milwaukee did. These locomotives continued in freight service on the CSS&SB until 1983. No. 803, is preserved in operating condition at the Illinois Railway Museum.

The power system was changed from 6600 volts AC to 1500 volts DC on July 28, 1926, allowing trains to operate directly to the Illinois Central Railroad's Randolph Street Terminal (now Millennium Station) without an engine change. Trains began running to Randolph Street on August 29.[8] That same year, the original line between East Chicago and Indiana Harbor was abandoned.[5]

The Chicago South Shore and South Bend turned a profit during World War II due to the industrial nature of Northern Indiana. However, highway competition and suburban growth led to ridership declines. By the 1950s all interurban lines were seeing a decline in rail travel as automobile use increased.[9] On September 16, 1956, a street running section in East Chicago was removed with the building of a new alignment alongside the Indiana Toll Road.[citation needed] A truncation to west of downtown South Bend removed street trackage in that city from July 1, 1970.[5]

A Pullman Company electric interurban unit heading west toward Michigan City in 1980.

The Chesapeake and Ohio Railway acquired the CSS&SB on January 3, 1967 and continued the operation of passenger services.[10] The Chicago South Shore and South Bend was one of six railroads with long-distance passenger services to decline joining Amtrak in 1971 and in 1976, they asked the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) to abandon passenger service. The ICC gave the state of Indiana a chance to reply and subsequently, the Northern Indiana Commuter Transportation District (NICTD) was formed in 1977 to subsidize service.

Public operation Edit

Southbound NICTD South Shore train, led by car No. 109, seen entering the 55th–56th–57th Street station in Hyde Park (Chicago)

In the late 1980s, the Chicago South Shore and South Bend went bankrupt and on December 29, 1989, passenger service was assumed by NICTD.[11] In December 1990, the track was sold to NICTD and freight service was taken over by the new Chicago South Shore and South Bend Railroad, a subsidiary of short line operator Anacostia & Pacific. On November 21, 1992, the line's South Bend terminus moved from the Amtrak station to the airport.[12] On July 5, 1994, NICTD closed the Ambridge, Kemil Road, Willard Avenue, LaLumiere, Rolling Prairie, and New Carlisle flag stops. A seventh station, Dune Acres, closed around the same time once parking was expanded at nearby Dune Park.[13]

The railroad began a 3-year project in 2009 to replace all catenary on its line between Michigan City and Gary, some of which was nearly 90 years old. The project cost $18 million, and caused service disruptions on weekends while new wires were strung.[14]

The Chicago Region Environmental and Transportation Efficiency Program (CREATE), replaced a bridge on the South Shore Line across 130th Street, Torrence Avenue, and Norfolk Southern tracks in the Hegewisch neighborhood of Chicago as a part of a four-year project lasting from 2011 to 2015.[15][16] The 2,350 ton bridge would be put in place in August 2012.[17]

In 2015 NICTD began an express service between South Bend and Chicago. Targeted at business travelers, the train makes just two intermediate stops: Dune Park and East Chicago. The total scheduled travel time is 1 hour 55 minutes, more than thirty minutes faster than existing services.[18]

In July 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic, NICTD implemented "mask optional cars" for riders choosing not to wear masks, as Indiana did not have a statewide mask mandate.[19] This has received controversial reception, as it does not help slow down the spread of the coronavirus disease, and the "mask optional" car is also the only car with bike racks.[20][21] On November 14, 2020, the "mask optional cars" were discontinued, requiring all passengers to wear a mask.[22][23]

Rolling stock Edit

Current Edit

South Shore Line
In service1982–present
ManufacturerNippon Sharyo
Constructed1982–1983, 1992, 2001
Number built68
Fleet numbers1–48, 201–210, 101–110
Operator(s)CSS&SB, NICTD
Line(s) servedSouth Shore Line
Car body constructionstainless steel
Car length85 ft (25.91 m)[24]
Width10 ft 6 in (3.20 m)[24]
Height15 ft 11 in (4.85 m)[24]
Wheel diameter36 in (914 mm)[24]
Wheelbase8 ft 2+12 in (2.502 m)[24]
Maximum speed79 mph (127 km/h)[24]
Weight118,000 lb (54,000 kg)[24] (empty)
Traction systemIGBT-VVVF (Toshiba)[25]
Traction motors3-phase AC induction motor (Toshiba)[25]
HVACElectric heating, Air conditioning
Electric system(s)Overhead line1,500 V DC
Current collector(s)Pantograph
UIC classificationBo’Bo’+Bo’Bo’
AAR wheel arrangementB-B+B-B
Coupling systemTomlinson
Track gauge4 ft 8+12 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge
A bi-level unit at Miller in 2011.
A bi-level unit at Millennium Station in 2017.

The South Shore Line operates with a fleet of 82 rail cars built between 1982 and 2009 by Nippon Sharyo. The fleet consists of 58 single-level self-propelled cars, 10 single-level unpowered trailers, and 14 bilevel self-propelled cars.[26] The single level fleet's design shares commonalities with MARC's locomotive-hauled MARC II fleet, which were also built by Nippon Sharyo.[27] An additional 26 cars are planned to be acquired, replacing those to be transferred to West Lake Corridor services.[28]

Numbers Model Built Builder
1–48 Single-level electric multiple unit 1982–83, 1992 Nippon Sharyo
201–210 Trailer 1992
101–110 Single-level electric multiple unit 2001
301–314 Highliner II 2009

Retired Edit

A CLS&SB wood-bodied interurban car at a siding
CSS&SB no. 102, built by Pullman in 1926, street-running in South Bend in 1962
CSS&SB no. 31, built by Standard Steel Car in 1929, at Randolph Street in 1968

Pullman and the Standard Steel Car Company delivered electric multiple units to the CSS&SB between 1926 and 1929. Many were lengthened in the 1940s and 1950s.[29]

Numbers Model Built Builder Notes
1–11 62-seat coach 1908 Niles Two cars scrapped prior to 1923; the remainder scrapped in 1929[30]
12–15 Built as trailers. Rebuilt in 1915 with motors. Baggage compartments added in 1925. Scrapped in summer of 1929.[30]
60–61 48-seat suburban car Kuhlman 60 wrecked prior to 1918. 61 scrapped in 1927[30]
62–63 1903 Brill Originally Chicago and Indiana Air Line Railway cars 1 and 2[30]
64 1918 Kuhlman Built as a replacement for car 60[30]
70–71 54-seat coach 1908 Niles 71 rebuilt as CSS&SB 401 in 1927. 70 used as a yard office and scrapped in 1935.[30]
72–74 46-seat combine Rebuilt with larger baggage compartments. 72 rebuilt to line car 1101 in 1927. 73 Rebuilt to work motor 1126 in 1927. 74 used as trainmen's room at South Bend and scrapped in 1941.[30]
75–77 54-seat coach Scrapped in summer of 1929[30]
101–110 52-seat coach Kuhlman Two cars rebuilt into CSS&SB 222 and 224 in 1927. The remainder were scrapped in 1929.[30]
111–112 60-seat open vestibule car TBD TBD Purchased in 1917. Formerly AT&SF cars.[30]
113–114 56-seat open vestibule car TBD TBD
1–10 56-seat coach smoker 1926 Pullman
11–15 80-seat coach Lengthened in 1942–46
16–25 1927 Lengthened in 1945–47
26–29 1929 Standard Steel Lengthened in 1948
30–37; 39 48-seat coach smoker
38 56-seat coach
40 48-seat coach smoker 1938 Rebuilt from trailer no. 213
100–109 64–68 seat coach–baggage 1926 Pullman Lengthened in 1943–44 and modernized in 1949–50
110–111 64-seat coach–baggage 1951 Standard Steel Rebuilt from coaches nos. 10 and 29
201–206 80-seat coach trailer 1927 Pullman Lengthened in 1946–48
207–210 50-seat coach smoker trailer
211–212 1929
351–352 16-seat parlor–observation–buffet trailer 1927 Originally 20 fixed chairs; rebuilt with 16 rotating chairs in 1929; rebuilt as coaches in 1942
353–354 56-seat coach trailer 1938–39 Standard Steel Rebuilt from parlors built in 1929

Fare policies Edit

The South Shore Line uses a zone-based fare system, with prices based on the distance traveled and stations' proximity to Millennium Station. There are a total of eleven zones (1–11). Tickets may be purchased at stations, online, and through the South Shore mobile app. Ticket options include one-way, 10-ride, 25-ride, and monthly passes. One-way tickets may also be purchased on trains, but will incur a $1.00 penalty fee if a ticket agent was present at the departure station. Children aged 13 years and under, seniors aged 65 and over, passengers with disabilities, students, active-duty military personnel, and those holding RTA Reduced Fare Permits are eligible for reduced fares. NICTD accepts cash aboard trains, cash and checks at ticket offices, and credit cards online and at Millennium Station's ticket office. Most stations have ticket machines which only accept credit cards.[31] For travel to Hegewisch station (zone 3), fares are set by Metra.[32]

Expansions and realignments under construction Edit

Michigan City realignment Edit

South Shore train at the 11th Street stop in Michigan City, Indiana

Since 2005, there has been an ongoing debate pertaining to plans to relocate trackage off the streets of Michigan City.[33] In July 2009, NICTD announced its intention to relocate the Michigan City track south of its current location in order to smooth out the curves, cut down the number of grade crossings, increase speed and reduce maintenance costs.[34] The plan also calls for the replacement of both current stations with a single new station located a block west of the current 11th Street boarding location (between Franklin and Washington streets) with a modern, high-level platform and parking lot. The plan would require a demolition of residential and retail buildings currently located on the south side of 11th Street.[35]

The relocation effort faced a setback in March 2010 when NICTD announced that it was short necessary funds to complete the preliminary engineering study. Unless the funding was found, the relocation would have been postponed indefinitely since, without the engineering study, NICTD would not be able to get state and federal funds necessary to complete the relocation.[36] NICTD and the city continued to work on obtaining the funds needed.[37] In 2011 NICTD accepted bids for a $1 million study, expected to take 18 months.[38] The study was completed in October 2013. The preferred alternative identified by the study preserves an alignment similar to the current route but relocates the tracks alongside the street. It proposes replacing the two existing stations with a new station near the center of Michigan City.[39] The realignment would be done as a part of the double track project from Gary to Michigan City.[40]

Street running ended on February 27, 2022. Currently, buses are to replace trains within this section until the opening of the new alignment.[41][42]

West Lake Corridor Edit

NICTD planned to apply for federal funding for a preliminary engineering study and environmental survey of a Hammond-to-Lowell leg in 2009. As of 2008, that leg had a projected price tag of $551 million.[43] As of 2019, the cost has increased to $665 million. NICTD was awarded funding in the spring of 2020 and the line broke ground in October 2020.[44] The project is estimated to open to revenue service in 2025.[45]

The new line will run through Munster to Dyer, with a possible later extension to St. John, and trains will run as shuttles between Hammond and Dyer during off-peak hours.[46] The alignment of the new branch leaves the old CSS&SB main immediately before the current Hammond station. Hence, the NICTD has decided to build a new station in Hammond to serve both branches.[47]

Proposed expansions and realignments Edit

Valparaiso branch Edit

At a legislative hearing in October 2008, NICTD officials said they would drop further study of a Munster-to-Valparaiso route, and begin study of a Gary–Valparaiso route. At the hearing, NICTD officials said the projected cost of $673 million for the Munster-to-Valparaiso route as well as low projected ridership would have made it ineligible for federal funding and opted to study the Gary-to-Valparaiso route instead.[48] The Gary-to-Valparaiso route would utilize the partially abandoned former Pennsylvania Railroad line. NICTD officials contend the shorter length of a Gary-to-Valparaiso run and the chance to use existing tracks there may make it a lower-cost alternative to the Munster-to-Valparaiso route.

Extension to Elkhart Edit

In the 1980s and 1990s, there was some discussion about the possibility of extending the line from South Bend east to Elkhart County, Indiana.[49][50] In 1988, Elkhart, Indiana Mayor James Perron pushed for the government to look into making long-term plans for an extension into his city.[51]

Proposed new stations Edit

There are proposals to replace the South Bend terminus with a new station.

There is a proposal to reestablish a station in New Carlisle.[52]

Station listing Edit

The South Shore Line and the Metra system

The line operates over the tracks of the Metra Electric Line from Millennium Station to Kensington-115th Street. Metra owns the track in this territory. Per a long-standing non-compete clause with Metra, outbound South Shore Line trains to Indiana only stop at Metra Electric stations to receive passengers; inbound trains to Millennium Station only stop at Metra Electric stations to discharge passengers.

South Shore Line trains make the following station stops:[53]

Tail end of a South Shore train
State Fare
Location Station Mile (km)[54] Avg. weekday
ridership (2019)[54]
Connections and notes
IL 1 Chicago Millennium Station 0.0 (0) 4,227   Metra:  Metra Electric
  CTA Bus: 4, X4, 6, 19, 20, 26, 60, N66, 124, 143, 147, 148, 151, 157
  Chicago "L": Red (at Lake), Green Brown Orange Pink Purple (at Washington/​Wabash)
  Pace Bus: 855 Plainfield–East Loop Express
  VALPOtransit: ChicaGo Dash
Van Buren Street 0.8 (1.3) 977   Metra:  Metra Electric
  CTA Bus: 1, 3, 4, X4, 6, 7, J14, 26, 28, 126, 130, 147, 148, 151
Museum Campus/11th Street 1.4 (2.3) 166   Metra:  Metra Electric
  CTA Bus: 1, 3, 4, X4, 12, 130, 146
McCormick Place (weekend  ) 2.7 (4.3) 0   Metra:  Metra Electric
  CTA Bus: 3 King Drive, 21 Cermak
53rd Street 6.5 (10.5) South Shore service withdrawn October 16, 1966, replaced by 57th Street
2 57th Street 7.0 (11.3) 271   Metra:  Metra Electric
  CTA Bus: 15 Jeffery Local, 28 Stony Island, 55 Garfield, 171 U of Chicago/Hyde Park
63rd Street   7.9 (12.7) 3   Metra:  Metra Electric
  CTA Bus: 63 63rd
Kensington/115th Street 14.5 (23.3) South Shore service withdrawn February 15, 2012
3 Hegewisch 19.0 (30.6) 862   CTA Bus: 30 South Chicago
  Pace: 358 Torrence, 364 159th Street
IN 4 Hammond Hammond 20.9 (33.6) 1,345
East Chicago East Chicago 23.4 (37.7) 1,493   East Chicago Transit: E1 Griffith Plaza, E2 Crosstown, E3 West Calumet
  GPTC: R1 Lakeshore Connection
5 Gary Gary/Chicago Airport   28.0 (45.1) 80   GPTC: R1 Lakeshore Connection
Ambridge 29.2 (47.0) Closed July 5, 1994
Gary Metro Center 30.9 (49.7) 426   GPTC: R1, R3, BMX, L1, L2, L3, L5
Miller 34.7 (55.8) 339   GPTC: L2 Oak/County Line Rd
6 Ogden Dunes Portage/Ogden Dunes 38.9 (62.6) 237
Dune Acres Dune Acres 44.7 (71.9) Closed 1994
Porter Dune Park 46.0 (74.0) 474   V-Line: Orange Line
Porter County Tremont Closed June 2, 1986
7 Kemil Road Closed July 5, 1994
Beverly Shores Beverly Shores   50.4 (81.1) 47
8 Michigan City Willard Avenue Closed July 5, 1994
11th Street 55.8 (89.8) 102 Temporarily closed until 2024 for reconstruction[55]
  Michigan City Transit: 1, 2, 4[56]
Carroll Avenue 57.5 (92.5) 172   Michigan City Transit: 3
9 Smith LaLumiere Closed July 5, 1994
10 Rolling Prairie Rolling Prairie
Hudson Lake Hudson Lake   74.6 (120.1) 1
New Carlisle New Carlisle 76.3 (122.8) Closed July 5, 1994
11 South Bend South Bend Airport   90.1 (145.0) 227   Transpo: 4 Lincolnway/Airport
  Greyhound Lines
  Coach USA
South Bend Current Amtrak station, South Shore service withdrawn November 21, 1992
South Bend Closed 1970, located in downtown South Bend

See also Edit

Notes Edit

  1. ^ "Transit Ridership Report Second Quarter 2023" (PDF). American Public Transportation Association. September 13, 2023. Retrieved September 21, 2023.
  2. ^ "Transit Ridership Report Fourth Quarter 2022" (PDF). American Public Transportation Association. March 1, 2023. Retrieved March 29, 2023.
  3. ^ "Detailed Line Map" (PDF). February 2012. Retrieved May 24, 2016.
  4. ^ "Deal frees $173 million to expand South Shore commuter rail line". WGN. Associated Press. January 10, 2010. Retrieved January 10, 2010.
  5. ^ a b c "Chicago South Shore and South Bend Railroad (NICTD)".
  6. ^ Ogorek 2012, p. 9
  7. ^ Middleton 1998, pp. 6–7
  8. ^ Middleton 1998, p. 8
  9. ^ Economic Adjustment Study: Chicago South Shore and South Bend Railroad Corridor, Final Report; Northwestern Indiana Regional Planning Commission and Northern Indiana Commuter Transportation District,; March 1980; pg 1
  10. ^ "South Shore Line Switch Approved". Chicago Tribune. December 23, 1966. p. 2 Section 10.
  11. ^ "Annual Report" (PDF). Northern Indiana Commuter Transportation District. December 31, 2010. p. 15. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 3, 2017. Retrieved January 31, 2017.
  12. ^ Wieland, Phil (November 21, 1992). "New train terminal could have folks heading east, young". The Times of Northwest Indiana. Retrieved February 15, 2015.
  13. ^ Dodson, Paul (June 17, 1994). "South Shore Railroad Will Close 7 Flagstops". South Bend Tribune. p. B2.
  14. ^ "NICTD Board Meeting Minutes July 31, 2009" (PDF). Northern Indiana Commuter Transportation District. July 31, 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 14, 2011. Retrieved September 11, 2010.
  15. ^ "Major grade separation under way in Chicago, Illinois Gov. Quinn says". Progressive Railroading. August 24, 2011. Retrieved November 8, 2020.
  16. ^ "GS15a 130th & Torrence & Norfolk Southern Grade Separation" (PDF). CREATE. July 2015. Retrieved November 5, 2020.
  17. ^ Lach, Jeanette (August 25, 2012). "Bridge weighing 2,350 tons put in place for South Shore". The Times. Retrieved November 5, 2020.
  18. ^ Allen, Kevin (February 3, 2015). "Chicago express a major step for South Shore". South Bend Tribune. Retrieved February 15, 2015.
  19. ^ "Commuter Rail's Mask-Optional 'Dumb Ass Car' Emblematic of U.S.'s COVID-19 Response". Retrieved November 25, 2020.
  20. ^ ""It's foolish": Experts say South Shore's Mask Optional Car could cause super-spreader event". Streetsblog Chicago. October 9, 2020.
  21. ^ "Idiocy or genius? The South Shore Line tries quarantining anti-maskers in a separate car". Streetsblog Chicago. September 23, 2020.
  22. ^ "Digest: South Shore ends 'mask optional' cars | Trains Magazine".
  23. ^ "Mask Announcement Update – 7/27/2020".
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Electric Multiple Unit (EMU) for NICTD". Archived from the original on July 22, 2017. Retrieved July 23, 2017.
  25. ^ a b "History | Railway Systems | Toshiba Infrastructure Systems & Solutions Corporation | Transportation System History List". Toshiba. Retrieved August 20, 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  26. ^ "2013 Indiana Public Transit Annual Report" (PDF). Indiana Department of Transportation. August 2014. p. 111. Retrieved February 15, 2015.
  27. ^ "Nippon Sharyo USA Product History". Archived from the original on June 26, 2017. Retrieved July 22, 2017.
  28. ^ Andrew Steele, Andrew Steele (December 2, 2018). "NICTD to begin search for rail car manufacturer". The Times Of Northwest Indiana. Retrieved November 8, 2020.
  29. ^ Randall, W. David (1974). Railway Passenger Car Annual, Volume I, 1973–1974. Park Forest, IL: RPC Publications. pp. 74–75.
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h i j CERA 1960.
  31. ^ "Purchase Tickets". South Shore Line. Retrieved August 10, 2020.
  32. ^ "SSL Board Approves Fare Increase Effective July 1, 2018". South Shore Line. Retrieved August 10, 2020.
  33. ^ Maddux, Stan (February 14, 2008). "Michigan City weighs South Shore track route". Post-Tribune. Retrieved February 18, 2008.[dead link]
  34. ^ "South Shore re-route map" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on February 19, 2012. Retrieved October 28, 2009.
  35. ^ Wink, Laurie (June 9, 2009). "More South Shore details released". The News Dispatch. LaPorte County, Indiana. Archived from the original on July 30, 2009. Retrieved August 22, 2009.
  36. ^ Ebaugh, Alicia (March 25, 2010). "Funding dire for South Shore study". The News Dispatch. LaPorte County, Indiana. Retrieved March 26, 2010.
  37. ^ Field, Matt (August 17, 2010). "City prepares to study South Shore routes". The News Dispatch. LaPorte County, Indiana. Retrieved August 19, 2010.
  38. ^ Field, Matt (January 28, 2011). "Bids sought for NICTD study". The News Dispatch. LaPorte County, Indiana. Retrieved February 9, 2011.
  39. ^ "Michigan City/NICTD Rail Realignment Study" (PDF).
  40. ^ Steele, Andrew (February 11, 2020). "South Shore's Double Track project advances in federal grant process". The Times of Northwest Indiana. Retrieved February 16, 2020.
  41. ^ "Double-track construction set to end South Shore street running".
  42. ^ "South Shore Street Running Ends This Weekend". February 24, 2022.
  43. ^ Benman, Keith (December 17, 2008). "Study: Valpo-to-Munster SS line would add few riders". The Times of Northwest Indiana. Retrieved September 1, 2009.
  44. ^ Zorn, Tim (October 28, 2020). "South Shore West Lake expansion project breaks ground; 4-year construction cost estimated at $945M". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved November 22, 2020.
  45. ^ Carden, Dan. "West Lake commuter rail line construction could begin in October". NWI Times. Retrieved July 18, 2020.
  46. ^ Simón, Marisol R.; Noland, Michael; Federal Transit Administration; USDoT; US Army Corps of Engineers (December 2, 2016). West Lake Corridor Draft Environmental Impact Statement (Chapter 2: Alternatives Considered) (PDF) (Report). NICTD. Retrieved July 16, 2017.
  47. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". West Lake Corridor. 2017. Retrieved July 16, 2017.
  48. ^ Benman, Keith (December 17, 2008). "Study: Valpo route no good". The Times of Northwest Indiana. p. A1. Retrieved December 21, 2018 – via {{cite news}}: External link in |via= (help)
  49. ^ "Tie that binds". The South Bend Tribune. July 5, 1992. Retrieved January 7, 2021.
  50. ^ "Editorial positions set agenda for 1997". The South Bend Tribune. January 26, 1997. Retrieved July 1, 2021.
  51. ^ Kurowski, Jeff (December 12, 1988). "Perron pushers for extension of South Shore Line". The South Bend Tribune. Retrieved January 7, 2021.
  52. ^ Spalding, Mary Beth (July 24, 2020). "Options open for New Carlisle site as county clears old trailers". South Bend Tribune. Retrieved November 12, 2020.
  53. ^ Economic Adjustment Study: Chicago South Shore and South Bend Railroad Corridor, Final Report; Northwestern Indiana Regional Planning Commission and Northern Indiana Commuter Transportation District; March 1980; Appendix A
  54. ^ a b "2020 State of the System" (PDF). Metra. November 2020. p. SSL-4.
  55. ^ "Service Advisory – Michigan City 11th Street Station Closure". NICTD. April 13, 2021. Retrieved May 3, 2021.
  56. ^ The station is still served by Michigan City Transit during the closure

References Edit

External links Edit

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