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Interstate 94 in Indiana

Interstate 94 (I-94) is a part of the Interstate Highway System that runs from Billings, Montana, to Port Huron, Michigan. I-94 enters Indiana from Illinois in the west, in Munster and runs generally eastward through Hammond, Gary and Portage, before entering Michigan northeast of Michigan City. The interstate runs for approximately 45.75 miles (73.63 km) through the state. The landscape traversed by I-94 include urban areas of Northwest Indiana, wooded areas, and farmland. The section of I-94 between the Illinois state line and Lake Station is named the Borman Expressway.

Interstate 94 marker

Interstate 94
I-94 highlighted in red
Route information
Maintained by INDOT
Length45.770 mi[1] (73.660 km)
Major junctions
West end I-80 / I-94 / US 6 at Illinois state line
 
East end I-94 at Michigan state line
Location
CountiesLake, Porter, LaPorte
Highway system
I-90SR 101

Contents

Route descriptionEdit

 
The Borman Expressway in Hammond, approaching exit 3

I-94 enters Indiana from Illinois running concurrently with I-80 on the Borman Expressway, in Munster. The freeway heads towards the east as a ten-lane interstate, quickly entering the City of Hammond. The road has an interchange with Calumet Avenue, which US 41 is concurrent with towards the north of the interchange. After the Calumet interchange is an interchange with Indianapolis Boulevard, which carries US 41 south of this interchange and SR 152 to the north. East of Indianapolis Boulevard the interstate passes over Norfolk Southern Railroad tracks, before having an interchange with Kennedy Avenue. After Kennedy Avenue, the freeway passes to the north of industrial properties, before having an interchange at SR 912, also known as Cline Avenue.[2][3] Between Kennedy Avenue and SR 912 is one of the highest average annual daily traffic (AADT) in the state at 163,912 vehicles.[4] At the interchange with Cline Avenue, the Borman Expressway becomes an eight-lane interstate, it also leaves Hammond and enters the City of Gary.[2][3][5]

East of SR 912 the interstate has an overpass over railroad tracks, before having an interchange with Burr Street. After Burr Street the highway passes near woodland, as a ten-lane interstate. The freeway has an interchange with both Grant Street and Broadway. The interstate has an interchange with I-65. Central Avenue has an incomplete interchange, eastbound exit and westbound entrance, with the interstate that is accessed through ramps at I-65 exit. East of Central Avenue the freeway becomes a six-lane interstate passing near wooded areas, with farmland. The highway enters Lake Station and has an interchange with US 6. East of the interchange with US 6, the Borman Expressway has an interchange with the Indiana Toll Road. I-80 leaves I-94 and heads east of the toll road. The Borman Expressway name ends at the toll road interchange. The freeway passes over the toll road, before leaving Lake Station and entering Portage.[2][3]

In Portage the interstate passes over US 20 and begins to parallel US 20, before having an interchange with SR 249. East of SR 249 the highway leaves Portage and enters Burns Harbor, before passing under SR 149. I-94 has a cloverleaf interchange with US 20, before entering Porter. While passing through Porter, the highway passes over a Norfolk Southern railroad track. After Porter the road enters Chesterton and has an interchange with SR 49. East of SR 49 the freeway leaves Chesterton entering rural Porter County, before entering LaPorte County. The interstate has an interchange with US 421 just south of Michigan City. The road curves to the northeast, bypassing Michigan City to the southeast, having an interchange with US 20. After US 20, I-94 passes over a Chicago South Shore and South Bend Railroad track, before leaving the Michigan City area and entering Michigan.[2][3][5] The segment of freeway between US 20 and the Michigan state line has the lowest AADT on I-94 in the state of Indiana, at 37,179 vehicles.[4]

HistoryEdit

The expressway now known as the Borman was originally known as the Tri-State Highway, and construction of the expressway began in 1949.[6] The designation went through the Kingery Expressway, and eventually linked with the Tri-State Tollway in Illinois.[7] It was originally designated SR 420 in Indiana.[8] US 6 diverged at Calumet Avenue south, and ran on Calumet Avenue and Ridge Road.[9]

At various times, the expressway was extended from Indianapolis Boulevard to Burr Street, then to Georgia Street east of Broadway, and eventually to the Toll Road.[7] Some time after the enactment of the Interstate Highway System, the expressway was designated as I-80, I-90, and I-294, and the I-94 designation was applied to the Indiana Toll Road west of where its interchange with the Borman was eventually built.[9][10] The expressways were renumbered around 1965, to avoid the implication that through-traffic must change roads to stay on I-90 or I-94, resulting in I-90 being moved to the Indiana Toll Road, I-94 being moved to the Borman, and I-294 being cut back to the Tri-State Tollway and no longer entering Indiana. US 6 was extended along the Borman to Ripley Street at that time (its earlier alignment in this area became US 6 business). The Borman Expressway is named after Frank Borman, commander of the Apollo 8 space mission, who was born in Gary.[11]

The eastern section of I-94 in Indiana was completed last, after the nearby Michigan section had been completed, leading to what was called in the interim the "Cornfield Roadblock".[citation needed]

ReconstructionEdit

 
Borman Expressway three-level interchange at Cline Avenue

Reconstruction of the Borman commenced in 2004.[12] The reconstruction of both the Kingery and the Borman aimed to significantly reduce the delays encountered on the highway. The reconstructed portion of the Borman is eight lanes wide, with additional collector-distributor lanes between interchanges. Construction between the Illinois state line and exit 11 (I-65 south ramp to Indianapolis) was completed in 2007. The Interstate 65 Interchange Modification Project continued into 2009, including replacing the pavement of the Borman to Central Avenue.[13]

The Borman and Cline Avenue interchange is a partial cloverleaf interchange. Two flyover ramps allow southbound Cline Avenue traffic to merge onto the eastbound Borman Expressway, and northbound Cline Avenue traffic to merge onto the westbound Borman. The remaining ramps utilize the cloverleaf design.[14]

FloodingEdit

On Saturday, September 13, 2008, at approximately 9:00 a.m. CDT, all lanes of the Borman Expressway in both directions at Kennedy Avenue in Hammond were closed by the Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) and the Indiana State Police due to severe flooding from the Little Calumet River. A levee breach, thanks to torrential rains from the remnants of Hurricane Ike, reportedly caused water from the river to cascade across all lanes to a depth of nearly five feet under the Kennedy Avenue overpass. The expressway remained shutdown in both directions until the following Wednesday, September 17, 2008. There had also been flooding in August 2007 and various measures have been undertaken to prevent future occurrences.[15]

Exit listEdit

CountyLocationmi[1]kmExitDestinationsNotes
LakeMunster0.0000.000    I-80 west / I-94 west / US 6 west – ChicagoIllinois state line
Hammond0.8751.4081  US 41 north (Calumet Avenue) – Hammond, Munster, ChicagoWestern end of US 41 concurrency
2.3843.8372   US 41 south / SR 152 north (Indianapolis Boulevard) – Hammond, HighlandEastern end of US 41 concurrency; serves Purdue University Calumet
3.346–
3.358
5.385–
5.404
3Kennedy AvenueServes Visitors' Center
Gary4.9087.8995  SR 912 (Cline Avenue) – East Chicago, GriffithServes Gary/Chicago International Airport
6.44810.3776Burr Street
8.89014.3079Grant Street
9.91515.95710  SR 53 (Broadway)Serves Indiana University Northwest
10.856–
11.857
17.471–
19.082
11
12
   I-65 to Indiana Toll Road – Indianapolis, Chicago via toll roadI-65 exits 259A-B; signed as exits 11 (south) & 12 (north) eastbound and exit 12 westbound.
Lake Station12.74920.51813Central AvenueEastbound exit (shares ramp with I-65 north, Exit 12) and westbound entrance
15.15624.39115    US 6 east / SR 51 to US 20 (Ripley Street)Eastern end of US 6 concurrency; signed as exits 15A (south/east) and 15B (north); westbound exit 15B is part of exit 16
15.666–
15.937
25.212–
25.648
16    I-80 east / I-90 / Indiana Toll Road – Toledo, ChicagoEastern end of I-80 concurrency
PorterPortage18.95530.50519  SR 249 – Port of Indiana, Portage
Porter22.35635.97822  US 20 – Burns Harbor, PorterSigned as exits 22A (west) and 22B (east)
Chesterton25.98241.81426  SR 49 – Chesterton, ValparaisoSigned as exits 26A (south) and 26B (north); serves Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore
LaPorteCoolspring Township34.58655.66134  US 421 – Westville, Michigan CitySigned as exits 34A (south) and 34B (north)
Springfield Township39.93464.26840   US 20 to US 35 – South Bend, Michigan City, La PorteSigned as exits 40A (east/south) and 40B (west/north)
45.77073.660  I-94 east – DetroitMichigan state line
1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Indiana Department of Transportation (July 2016). Reference Post Book (PDF). Indianapolis: Indiana Department of Transportation. I 80, I 94. Retrieved January 9, 2017.
  2. ^ a b c d Google (November 19, 2013). "Overview of Interstate 94 in Indiana" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved November 19, 2013.
  3. ^ a b c d Indiana Department of Transportation (2014). Indiana Roadway Map for 2014 (PDF) (Map). 1:550,000. Indianapolis: Indiana Department of Transportation. § B3-A5. OCLC 880943061. Retrieved November 19, 2013.
  4. ^ a b Indiana Department of Transportation (2010). "Indiana Traffic Counts". Indianapolis: Indiana Department of Transportation. Retrieved November 19, 2013.
  5. ^ a b Indiana Department of Transportation (March 2, 2012). Indiana Railroad Map (PDF) (Map). 1:633,600. Indianapolis: Indiana Department of Transportation. Retrieved November 20, 2013.
  6. ^ Staff. "City of Hammond History". City of Hammond, Indiana. Retrieved April 16, 2007.
  7. ^ a b Benman, Keith (April 1, 2007). "Region's first free expressway built in 'another time' ". The Times of Northwest Indiana. Munster, IN. Retrieved April 3, 2007.
  8. ^ Staff. "Facts & Photos". Indiana Department of Transportation. Retrieved August 3, 2011.
  9. ^ a b Official Indiana State Map (Map) (1963–64 ed.). Cartography by ISHD. Indiana State Highway Department. 1963. Retrieved April 16, 2007.
  10. ^ Dimapco Indiana State Map (Map) (1960s ed.). Cartography by Dimapco. DX Oil. Retrieved April 16, 2007.
  11. ^ Staff. "Frank Borman". Borman Expressway Reconstruction Project. Indiana Department of Transportation. Archived from the original on March 28, 2007. Retrieved March 18, 2007.
  12. ^ Staff. "Time Line". Borman Expressway Reconstruction Project. Indiana Department of Transportation. Archived from the original on March 28, 2007. Retrieved April 16, 2007.
  13. ^ Staff. "About the Borman Expressway Reconstruction Project". Borman Expressway Reconstruction Project. Indiana Department of Transportation. Archived from the original on March 27, 2007. Retrieved April 16, 2007.
  14. ^ Google (March 22, 2008). "Borman Expressway at Cline Avenue" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved March 22, 2008.
  15. ^ Benman, Keith (August 12, 2009). "Borman to get flood fix at Kennedy". The Times of Northwest Indiana. Munster, IN. Retrieved January 23, 2010.

External linksEdit